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Biographies (44)

Philosophers

Simias, 5th cent. BC


Cebes, 5th cent. BC

Cebes (Kebes), of Thebes, was a disciple of Philolaus, the Pythagorean, and of Socrates, with whom he was connected by intimate friendship (Xen. Mem. i. 2.28, iii. 11.17; Plat. Crit.). He is introduced by Plato as one of the interlocutors in the Phaedo, and as having been present at the death of Socrates (Phaed.). He is said on the advice of Socrates to have purchased Phaedo, who had been a slave, and to have instructed him in philosophy (Gell. ii. 18; Macrob. Sat. i. 11; Lactant. iii. 24). Diogenes Laertius (ii. 125) and Suidas ascribe to him three works, viz. Pinax, Hebdome, and Phrunichos, all of which Eudocia erroneously attributes to Callippus of Athens. The last two of these works are lost, and we do not know what they treated of, but the Pinax is still extant, and is referred to by several ancient writers (Lucian, Apolog. 42, Rhet. Praecept. 6; Pollux, iii. 95 ; Tertullian, De Praescript. 39; Aristaenet. i. 2). This Pinax is a philosophical explanation of a table on which the whole of human life with its dangers and temptations was symbolically represented, and which is said to have been dedicated by some one in the temple of Cronos at Athens or Thebes. The author introduces some youths contemplating the table, and an old man who steps among them undertakes to explain its meaning. The whole drift of the little book is to shew, that only the proper development of our mind and the possession of real virtues can make us truly happy. Suidas calls this pinax a diegesis ton en Haidou, an explanation which is not applicable to the work now extant, and some have therefore thought, that the pinax to which Suidas refers was a different work from the one we possess. This and other circumstances have led some critics to doubt whether our pinax is the work of the Theban Cebes, and to ascribe it to a later Cebes of Cyzicus, a Stoic philosopher of the time of Marcus Aurelius (Athen. iv.). But the pinax which is now extant is manifestly written in a Socratic spirit and on Socratic principles, so that at any rate its author is much more likely to have been a Socratic than a Stoic philosopher. There are, it is true, some few passages (e. g. c. 13) where persons are mentioned belonging to a later age than that of the Theban Cebes, but there is little doubt that this and a few similar passages are interpolations by a later hand, which cannot surprise us in the case of a work of such popularity as the pinax of Cebes.
  For, owing to its ethical character, it was formerly extremely popular, and the editions and translations of it are very numerous. It has been translated into all the languages of Europe, and even into Russian, modern Greek, and Arabic. The first edition of it was in a Latin translation by L. Odaxius, Bologna, 1497. In this edition, as in nearly all the subsequent ones, it is printed together with the Enchiridion of Epictetus. The first edition of the Greek text with a Latin translation is that of Aldus (Venice, without date), who printed it together with the "Institutiones et alia Opuscula" of C. Lascaris. This was followed by a great number of other editions, among which we need notice only those of H. Wolf (Basel, 1560), the Leiden edition (1640, with an Arabic translation by Elichmann) of Jac. Gronovius (Amsterdam, 1689), J. Schulze (Hamburg, 1694), T. Hemsterhuis (Amsterdam, 1708, together with some dialogues of Lucian), M. Meibom, and Adr. Reland (Utrecht, 1711), and Th. Johnson. (London, 1720) The best editions are those of Schweighauser in his edition of Epictetus, and also separately printed (Strassburg, 1806), and of A. Coraes in his edition of Epictetus (Paris, 1826).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Crates the Theban

, , 365 - 285

Crates the Theban, the "thyrepaniktis", 365-285 BC, cynic philosopher.


Crates (Krates) of Thebes, the son of Ascondus, repaired to Athens, where he became a scholar of the Cynic Diogenes, and subsequently one of the most distinguished of the Cynic philosophers. He flourished, according to Diogenes Laertius (vi. 87), in B. C. 328, was still living at Athens in the time of Demetrius Phalereus (Athen. x.; Diog. Laert. vi. 90), and was at Thebes in B. C. 307, when Demetrius Phalereus withdrew thither (Plut. Mor.).
  Crates was one of the most singular phaenomena of a time which abounded in all sorts of strange characters. Though heir to a large fortune, he renounced it all and bestowed it upon his native city, since a philosopher had no need of money; or, according to another account, he placed it in the hands of a banker, with the charge, that he should deliver it to his sons, in case they were simpletons, but that, if they became philosophers, he should distribute it among the poor. Diogenes Lartius has preserved a number of curious tales about Crates, which prove that he lived and died as a true Cynic, disregarding all external pleasures, restricting himself to the most absolute necessaries, and retaining in every situation of life the most perfect mastery over his desires, complete equanimity of temper, and a constant flow of good spirits. While exercising this self-controul, he was equally severe against the vices of others; the female sex in particular was severely lashed by him; and he received the surname of the "Door-opener",because it was his practice to visit every house at Athens, and rebuke its inmates. In spite of the poverty to which he had reduced himself, and not-withstanding his ugly and deformed figure, he inspired Hipparchia, the daughter of a family of distinction, with such an ardent affection for him, that she refused many wealthy suitors, and threatened to commit suicide unless her parents would give their consent to her union with the philosopher. Of the married life of this philosophic couple Diogenes LaΓ«rtius relates some very curious facts.
  Crates wrote a book of letters on philosophical subjects, the style of which is compared by Laertius (vi. 98) to Plato's; but these are no longer extant, for the fourteen letters which were published from a Venetian manuscript under the name of Crates in the Aldine collection of Greek letters (Venet. 1499), and the thirty-eight which have been published from the same manuscript by Boissonade (Notices et Extraits des Manuscr. de la Bibl. du Roi, vol. xi. part ii. Paris, 1827) and which are likewise ascribed to Crates, are, like the greater number of such letters, the composition of later rhetoricians. Crates was also the author of tragedies of an earnest philosophical character, which are praised by Laertius, and likewise of some smaller poems, which seem to have been called Paignia, and to which the Phakes enkomion quoted by Athenaeus (iv.) perhaps belonged. Plutarch wrote a detailed biography of Crates, which unfortunately is lost (Diog. Laert. vi. 85-93, 96-98).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Hipparchus

Hipparchus. A Pythagorean, contemporary with Lysis, the teacher of Epaminondas, about B. C. 380. There is a letter from Lysis to Hipparchus, remonstrating with him for teaching in public, which was contrary to the injunctions of Pythagoras (Diog. Laert. viii. 42; Lamblich. Vit. Pythag. 17; Synes. Epist. ad Heracl.). Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, that on the ground of his teaching in public, Hipparchus was expelled from the society of the Pythagoreans, who erected a monument to him, as if he had been dead (Strom. v. p. 574; comp. Lycurg. adv. Leocr. 30). Stobaeus (Serm. cvi.) has preserved a fragment from his book Peri euthumias.


Lysis

Lysis, (Lusis). An eminent Pythagorean philosopher, who, driven out of Italy in the persecution of his sect, betook himself to Thebes, and became the teacher of Epaminondas, by whom he was held in the highest esteem. He died and was buried at Thebes. (Paus. ix. 13. 1; Aelian. V. H. iii. 17; Diod. Exc. de Virt. et Vit.; Plut. de Gen. Socr. 8, 13, 14, 16; Diog. Laert. viii. 39; Nepos, Epam. 2; Iamblich. Vit. Pyth. 35.) There was attributed to him a work on Pythagoras and his doctrines, and a letter to Hipparchus, of which the latter is undoubtedly spurious; and Diogenes says that some of the works ascribed to Pythagoras were really written by Lysis.
  There is a chronological difficulty respecting him, in as much as he is stated to have been the disciple of Pythagoras, and also the teacher of Epaminondas. Dodwell (de Cycl. Vet.) attempted to show the consistency of the two statements; but Bentley (Answer to Boyle) contends that the ancient writers confounded two philosophers of this name. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 851.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Painters

Aristeides, 4th cent. BC

The most important figure is now Aristeides, Thebanus. The facts which Pliny gives point to two masters of this name, of whom the one is the father (formerly read as Aristiaeus), the other the son, of Nicomachus. The statements in Pliny concerning these two Aristeidae are so hopelessly confused that it is impossible to distinguish between them with any certainty. If the grandfather can be identified with the pupil of Polycleitus, we may take about B.C. 330 as a convenient date for him, and about B.C. 280 for that of his grandson. It is possible that the epithet Thebanus is intended to distinguish the older Aristeides; but, even here Pliny is confused, for he sometimes calls one and the same person Thebanus and contemporary with Apelles. The same confusion is probably traceable in his estimate of style: is omnium primus animum pinxit et sensus hominis expressit, quae vocant Graeci ethe, item perturbationis (pathe). Perhaps we should assign to the elder the quality of ethos, to the younger that of pathos and of being durior paulo in coloribus; and according to these qualities we may assign some of the pictures. The Dionysus was probably painted by the older and more famous of the two; its great estimation is shown by the fact that Attalus is said to have paid 100 talents for it, and Mummius afterwards sent it to Rome: also the picture of a sacked town, which Alexander acquired at the looting of Thebes, and of which one episode represented a dying mother, with her infant still suckling her breast. To the younger may be assigned the Battle with Persians, the Leontion Epicuri and the anapauomene (see Arch. Zeit. 1883, p. 41).

This extract is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aristeides of Thebes, was one of the most celebrated Greek painters. His father was Aristodemus, his teachers were Euxenidas and his brother Nicomachus (Plin. xxxv. 36.7, 22.) He was a somewhat older contemporary of Apelles (Plin. xxxv. 36.19), and flourished about 360-330 B. C. The point in which he most excelled is thus described by Pliny: "Is omnium primus animum pinxit et sensus hominum expressit, quae vocant Graeci hi/qh, item perturbationes", that is, he depicted the feelings, expressions, and passions which may be observed in common life. One of his finest pictures was that of a babe approaching the breast of its mother, who was mortally wounded, and whose fear could be plainly seen lest the child should suck blood instead of milk. Fuseli has shewn how admirably in this picture the artist drew the line between pity and disgust. Alexander admired the picture so much, that he removed it to Pella. Another of his pictures was a suppliant, whose voice you seemed almost to hear. Several other pictures of his are mentioned by Pliny, and among them an Iris (ib. 40.41), which, though unfinished, excited the greatest admiration. As examples of the high price set upon his works, Pliny (ib. 36.19) tells us, that he painted a picture for Mnason, tyrant of Elatea, representing a battle with the Persians, and containing a hundred figures, for each of which Aristeides received ten minae; and that long after his death, Attalus, king of Pergamns, gave a hundred talents for one of his pictures (Ib. and vii. 39). In another passage (xxxv. 8) Pliny tells us, that when Mummius was selling the spoils of Greece, Attalus bought a picture of Bacchus by Aristeides for 600,000 sesterces, but that Mummius, having thus discovered the value of the picture, refused to sell it to Attalus, and took it to Rome, where it was placed in the temple of Ceres, and was the first foreign painting which was exposed to public view at Rome. The commentators are in doubt whether these two passages refer to the same picture (See also Strab. viii.). Aristeides was celebrated for his pictures of courtezans, and hence he was called pornographos (Athen. xiii.). He was somewhat harsh in his colouring (Plin. xxxv. 36.19). According to some authorities, the invention of encaustic painting in wax was ascribed to Aristeides, and its perfection to Praxiteles; but Pliny observes, that there were extant encaustic pictures of Polygnotus, Nicanor, and Arcesilaus (xxxv. 39).
  Aristeides left two sons, Nicerus and Ariston, to whom he taught his art.
  Another Aristeides is mentioned as his disciple (Plin. xxxv. 36.23).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Euxenidas

Euxenidas, a painter, who instructed the celebrated Aristeides, of Thebes. He flourished about the 95th or 100th Olympiad, B. C. 400 or 380. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 36.7)


Nicomachus, 4th cent. BC

A Greek painter, probably of Thebes, about B.C. 360. He was celebrated as an artist who could paint with equal rapidity and excellence, and was regarded as rivalling the best painters of his day. A famous painting of his was "The Rape of Persephone"


An artist from Thebes, one of the foremost of the school called Attic-Theban. He was the son and pupil of the painter Aristides, and teacher of Aristides the Younger, his son. It is said that he also taught his brother Ariston, as well as Philoxenos of Eretria and a certain Koroibos.
Mention is made that he used the four basic colours (black, white, red and yellow), as did his contemporary, Apelles. Pliny the Elder praises the artist for the rapidity and facility with which he worked, while Plutarch mentions him, together with Apelles and Zeuxis, with regard to their treatment of the female form.
His following works are mentioned (among others): "The Abduction of Persephone by Pluto", "Apollo and Artemis", "Bacchae Approached by Sileni", "Scylla", "The Mother of the Gods Seated on a Lion", "Odysseus Wearing a Hat", and "Nike Flying up in a Quadriga".


Aristodemus

Aristodemus (Aristodemos), a painter, the father and instructor of Nicomachus, flourished probably in the early part of the fourth century B. C. (Plin. xxxv. 10. s. 36)


Leontion

Leontion, a Greek painter, contemporary with Aristides of Thebes (about B. C. 340), who painted his portrait. Nothing further is known of him (Plin. xxxv. 10. s. 36.19).


Sculptors

Archedimus or Archedamus, 5th cent. BC


Alcon

Alcon, a statuary mentioned by Pliny. (H. N. xxxiv. 14. s. 40.) He was the author of a statue of Hercules at Thebes, made of iron, as symbolical of the god's endurance of labour.


Aristogeiton

Aristogeiton, a statuary, a native of Thebes. In conjunction with Hypatodorus, he was the maker of some statues of the heroes of Argive and Theban tradition, which the Argives had made to commemorate a victory gained by themselves and the Athenians over the Lacedaemonians at Oenoe in Argolis, and dedicated in the temple of Apollo at Delphi (Paus. x. 10.3). The names of these two artists occur together likewise on the pedestal of a statue found at Delphi, which had been erected in honour of a citizen ot Orchomenus, who had been a victor probably in the Pythian games. We learn from this inscription that they were both Thebans. Pliny says (xxxiv. 8. s. 19), that Hypatodorus lived about O1. 102. The above-mentioned inscription was doubtless earlier than Ol. 104, when Orchomenos was destroyed by the Thebans.
  The battle mentioned by Pausanias was probably some skirmish in the war which followed the treaty between the Athenians and Argives, which was brought about by Alcibiades, B. C. 420. It appears therefore that Aristogeiton and Hypatodorus lived in the latter part of the fifth and the early part of the fourth centuries B. C. Boeckh attempts to shew that Aristogeiton was the son of Hypatodorus, but his arguments are not very convincing.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aristomedes

Aristomedes, a statuary, a native of Thebes, and a contemporary of Pindar. In conjunction with his fellow-townsman Socrates, he made a statue of Cybele, which was dedicated by Pindar in the temple of that goddess, near Thebes. (Paus. ix. 25.3)


Aristonidas

Aristonidas, a statuary, one of whose productions is mentioned by Pliny (H. N. xxxiv. 14. s. 40) as extant at Thebes in his time. It was a statue of Athamas, in which bronze and iron had been mixed together, that the rust of the latter, showing through the brightness of the bronze, might have the appearance of a blush, and so might indicate the remorse of Athamas.


Ascarus

Ascarus (Askaros), a Theban statuary, who made a statue of Zeus, dedicated by the Thessalians at Olympia. (Paus. v. 24. Β§ 1.) Thiersch (Epochen der bild. Kunst, p. 160, &c. Anm.) endeavors to shew that he was a pupil of Ageladas of Sicyon.


Callistonicus

Callistonicus (Kallistonikos), a Theban statuary mentioned by Pausanias (ix. 16.1), made a statue of Tycho carrying the god Plutus. The face and the hands of the statue were executed bv the Athenian Xenophon.


Hypatodorus

Hypatodorus, (Hupatodoros), a statuary of Thebes (Boekh, Corp. Inscript. No. 25), who flourished, with Polycles I., Cephisodotus I., and Leochares, in the 102d Olympiad, B. C. 372. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) He made, with Aristogeiton, the statues of the Argive chieftains who fought with Polyneices against Thebes. (Paus. x. 10.2) He also made the great statue of Athena at Aliphera in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 26.4), which is also mentioned by Polybius (iv. 78.5), who calls it the work of Hecatodorus and Sostratus, and describes it as ton megalomepestaton kai technikotaton epgon. onyx has been found at Aliphera engraved with an Athena, which Muller thinks may have been taken after this statue. (Archaol. d. Kunst, § 370, n. 4.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Generals

Pelopidas

, , 410 - 364

A Theban general and statesman, son of Hippoclus. He was descended from a noble family, and inherited a large estate, of which he made a liberal use. He lived always in the closest friendship with Epaminondas, to whose simple frugality, as he could not persuade him to share his riches, he is said to have conformed his own mode of life. He took a leading part in expelling the Spartans from Thebes, B.C. 379; and from this time until his death there was not a year in which he was not intrusted with some important command. In 371 he was one of the Theban commanders at the battle of Leuctra, so fatal to the Lacedaemonians, and joined Epaminondas in urging the expediency of immediate action. In 369 he was also one of the generals in the first invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Thebans. In 368 Pelopidas was sent again into Thessaly, on two separate occasions, in consequence of complaints against Alexander of Pherae. On his first expedition Alexander of Pherae sought safety in flight, and Pelopidas advanced into Macedonia to arbitrate between Alexander II. and Ptolemy of Alorus. Among the hostages whom he took with him from Macedonia was the famous Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. On his second visit to Thessaly, Pelopidas went simply as an ambassador, not expecting any opposition, and unprovided with a military force. He was seized by Alexander of Pherae, and was kept in confinement at Pherae till his liberation in 367 by a Theban force under Epaminondas. In the same year in which he was released he was sent as ambassador to Susa to counteract the Lacedaemonian and Athenian negotiations at the Persian court. In 364 the Thessalian towns again applied to Thebes for protection against Alexander, and Pelopidas was appointed to aid them. His forces, however, were dismayed by an eclipse of the sun (June 13), and, therefore, leaving them behind, he took with him into Thessaly only three hundred horse. On his arrival at Pharsalus he collected a force which he deemed sufficient, and marched against Alexander, treating lightly the great disparity of numbers, and remarking that it was better as it was, since there would be more for him to conquer. At Cynoscephalae a battle ensued, in which Pelopidas drove the enemy from their ground, but he himself was slain as, burning with resentment, he pressed rashly forward to attack Alexander in person. The Thebans and Thessalians made great lamentations for his death, and the latter, having earnestly requested leave to bury him, celebrated his funeral with extraordinary splendour.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pelopidas

, , 410 - 364

Saved in battle by Epaminondas, imprisoned by Alexander in Thessaly, rescued by Epaminondas.


Pelopidas

  General from Thebes, who was exiled by the oligarchic party, only to return after some time in Athens, taking over the citadel and establishing a democracy.
  Dressed as farmers, Pelopidas and his men managed to get into Thebes without being recognized and then, at a friends' house, disguised themselves as female dancers, performing for the leading aristocrats. When the leaders were drunk, Pelopidas and his party took out their daggers and slayed the aristocrats.
  Pelopidas led the Sacred Band of Theban Youth, an important factor in the Theban general Epaminondas' victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC.
  Three years later Pelopidas was taken prisoner by the Thessalian tyrant Alexander of Pherae after an unsuccsessful expedition, and Epaminondas came to his rescue, releasing him from the tyrant. After this, Pelopidas served as Theban ambassador in Susa, Persia.
  He defeated Alexander of Pherae at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, but was killed in action.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.


Chaereas

Theban general, defeated by Cleombrotus.


Coeratadas

Coeratadas (Koiratadas), a Theban, commanded some Boeotian forces under Clearchus, the Spartan harmost at Byzantium, when that place was besieged by the Athenians in B. C. 408. When Clearchus crossed over to Asia to obtain money from Pharnabazus, and to collect forces, he left the command of the garrison to Helixus, a Megarian, and Coeratadas, who were soon after compelled to surrender themselves as prisoners when certain parties within the town had opened the gates to Alcibiades. They were sent to Athens, but during the disembarkation at the Peiraeeus, Coeratadas contrived to escape in the crowd, and made his way in safety to Deceleia (Xen. Hell. i. 3.15-22; Diod. xiii. 67; Plut. Alc. 31). In B. C. 400, when the Cyrean Greeks had arrived at Byzantium, Coeratadas, who was going about in search of employment as a general, prevailed on them to choose him as their commander, promising to lead them into Thrace on an expedition of much profit, and to supply them plentifully with provisions. It was however almost immediately discovered that he had no means of supporting them for even a single day, and he was obliged accordingly to relinquish his command. (Xen. Anab. vii. 1.33-41)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Eurymachus

Eurymachus, (Eurumachos), grandson of another Eurymachus and son of Leontiades, the Theban commander at Thermopylae, who led his men over to Xerxes. Herodotus in his account of the father's conduct relates, that the son in after time was killed by the Plataeans, when at the head of four hundred men and occupying their city. (Herod. vii. 233.) This is, no doubt, the same event which Thucydides (ii. 1-7) records as the first overt act of the Peloponnesian war, B. C. 431. The number of men was by his account only a little more than three hundred, nor was Eurymachus the actual commander, but the enterprise had been negotiated by parties in Plataea through him, and the conduct of it would therefore no doubt be entrusted very much to him. The family was clearly one of the great aristocratical houses. Thucydides (ii. 2) calls Eurymachus "a man of the greatest power in Thebes."

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Ismenias

Ismenias, a Theban, of the party adverse to Rome and friendly to Macedonia. When he was chosen Boeotarch, a considerable number of the opposite faction were driven into exile, and condemned to death by him in their absence. These men met, at Larissa in Thessaly, the Roman commissioners, who were sent into Greece in B. C. 171, preparatory to the war with Perseus; and on being upbraided with the alliance which Boeotia had made with the Macedonians, they threw the whole blame on Ismenias. Shortly after they appeared before the commissioners at Chalcis; and here Ismenias also presented himself, and proposed that the Boeotian nation should collectively submit to Rome. This proposal, however, did not at all suit Q. Marcius and his colleagues, whose object was to divide the Boeotian towns, and dissolve their confederacy. They therefore treated Ismenias with great contumely; and his enemies being thereby emboldened to attack him, he narrowly escaped death by taking refuge at the Roman tribunal. Meanwhile, the Roman party entirely prevailed at Thebes, and sent an embassy to the Romans at Chalcis, to surrender their city, and to recal the exiles. Ismenias was thrown into prison, and, after some time, was put to death, or (as we may perhaps understand the words of Polybius) committed suicide. (Liv. xlii. 38, 43, 44; Polyb. xxvii. 1, 2.)


Lacrates

Lacrates (Lakrates).A general sent out by the Thebans, at the head of 1000 heavyarmed troops, to assist Artaxerxes Ochus in his invasion of Egypt, B. C. 350. He commanded that division of the royal forces sent against Pelusium. (Diod. xvi. 44, 49).


Leontiades

Leontiades, a Theban, of noble family, commanded at Thermopylae the forces supplied by Thebes to the Grecian army. (Herod. vii. 205; comp. Diod. xi. 4.) They came unwillingly, according to Herodotus, and therefore were retained by Leonidas, rather as hostages than allies, when he sent away the main body of the Greeks (Herod. vii. 220-222; but see Plut. de Herod. Mal 31; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. ii. p. 287.). In the battle -a hopeless one for the Greeks- which was fought after the Persians had been conducted over Callidromus, Leontiades and the force under his command surrendered to the enemy and obtained quarter. Herodotus tells us, however, that some of them were nevertheless slain by the barbarians, and that most of the remainder, including Leontiades, were branded as slaves by the order of Xerxes (Herod. vii. 233). Plutarch contradicts this (de Herod. Mal. 33), -if, indeed, the treatise be his,- and also says that Anaxander, and not Leontiades, commanded the Thebans at Thermopylae.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Leontiades

Leontiades, son of Eurymachus. and grandson, apparently, of the above, was one of the polemarchs at Thebes, in B. C. 382, when the Spartan commander, Phoebidas, stopped there on his way against Olynthus. Unlike Ismenias, his democratic colleague, Leontiades courted Phoebidas from the period of his arrival, and, together with Archias and Philip, the other chiefs of the oligarchical party, instigated him to seize the Cadmeia with their aid. This enterprise having been effected on a day when the women were keeping the Thesmophoria in the citadel, and the council therefore sat in or near the agora, Leontiades proceeded to the council and announced what had taken place, with an assurance that no violence was intended to such as remained quiet. Then, asserting that his office of polemarch gave him power to apprehend any one under suspicion of a capital offence, he caused Ismenias to be seized and thrown into prison. Archias was forthwith appointed to the office thus vacated, and Leontiades went to Sparta and persuaded the Lacedaemonians to sanction what had been done. Accordingly, they sent commissioners to Thebes, who condemned Ismenias to death, and fully established Leontiades and his faction in the government under the protection of the Spartan garrison (Xen. Hell. v. ii. 25-36; Diod. xv. 20; Plut. Ages. 23, Pelop. 5, de Gen. Soc. 2). In this position, exposed to the hostility and machinations of some 400 democratic exiles, who had taken refuge at Athens (Xen. Hell. v. 2.31), Leontiades, watchful, cautious, and energetic, presented a marked contrast to Archias, his voluptuous colleague, whose reckless and insolent profligacy he discountenanced, as tending obviously to the overthrow of their joint power. His unscrupulousness, at the same time, was at least equal to his other qualifications for a party-leader; for we find him sending emissaries to Athens to remove the chief of the exiles by assassination, though Androcleidas was the only one who fell a victim to the plot. In B. C. 379, when the refugees, associated with Pelopidas, had entered on their enterprise for the deliverance of Thebes, Pelopidas himself, with Cephisodorus, Damocleidas, and Phyllidas, went to the house of Leontiades, while Mellon and others were dealing with Archias. The house was closed for the night, and it was with some difficulty that the conspirators gained admittance. Leontiades met them at the door of his chamber, and killed Cephisodorus, who was the first that entered; but, after an obstinate struggle, he was himself despatched by Pelopidas (Xen. Hell. v. 4. 1-7; Plut. Pel. 6, 11, Ages. 24, de Gen. Soc. 4, 6, 31; Diod. xv. 25). It may be remarked that Plutarch calls him, throughout, Leontidas (Schn. ad Xen. Hell. v. 2.25).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Musicians

Pronomus

Flute-player, his melodies, his processional hymn for Delos, his statue at Thebes. 4th century BC.


Ismenias

A celebrated Theban flute-player : Pereus Project - Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary


Law-givers

Diagondas

Perseus Project - Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary


Poets

Antigenidas

Antigenidas, a Theban, the son of Satyrus or Dionysius, was a celebrated flute-player, and also a poet. He lived in the time of Alexander the Great (Suidas and Harpocrat. s. v.; Plut. de Alex. fort., a., de Music.; Cic. Brut. 50). His two daughters, Melo and Satyra, who followed the profession of their father, are mentioned in an epigram in the Greek Anthology (v. 206).


Archebulus

Archebulus (Archeboulos), of Thebes, a lyric poet, who appears to have lived about the year B. C. 280, as Euphorion is said to have been instructed by him in poetry. (Said. s.v. Euphorion.) A particular kind of verse which was frequently used by other lyric poets, was called after him (Hephaest. Enchir. 27). Not a fragment of his poetry is now extant.


Hegemon

Hegemon, an epic poet, who celebrated in verse the exploits of the Thebans under Epaminondas in the campaign of Leuctra. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Alexandreia.) Aelian quotes Hegemon en tois Dardanikois metrois.


Historians

Aristophanes

Aristophanes, a Boeotian (Plut. de Malign. Herod.), of whom Suidas (s. vv. Homoloios, Thebaious horous; comp. Steph. Byz. s. v. Antikonduleis) mentions the second book of a work on Thebes (Thebaika). Another work bore the name of Boiotika, and the second book of it is quoted by Suidas. (s. v. Chaironeia)


Armenidas

Armenidas or Armenides, a Greek author, who wrote a work on Thebes (Thebaika), which is referred to by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 551) and Stephanus Byzantius. (s. v. Hhaliartos. But whether his work was written in prose or in verse, and at what time the author lived, cannot be ascertained.


Cephisodorus

Cephisodorus, an Athenian orator, a most eminent disciple of Isocrates, wrote an apology for Isocrates against Aristotle. The work against Aristotle was in four books, under the title of hai pros Aristotele antigraphai. He also attacked Plato.
  A writer of the same name is mentioned by the Scholiast on Aristotle (Eth. Nicom. iii. 8) as the author of a history of the Sacred War. As the disciples of Isocrates paid much attention to historical composition, Ruhnken conjectures that the orator and the historian were the same person (Hist. Crit. Orat. Graec.38). There is a Cephisodorus, a Theban, mentioned by Athenaeus (xii.) as an historian. It is possible that he may be the same person. If so, we must suppose that Cephisodorus was a native of Thebes, and settled at Athens as a metoikos: but this is mere conjecture.


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