(Pamphilos). A Greek painter of Amphipolis in Macedonia, who lived in the first half of the fourth century B.C., chiefly at Sicyon, as head of the school there founded by his master Eupompus. He is the originator of the scientific teaching of art: he traced back all practice of art to scientific principles. He maintained that painting could not be brought to perfection without arithmetic and geometry. In spite of the fact that his fee for instruction was one talen, the number of his pupils was considerable, the greatest among them being Apelles. Through his influence instruction in drawing was introduced among the subjects of Greek education. The only work of this artist now known to us by name is his picture of the "Suppliant Heraclidae," to which Aristophanes alludes in the Plutus, 385.
This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
The fame of the Sicyonic training spread so much that under Pamphilus the fee was raised to a talent for twelve years' instruction, and even the great Apelles was among his pupils. It is difficult to say wherein this great local superiority consisted, which tempted, moreover, wealthy amateurs like Ptolemy II. and Attalus to purchase at enormous prices galleries of specially Sicyonian old masters. Plutarch uses a special term for it, chrestographia, which is usually explained as indicating the reaction in art against the methods of Zeuxis and his contemporaries. Klein thinks that the special revolution effected by the Sicyonic masters was their development of the encaustic method. It is certain, at any rate, that it was only from the time of Pamphilus that encaustic took its place on equal terms beside the ordinary methods. We have seen that under the Ptolemies the method found favour in Egypt; and that it took a lasting hold there we saw on p. 392 in the large series of such pictures which have been found in the Fayoum. It is thus that we shall understand the tirade of Petronius against the audacia of the Egyptians, which invented a shortened method (compendiariam) of obtaining the effects belonging to the great art of painting. This shortened method Klein understands as the abandonment of the use of the cestrum, and therewith of the tarda picturae ratio which encaustic had hitherto involved. If this is so, it is natural that the fame of these first reformers should rest more upon their method and their teaching powers than on their actual paintings. Of Pamphilus we only know four works, and these only by the barest mention of their subjects.
This extract is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Aetion. A Greek sculptor of Amphipolis, mentioned by Callimachus (Anth. Gr. ix. 336) and Theocritus (Epigr. vii.), from whom we learn that at the request of Nicias, a famous physician of Miletus, he executed a statue of Aesculapius in cedar wood. He flourished about the middle of the third century B. C. There was an engraver of the same name; but when he lived is not known.
(Zoilos). A grammarian, a native of Amphipolis, who flourished in the time of Philip of Macedon. He was celebrated for the asperity with which he assailed Homer (Homeromastix), and his name became proverbial for a captious and malignant critic
Zoilus: Perseus Project index
A general of Alexander the Great who after the king's death received the government of Syria, of which he was subsequently deprived by Nicanor, Ptolemy's general
Alexander the Great's three most celebrated admirals, Nearchos, Androsthenes, and Laomedon, were natives of Amphipolis.
Episthenes of Amphipolis, commanded the Greek peltastae at the battle of Cunaxa, and is mentioned by Xenophon as an able officer. His name occurs again in the march of the Greeks through Armenia. (Xen. Anab. i. 10.7, iv. 6.1).
At this time he (Alexander) designated Agathon of Pydna to guard the citadel, assigning to him seven hundred Macedonian soldiers. He appointed Apollodorus of Amphipolis and Menes of Pella as military governors of Babylon and the other satrapies as far as Cilicia, giving them one thousand talents of silver with instructions to enlist as many soldiers as possible.
Apollodorus of Amphipolis, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, was entrusted in B. C. 331, together with Menes, with the administration of Babylon and of all the satrapies as far as Cilicia. Alexander also gave them 1000 talents to collect as many troops as they could. (Diod. xvii. 54 ; Curtius, v. 1; comp. Arrian, Anab. vii. 18; Appian, de Bell. Civ. ii. 152)
He was self-exiled in the city of Amphipolis, where he wrote The Peloponnesian War.
In 316 . . . Roxana and her son were placed in confinement in Amphipolis, where they were murdered by Cassander's orders in 311
Nearchus (Nearchos). A Greek writer of Crete, resident afterwards at Amphipolis. He was a friend of Alexander the Great in his youth, and, participating in his youthful intrigues, was banished by Philip. Later he administered the satrapy of Lycia for five years after the battle of the Granicus (B.C. 334). He then took part in the Indian expedition (B.C. 327), and returned, as commander of the fleet, down the Indus and along the coast of Asia to the mouth of the Tigris. After Alexander's death he attached himself to Antigonus, and under him governed the provinces of Lycia and Pamphylia. He wrote an account (Paratlous) of his voyage, which was rich in geographical discoveries. Of this we possess, besides fragments, an abstract in Arrian's Indica. The investigations of later times have in many respects confirmed the trustworthiness of his statements concerning ancient India.
This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited July 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Andragathus (Andragathos) was left by Demetrius in command of Amiiphipolis, B. C. 287, but treacherously surrendered it to Lysimachus. (Polyaen. iv. 12.2)
Clearidas (Klearidas), a friend of Brasidas, and apparently one of those young men whose appointment to foreign governments Thucydides considers to have been inconsistent with Spartan principles (iv. 132). He was made governor of Amphipolis by Brasidas; and in the battle there, in which Brasidas and Cleon were killed, he commanded the main body of the forces, B. C. 422. Clearidas afterwards distinguished himself in the quarrels which arose after the peace of Nicias, by giving up Amphipolis, not (as the terms required) to the Athenians, but to the Amphipolitans themselves. (Thuc. v. 10, 21, 34)
Diodorus, (Diodoros). A commander of Amphipolis in the reign of king Perseus of
Macedonia. When the report of the king's defeat at Pella reached Amphipolis, and
Diodorus feared lest the 2000 Thracians who were stationed as garrison at Amphipolis
should revolt and plunder the place, he induced them by a cunning stratagem to
leave the town and go to Emathia, where they might obtain rich plunder. After
they had left the town, and crossed the river Strymon, he closed the gates, and
Perseus soon after took refuge there. (Liv. xliv. 44.)
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