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Biographies (29)



Andromachus. The commander of the Cyprian fleet at the siege of Tyre by Alexander, B. C. 332. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 20.) He may have been the same Andromachus who was shortly afterwards appointed governor of Coele-Syria, and was burnt to death by the Samaritans. (Curt. iv. 5, 8.)

Aristeas (Aristaeus)

Aristeas, or Aristaeus, a Cyprian by nation, was a high officer at the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was distinguished for his military talents. Ptolemy being anxious to add to his newly founded library at Alexandria (B. C. 273) a copy of the Jewish law, sent Aristeas and Andreas, the commander of his body-guard, to Jerusalem. They carried presents to the temple, and obtained from the high-priest, Eleazar, a genuine copy of the Pentateuch, and a body of seventy elders, six from each tribe, who could translate it into Greek. On their arrival in Egypt, the elders were received with great distinction by Ptolemy, and were lodged in a house in the island of Pharos, where, in the space of seventy-two days, they completed a Greek version of the Pentateuch, which was called, from the number of the translators, kata tous hebdomekonta (the Septuagint), and the same name was extended to the Greek version of the whole of the Old Testament, when it had been completed under the auspices of the Ptolemies. The above account is given in a Greek work which professes to be a letter from Aristeas to his brother Philocrates, but which is generally admitted by the best critics to be spurious. It is probably the fabrication of an Alexandrian Jew shortly before the Christian aera. The fact seems to be, that the version of the Pentateuch was made in the reign of Ptolemy Soter, between the years 298 and 285 B. C. for the Jews who had been brought into Egypt by that king in 320 B. C. It may have obtained its name from its being adopted by the Sanhedrim (or council of seventy) of the Alexandrian Jews. The other books of the Septuagint version were translated by different persons and at various times.
  The letter ascribed to Aristeas was first printed in Greek and Latin, by Simon Schard, Basil. 1561, and reprinted at Oxford, 1692; the best edition is in Gallandi Biblioth. Patr. ii. (Fabric. Bib. Graec. iii. 660).
The story about Aristeas and the seventy interpreters is told, chiefly on the authority of the letter but differing from it in some points, by Aristobulus, a Jewish philosopher (ap. Euseb. Praep. Evan. xiii. 12), Philo Judaeus (Vit. Mos. 2), Josephus (Ant. Jud. xii. 2), Justin Martyr (Cohort. ad Graec., Apol., Dial. cum Tryph.), Irenaeuss (Adv. Haer. iii. 25), Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. i.), Tertullian (Apolog. 18), Eusebius (Praep. Eran. viii. 1), Athanasius (Synop. S. Scrip. ii.), Cyril of Jerusalem (Catech.), Epiphanius (De Mens. et Pond. 3), Jerome (Praef: in Pentateuch; Quaest. in Genes. Prooem.), Augustine (De Civ. Dei, xviii. 42, 43), Chrysostom (Adv. Jud. i.), Hilary of Poitiers (In Psalm. 2), and Theodoret (Praef in Psalm).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aristus (Aristos, Aristyllus), 3rd/2nd c. B.C.

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Aristyllus (Aristos), of Salamis in Cyprus, a Greek historian, who wrote a history of Alexander the Great, in which he mentioned the embassy of the Romans to Alexander at Babylon (Arrian, Anab. vii. 15; Athen. x.; Clemens Alex. Protrcpt.; Strab. xiv.). That he lived a considerable time later than Alexander, may be inferred from Strabo (xv.), although it is impossible to determine the exact time at which he lived. Some writers are inclined to believe that Aristus, the historian, is the same person as Aristus the academic philosopher, who was a contemporary and friend of Cicero, who taught philosophy at Athens, and by whom M. Brutus was instructed. This philosopher moreover was a brother of the celebrated Antiochus of Ascalon. But the opinion which identifies the historian and philopher, is a mere hypothesis, supported by nothing but the circumstance that both bore the same name. (Cic. Brut. 97, de Finib. v. 5, Academ. i. 3, ii. 4, Tuscul. Quaest. v. 8, ad Att. v. 10; Plut. Brut. 2.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Demetrius, of Salamis, wrote a work on the island of Cyprus. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Karpasia.)

Historic figures


ARSINOE (Ancient city) CYPRUS
   Arsinoe. The daughter of Ptolemy I. of Egypt and Berenice. She married Lysimachus, king of Thrace, who was already advanced in years, by whom she had several children. Lysimachus, setting out for Asia, left her in Macedouia, with two sons, Lysimachus and Philip, a part of the fruits of their union. This monarch having been slain in an expedition, Ptolemy Ceraunus seized on Macedonia, but could not take the city of Cassandria, where Arsinoe had taken refuge with her children. He therefore offered her his hand in marriage, and with much difficulty obtained her consent. But no sooner had he been admitted into the city for the purpose of celebrating the nuptials, than he caused her two sons to be slain, and exiled Arsinoe herself to Samothrace. From this island she soon took her departure to wed Ptolemy Philadelphus, her own brother, the first instance of this kind of union, and which became afterwards so common in the time of the Ptolemies. Although many years older than Ptolemy, she nevertheless inspired him with such a passion that, after her death, he gave her name to one of the nomes of Egypt (Arsinoitis), and to several cities both in that country and elsewhere. He even gave orders to have a temple erected to her, but his own death and that of the architect prevented the fulfilment of his wishes. It was intended to have had the ceiling of loadstone, and the statue of iron, in order that the latter might appear to be suspended in the air.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Evagoras I

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Evagoras. King of Salamis in Cyprus. He was sprung from a family which claimed descent from Teucer, the reputed founder of Salamis; and his ancestors appear to have been during a long period the hereditary rulers of that city under the supremacy of Persia. They had, however, been expelled (at what period we are not told) by a Phoenician exile, who obtained the sovereignty for himself, and transmitted it to his descendants : one of these held it at the time of the birth of Evagoras, the date of which there is no means of fixing with any degree of accuracy; but he appears to have been grown up, though still a young man, when one Abdymon, a native of Cittium, conspired against the tyrant, put him to death, and established himself in his place. After this the usurper sought to apprehend Evagoras, probably from jealousy of his hereditary claim to the government, but the latter made his escape to Cilicia, and, having there assembled a small band of followers, returned secretly to Salamis, attacked the tyrant in his palace, overpowered his guards, and put him to death. (Isocr. Evag.; Diod. xiv. 98; Theopomp. ap. Phot. ; Paus. ii. 29.4.) After this Evagoras established his authority at Salamis without farther opposition. If we may trust his panegyrist, Isocrates, his rule was distinguished for its mildness and equity, and he promoted the prosperity of his subjects in every way, while lie particularly sought to extend his relations with Greece, and to restore the influence of Hellenic customs and civilization, which had been in some degree obliterated during the period of barbarian rule. (Isocr. Evag.) He at the same time greatly increased the power of his subject city, and strengthened his own resources, specially by the formation of a powerful fleet. Such was his position in B. C. 405, when, after the defeat at Aegospotami, the Athenian general Conon took refuge at Salamis with his few remaining gallies. Evagoras had already received, in return for some services to Athens, the rights of an Athenian citizen, and was on terms of personal friendship with Conon (Isocr. Evag.; Diod. xiii. 106): hence lie zealously espoused the Athenian cause. It is said to have been at his intercession that the king of Persia determined to allow Conon the support of the Phoenician fleet, and he commanded in person the squadron with which he joined the fleet of Conon and Pharnabazus at the battle of Cnidus, B. C. 394. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1.29; Isocr. Evag.; Paus. i. 3.2; Ctesias, ap. Phot.) For this distinguished service a statue of Evagoras was set up by the Athenians in the Cerameicus, by the side of that of Conon. (Paus. i. 3.2; Isocr. Evag.)
  We have very imperfect information concerning the relation in which Evagoras stood to the king of Persia in the early part of his reign; but it seems probable that he was regarded from the first with suspicion: the tyrants whom he had succeeded are particularly spoken of as friendly to Persia (Diod. xiv. 98), and we learn from Ctesias (ap. Phot.) that his quarrels with one of the other petty states of Cyprus had already called for the interference of the great king before the battle of Cnidus. The chronology of the succeeding events is also very obscure; but the most consistent view of the matter appears to be that derived from Theopompus (ap. Phot.), that Artaxerxes had previously determined to make war upon Evagoras, and had even commenced his preparations, but was unable to engage with vigour in the enterprise until after the peace of Antalcidas (B. C. 387). (See Clinton, F. H. vol. ii.; and comp. Isocr. Panegyr.; Xen. Hell. iv. 8.21, v. 1.10.) Meantime Evagoras had not only extended his dominion over the greater part of Cyprus, but had ravaged the coast of Phoenicia with his fleet, prevailed on the Cilicians to revolt from Persia, and even (if we may believe Isocrates and Diodorus) made himself master of Tyre itself. (Diod. xiv. 98, 110, xv. 2; Isocrat. Evag.) At length, however, a great fleet and army were assembled under the command of Tiribazus and Orontes, and Evagoras having ventured to oppose them with very inferior forces was totally defeated; all the rest of Cyprus fell into the hands of the satraps, and Evagoras himself was shut up within the walls of Salamis. But the Persian generals seem to have been unable to follow up their advantage, and notwithstanding this blow the war was allowed to linger for some years. The dissensions between his two adversaries at length proved the safety of Evagoras : Tiribazus was recalled in consequence of the intrigues of Orontes, and the latter hastened to conclude a peace with the Cyprian monarch, by which he was allowed to retain un controlled possession of Salamis, with the title of king. (Diod. xv. 2-4, 8, 9; Theopomp. ap. Phot.; Isocr. Evag., Panegyr.) This war, which is said to have lasted ten yeas in all, was brought to a close in B. C. 385. (Diod. xv. 9; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii.) Evagoras survived it above ten years. He was assassinated in 374, together with his eldest son Pnytagoras, by an eunuch named Thrasydaeus ; but the murder was caused by revenge for a private injury, and he seems to have been succeeded without opposition by his son Nicocles. (Theopomp. ap. Phot.; Arist. Pol. v. 10 ; Diod. xv. 47, and Wesseling, ad loc.) Our knowledge of the character and administration of Evagoras is derived mainly from the oration of Isocrates in his praise, addressed to his son Nicocles; but this is written in a style of undistinguishing panegyric, which must lead us to receive its statements with great caution.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Evagoras II

Evagoras. Apparently a son of the preceding, is mentioned by Diodorus as joined with Phocion in the command of an expedition destined to recover Cyprus for the king of Persia, from whom it had revolted. (B. C. 351.) They succeeded in reducing all the island with the exception of Salamis, which was held by Pnytagoras, probably a brother of this Evagoras. The latter had obtained from the Persian king a promise of his father's government in case he could effect its conquest; but the siege being protracted. Evagoras by some means incurred the displeasure of Artaxerxes, who became reconciled to Pnytagoras, and left him in the possession of Salamis, while he appointed Evagoras to a government in the interior of Asia. Here, however, he again gave dissatisfaction, and was accused of maladministration, in consequence of which lie fled to Cyprus, where he was seized and put to death. (Diod. xvi. 42, 46.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks




Demonax, the most distinguished of those who attempted to revive the cynical doctrines in the second century of the Christian era. He probably lived in the time of Hadrian, though the exact date of his birth and death is unknown. We owe our knowledge of his character to Lucian, who has painted it in the most glowing colours, representing him as almost perfectly wise and good. He adds that he has written an account of Demonax, "in order that the young who wish to apply to the study of philosophy may not be obliged to confine themselves to examples from antiquity, but may derive from his life also a model for their imitation". Of his friends the best known to us was Epictetus, who appears to have exercised considerable influence in the direction of his mind. By birth a Cyprian, he removed to Athens, and there joined the Cynical school, chiefly from respect to the memory of Diogenes, whom he considered the most faithful representative of the life and virtues of Socrates. He appears, however, to have been free from the austerity and moroseness of the sect, though he valued their indifference to external things; but we do not find that he contributed anything more to the cause of science than the original Cynics. His popularity at Athens was so great, that people vied with each other for the honour of offering him bread, and even boys shewed their respect by large donations of apples. He contracted some odium by the freedom with which he rebuked vice, and he was accused of neglecting sacrifice and the Eleusinian mysteries. To these charges he returned for answer, that "he did not sacrifice to Athena, because she could not want his offerings", and that "if the mysteries were bad, no one ought to be initiated; if good, they should be divulged to everybody" -the first of which replies is symptomatic of that vague kind of Deism which used so generally to conceal itself under an affectation of reverence for the popular gods. He never married, though Epictetus begged him to do so, but was met by the request that his wife might be one of Epictetus's daughters, whose own bachelor life was not very consistent with his urging the duty of giving birth to and educating children. This and other anecdotes of Demonax recorded by Lucian, shew him to have been an amiable, good-humoured man, leading probably a happy life, beloved and respected by those about him, and no doubt contrasting favourably with others who in those times called themselves votaries of those ancient systems which, as practical guides of life, were no longer necessary in a world to which a perfect revelation had now been given. Demonax died when nearly a hundred years old, and was buried with great magnificence, though he had declared it a matter of perfect indifference to him if his body were thrown to the dogs.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Dioscorides, of Cyprus, a sceptic philosopher, and a pupil of Timon of Phlius. (Diog. Laert. ix. 114, 115.)

Zeno, 4th-3rd c. B.C.

KITION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
   (Zenon). The founder of the School of the Stoics, born at Citium, in the island of Cyprus. His father was a merchant, but, noticing in his son a strong bent towards learning, he early devoted him to the study of philosophy. In his mercantile capacity, the father had frequent occasions to visit Athens, where he purchased for the young Zeno several of the writings of the most eminent Socratic philosophers. These he read with great avidity; and, when about thirty years of age, he determined to take a voyage to a city which was so celebrated. Upon his first arrival in Athens, going accidentally into the shop of a bookseller, he took up a volume of the commentaries of Xenophon, and, after reading a few passages, was so much delighted with the work, and formed so high an idea of its author, that he asked the bookseller where he might meet with such men. Crates, the Cynic philosopher, happening at that instant to be passing by, the bookseller pointed to him, and said, "Follow that man." Zeno soon found an opportunity of attending upon the instructions of Crates, and was so well pleased with his doctrine that he became one of his disciples. But, though he highly admired the general principles and spirit of the Cynic School, he could not easily reconcile himself to their peculiar manners. Besides, his inquisitive turn of mind would not allow him to adopt that indifference to every scientific inquiry which was one of the characteristic distinctions of the sect. He therefore attended upon other masters, who professed to instruct their disciples in the nature and causes of things. When Crates, displeased at his following other philosophers, attempted to drag him by force out of the school of Stilpo, the Megarian, Zeno said to him, "You may seize my body, but Stilpo has laid hold of my mind." After continuing to attend the lectures of Stilpo for several years, he passed over to other schools, particularly those of Xenocrates and Diodorus Chronus. By the latter he was instructed in dialectics. At last, after attending almost every other teacher, he offered himself as a disciple of Polemo. This philosopher appears to have been aware that Zeno's intention in thus passing from one school to another was to collect materials from various quarters for a new system of his own; for, when he came into Polemo's school, the latter said to him, "I am no stranger to your Ph?nician arts, Zeno; I perceive that your design is to creep slyly into my garden and steal away my fruit." Polemo was not mistaken in his opinion. Having made himself master of the views of others, Zeno determined to become the founder of a new sect. The place which he made choice of for his school was called the Poecile (Poikile Stoa), or "Painted Porch," a public portico, so called from the pictures of Polygnotus and other eminent masters with which it was adorned. This portico, being the most famous in Athens, was called, by way of distinction, Stoa, "the Porch." It was from this circumstance that the followers of Zeno were called Stoics (Stoikoi), i. e. "men of the Porch."   Zeno excelled in that kind of subtle reasoning which was then popular. At the same time, he taught a strict system of moral doctrine, and exhibited a model of moral discipline in his own life. The Stoic School, in fact, was a branch of the Cynic, and, so far as respected morals, differed from it more in words than in reality. Its founder, while he avoided the eccentricities of the Cynics, retained the spirit of their moral teaching; and at the same time, from a diligent comparison of the tenets of other masters, he framed a new system of speculative philosophy. It is not at all surprising, therefore, that he obtained a considerable vogue, and even enjoyed the favour of the great. Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedon, while residing at Athens, attended his lectures, and, upon his return, earnestly invited him to his court. Zeno, in fact, possessed so large a share of esteem among the Athenians that, on account of his approved integrity, they deposited the keys of their citadel in his hands. They also honoured him with a golden crown and a statue of bronze. Among his countrymen, the inhabitants of Cyprus, and with the Sidonians, from whom his family was derived, he was likewise highly esteemed.
    In his person Zeno was tall and slender; his aspect was stern, and his brow contracted. His constitution was feeble, but he preserved his health by great abstemiousness. His food consisted only of figs, bread, and honey; yet his table was frequently honoured with the company of great men. He paid more attention to neatness in his personal appearance than did the Cynic philosophers. In his dress, indeed, he was plain, but this is not to be imputed to avarice, but to a contempt of external magnificence. He showed as much respect to the poor as to the rich, and conversed freely with persons of the meanest occupations. He had only one servant, or, according to Seneca, none. Although Zeno's sobriety and continence were even proverbial, he was not without enemies. Among his contemporaries, several philosophers of great ability and eloquence employed their talents against him. Arcesilaus and Carneades, the founders of the Middle Academy, were his professed opponents. Towards the close of his life, also, he found another powerful antagonist in Epicurus, whose temper and doctrines were alike inimical to the severe gravity and philosophical pride of the Stoic sect. Hence mutual invectives passed between the Stoics and other sects.
    Zeno lived to the extreme age of ninety-eight, and at last, in consequence of an accident, put an end to his life. As he was walking out of his school he fell down, and in the fall broke one of his fingers. He was so affected by this with a consciousness of infirmity that, striking the earth, he exclaimed, Erchomai, ti m aueis; "I am coming, why do you call me?" and immediately went home and strangled himself. He died B.C. 264. The Athenians, at the request of Antigonus, erected a monument to his memory in the Ceramicus.
    His writings, of which a list is given by Diogenes Laertius, have all been lost. They treated of the State, and of the Life according to Nature. For his doctrines, see Zeller, Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics (1870), and the articles Philosophia; Stoici.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Zeno of Citium

, , 334 - 262
  Greek philosopher. An early exponent of stoic philosophy, he devised its characteristic separation of logic, natural science, and ethics.
  According to Zeno, only acceptance of objective reality permits human beings to overcome their subjective passions.

This extract is cited Sept 2003 from the Philosophy Pages URL below, which contains image.

Zeno (c.333 - 265 BC)

  Zeno was born in Citium, Cyprus.
  He went to Athens around 315 BC, where he attended Plato's Academy and other philosophical schools, then opened his own school.
  Zeno was the founder of Stoicism, a philosophy that asserted that virtue consisted in a will which is in agreement with nature. Zeno was teaching his students in Athens on a painted porch or “stoa”, from which the name “stoic” came. He taught that happiness came in freedom from desire, and in freedom from fear of evil.
  The Stoic philosophy spread to Rome and flourished for several centuries.

This text is cited July 2003 from the Hyperhistory Online URL below.

Zeno of Citium (4th-3rd century BC)

  The founder of Stoicism was born on Cyprus, and was also called the Phoenecian. Originally a merchant, he had not intended to live in Greece, but after a shipwreck just outside the coast of Attica he remained in the country.
  He studied under Crates of Thebes, Xenocrates and Polemon, and founded his own school, the Stoa Poikile, circa 300BC. He taught ethics, and stated that one must control oneself and live in harmony with nature, himself living as he learned. He said that nature had given man two ears and one mouth, which meant that one should listen twice as much as one should speak.
  Zeno taught in Athens for over 50 years, but refused to become an Athenian citizen since he wanted to be loyal to Cypus. He died at the age of 98.

“All things are produced by Fate”

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.



Stasinus, (Stasinos)

Of Cyprus; an epic poet, to whom some of the ancient writers attributed the poem of the Epic Cycle, entitled Cypria, and embracing the period antecedent to the Iliad.


KOURION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Cleon (Kleon), of Curium, the author of a poem on the expedition of the Argonauts (Argonautika), from which Apollonius Rhodius took many parts of his poem. (Schol. in Apoll. Rhod. i. 77, 587, 624.)


Hermeias. An iambic poet, a native of Curia in Cyprus. He was a contemporary of Alexander the Great, but only a few fragments of his productions have come down to us. (Athen. xiii. p. 563; Schneidewin, Delectus Poes. p. 242.)


SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Editor’s Information:
Biography, reports and essays on Homer can be found at his birthplace the island of Ios , one of the places that claim the honour of his origin and where is his tomb. There are also other places among the claimants, which are mentioned in an epigram (Gell. III, 11), including the island of Ios: the island of Chios, Smyrna, Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis in Cyprus, Argos, Athens, Cyme in Aeolis, Pylos and Ithaca.


Hegesias (called Hegesinus by Photius, Cod. 239. p. 319, ed. Bekker), a native of Salamis, supposed by some to have been the author of the Cyprian poem, which, on better authority, is ascribed to Stasinus. (Athen. xv. p. 682 e.; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 382.)

Related to the place


Epiphanius Scholasticus, 6th ce. AD

Scaptius, P.



Aristeas & Papias

Aristeas and Papias, sculptors, of Aphrodisium in Cyprus, made the two statues of centaurs in dark grey marble which were found at Hadrian's villa at Tivoli in 1746, and are now in the Capitoline museum. They bear the inscription ARIXTEAX KAI PAPIAX APHRODIXIEIX. From the style of the statues, which is good, and from the place where they were discovered, Winckelmann supposes that they were made in the reign of Hadrian. Other statues of centaurs have been discovered, very much like those of Aristeas and Papias, but of better workminanship, from which some writers have inferred that the latter are only copies.



Euclus, (Eiklous), an ancient Cyprian soothsayer, who, according to Pausanias (x. 12.6, 14.3, 24.3), lived before tlhe time of Homer, who, as he predicted, was to spring from Cyprus. Pausanias quotes some lines professing to be the bard's prophecy of this event. The poem called the Cyprian Poem has been erroneously supposed to have been of his composition. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i.)


Ioannou Andreas

PAPHOS (Municipality) CYPRUS
, , 1918 - 1972

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