, 1193 - 1254
Emperor of the byzantine State of Nicaea (1222 - 1254).
, 1332 - 1391
Emperor ot the Byzantine Empire (1341 - 1376 and 1379 - 1391).
Late 13th c.-1383
Son of Theodora Kantakouzini and nephew of the great general Ioannis Synadinos, from whom he received his military training, married Irini Kantakouzini (empress before 1320) with whom he had six children (including Mathaios, Manouil Palaiologos and the future empress Eleni Kantakouzini). During the civil war waged by Andronikos III Palaiologos against his grandfather Andronikos II, he sided with the former. To this end he contracted an alliance in 1320 with Theodoros Synadinos, Syrgiannis Palaiologos Philanthropinos and Alexios Apokaukos and became governor of Adrianoupolis (Adrianople), while between 1325(?) and 1341, he was emerged as Megas Domestikos. After the death of Andronikos III in 1341, he was declared emperor at Didymoteicho. During the civil strife that followed his enemies were the widowed empress Anna Palaiologina, Apokaukos and the patriarch Ioannis Kalekas. He sought refuge with the Serbian tsar Stephan I Uressi and was supported by Omour, emir of Aidinion and Orhan, the Osmanli sultan. In 1347 he entered Constantinople, was crowned emperor by patriarch Isidoros Boucheiras and granted a general amnesty. In 1351, declaring himself a follower of Grigorios Palamas, leader of the Hesychasts, he headed the synods in which his teachings on Orthodoxy were proclaimed. When in 1354 Ioannis V Palaiologos entered the city, he withdrew from public life and became a monk under the name Ioasaph and shortly afterwards went to Mystra with his sons Manouil and Mathaios. In 1379-1381 the Genoese ordered his arrest but he later returned to the Peloponnese, where he died in 1383. He was the author of "The Histories" and several rhetorical texts, among which was a Commentary on the Hesychasts.
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