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Antigonidae, the descendants of Antigonus, king of Asia. The following genealogical table of this family is taken from Droysen's Geschichte der Nachfolger Alexanders.

Antigonus I., king of Asia Minor (323-301 BC)

Antigonus (Antigonos), king of ASIA, surnamed the One-eyed (Lucian, Macrob. 11; Plut. de Pueror. Educ. 14), was the son of Philip of Elymiotis. He was born about B. C. 382, and was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and in the division of the empire after his death (B. C. 323), he received the provinces of the Greater Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia. Perdiccas, who had been appointed regent, had formed the plan of obtaining the sovereignty of the whole of Alexander's dominions, and therefore resolved upon the ruin of Antigonus, who was likely to stand in the way of his ambitious projects. Perceiving the danger which threatened him, Antigonus fled with his son Demetrius to Antipater in Macedonia (321); but the death of Perdiccas in Egypt in the same year put an end to the apprehensions of Antigonus. Antipater was now declared regent; he restored to Antigonus his former provinces with the addition of Susiana, and gave him the commission of carrying on the war against Eumenes, who would not submit to the authority of the new regent. In this war Antigonus was completely successful; he defeated Eumenes, and compelled him to take refuge with a small body of troops in Nora, an impregnable fortress on the confines of Lycaonia and Cappadocia; and after leaving this place closely invested, he marched into Pisidia, and conquered Alcetas and Attalus, the only generals who still held out against Antipater (B. C. 320).
  The death of Antipater in the following year (B. C. 319) was favourable to the ambitious views of Antigonus, and almost placed within his reach the throne of Asia. Antipater had appointed Polysperchon regent, to the exclusion of his own son Cassander, who was dissatisfied with the arrangement of his father, and claimed the regency for himself. He was supported by Antigonus, and their confederacy was soon afterwards joined by Ptolemy. But they found a formidable rival in Eumenes, who was appointed by Polysperchon to the command of the troops in Asia. Antigonus commanded the troops of the confederates, and the struggle between him and Eumenes lasted for two years. The scene of the first campaign (B. C. 318) was Asia Minor and Syria, of the second (B. C. 317) Persia and Media. The contest was at length terminated by a battle in Gabiene at the beginning of B. C. 316, in which Eumenes was defeated. He was surrendered to Antigonus the next day through the treachery of the Argyraspids, and was put to death by the conqueror.
  Antigonus was now by far the most powerful of Alexander's generals, and was by no means disposed to share with his allies the fruits of his victory. He began to dispose of the provinces as he thought fit. He caused Pithon, a general of great influence, to be brought before his council, and condemned to death on the charge of treachery, and executed several other officers who shewed symptoms of discontent. After taking possession of the immense treasures collected at Ecbatana and Susa, he proceeded to Babylon, where he called upon Seleucus to account for the administration of the revenues of this province. Such an account, however, Seleucus refused to give, maintaining that he had received the province as a free gift from Alexander's army; but, admonished by the recent fate of Pithon, he thought it more prudent to get out of the reach of Antigonus, and accordingly left Babylon secretly with a few horsemen, and fled to Egypt.
  The ambitious projects and great power of Antigonus now led to a general coalition against him, consisting of Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander, and Lysimachus. The war began in the year 315, and was carried on with great vehemence and alternate success in Syria, Phoenicia, Asia Minor, and Greece. After four years, all parties became exhausted with the struggle, and peace was accordingly made, in B. C. 311, on condition that the Greek cities should be free, that Cassander should retain his authority in Europe till Alexander Aegus came of age, that Lysimachus and Ptolemy should keep possession of Thrace and Egypt respectively, and that Antigonus should have the government of all Asia. The name of Seleucus, strangely enough, does not appear in the treaty.
  This peace, however, did not last more than a year. Ptolemy was the first to break it, under pretence that Antigonus had not restored to liberty the Greek cities in Asia Minor, and accordingly sent a fleet to Cilicia to dislodge the garrisons of Antigonus from the maritime towns (B. C. 310). Ptolemy was at first successful, but was soon deprived of all he had gained by the conquests of Demetrius (Poliorcetes), the son of Antigonus. Meanwhile, however, the whole of Greece was in the power of Cassander, and Demetrius was therefore sent with a large fleet to effect a diversion in his father's favour. Demetrius met with little opposition ; he took possession of Athens in B. C. 307, where he was received with the most extravagant flattery. He also obtained possession of Megara, and would probably have become master of the whole of Greece, if he had not been recalled by his father to oppose Ptolemy, who had gained the island of Cyprus. The fleet of Demetrius met that of Ptolemy off the city of Salamis in Cyprus, and a battle ensued, which is one of the most memorable of the naval engagements of antiquity. Ptolemy was entirely defeated (B. C. 306), and Antigonus assumed in consequence the title of king, and the diadem, the symbol of royal power in Persia. He also conferred the same title upon Demetrius, between whom and his father the most cordial friendship and unanimity always prevailed. The example of Antigonus was followed by Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Seleucus, who are from this time designated as kings. The city of Antigoneia on the Orontes in Syria was founded by Antigonus in the preceding year (B. C. 307).
  Antigonus thought that the time had now come for crushing Ptolemy. He accordingly invaded Egypt with a large force, but his invasion was as unsuccessful as Cassander's had been : he was obliged to retire with great loss. (B. C. 306.) He next sent Demetrius to besiege Rhodes, which had refused to assist him against Ptolemy, and had hitherto remained neutral. Although Demetrius made the most extraordinary efforts to reduce the place, he was completely baffled by the energy and perseverance of the besieged; and was therefore glad, at the end of a year's siege, to make peace with the Rhodians on terms very favourable to the latter (B. C. 304). While Demetrius was engaged against Rhodes, Cassander had recovered his former power in Greece, and this was one reason that made Antigonus anxious that his son should make peace with the Rhodians. Demetrius crossed over into Greece, and after gaining possession of the principal cities without much difficulty, collected an assembly of deputies at Corinth (B. C. 303), which conferred upon him the same title that had formerly been bestowed upon Philip and Alexander. He now prepared to march northwards against Cassander, who, alarmed at his dangerous position, sent proposals of peace to Antigonus. The proud answer was, " Cassander must yield to the pleasure of Antigonus". But Cassander had not sunk so low as this: he sent ambassadors to Seleucus and Ptolemy for assistance, and induced Lysimachus to invade Asia Minor in order to make an immediate diversion in his favour. Antigonus proceeded in person to oppose Lysimachus, and endeavoured to force him to an engagement before the arrival of Seleucus from upper Asia. But in this he could not succeed, and the campaign accordingly passed away without a battle (B. C. 302). During the winter, Seleucus joined Lysimachus, and Demetrius came from Greece to the assistance of his father. The decisive battle took place in the following year (B. C. 301), near Ipsus in Phrygia. Antigonus fell in the battle, in the eighty-first year of his age, and his army was completely defeated. Demetrius escaped, but was unable to restore the fortunes of his house. The dominions of Antigonus were divided between the conquerors: Lysimachus obtained the greater part of Asia Minor, and Seleucus the countries between the coast of Syria and the Euphrates, together with a part of Phrygia and Cappadocia (Diod. lib. xviii.-xx.; Plut. Eumenes and Demetrius).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Antigonus II., Gonatas, King of Macedonia

, , 277 - 239

Antigonus (Antigonos Gonatas), son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and Phila (the daughter of Antipater), and grandson of Antigonus, king of Asia. When his father Demetrius was driven out of Macedonia by Pyrrhus, in B. C. 287, and crossed over into Asia, Antigonus remained in Peloponnesus; but he did not assume the title of king of Macedonia till after his father's death in Asia in B. C. 283. It was some years, however, before he obtained possession of his paternal dominions. Pyrrhus was deprived of the kingdom by Lysimachus (B. C. 286); Lysimachus was succeeded by Seleucus (280), who was murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus. Ceraunus shortly after fell in battle against the Gauls, and during the next three years there was a succession of claimants to the throne. Antigonus at last obtained possession of the kingdom in 277, notwithstanding the opposition of Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, who laid claim to the crown in virtue of his father's conquests. But he withdrew his claim on the marriage of his half-sister, Phila, with Antigonus. He subsequently defeated the Gauls, and continued in possession of his kingdom till the return of Pyrrhus from Italy in 273, who deprived him of the whole of Macedonia, with the exception of a few places. He recovered his dominions in the following year (272) on the death of Pyrrhus at Argos, but was again deprived of them by Alexander, the son of Pyrrhus. Alexander, however, did not retain possession of the country long, and was compelled to retire by the conquests of Demetrius, the brother or son of Antigonus, who now obtained part of Epeirus in addition to his paternal dominions. He subsequently attempted to prevent the formation of the Achaean league, and died in B. C. 239, at the age of eighty, after a reign of forty-four years. He was succeeded by Demetrius II. (Plut.Demetr. 51, Pyrrhus, 26; Justin, xxiv. 1, xxv. 1-3, xxvi. 2; Polyb. ii. 43, &c.; Lucian, Macrob. c. 11). Antigonus' surname Gonatas is usually derived from Gonnos or Gonni in Thessaly, which is supposed to have been the place of his birth or education. Niebuh, however, remarks, that Thessaly did not come into his father's possession till Antigonus had grown up, and he thinks that Gonatas is a Macedonian word, the same as the Romaic gonatas, which signifies an iron plate protecting the knee, and that Antigonus obtained this surname from wearing such a piece of defensive armour.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Antigonus III., Doson, King of Macedonia

, , 229 - 221

Antigonus Doson (Antigonos Doson), so called because it was said he was always about to give but never did, was the son of Olympias of Larissa and Demetrius of Cyrene, who was a son of Demetrius Poliorcetes and a brother of Antigonus Gonatas. On the death of Demetrius II., B. C. 229, Antigonus was appointed guardian of his son Philip, whence he was sometimes designated by the surname Epitropos (Athen. vi.; Liv. xl. 54). He married the widow of Demetrius, and almost immediately afterwards assumed the crown in his own right. At the commencement of his reign he was engaged in wars against the barbarians on the borders of Macedonia, but afterwards took an active part in the affairs of Greece. He supported Aratus and the Achaean league against Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and the Aetolians, and was completely successful. He defeated Cleomenes, and took Sparta, but was recalled to Macedonia by an invasion of the Illyrians. He defeated the Illyrians, and died in the same year (B. C. 220), after a reign of nine years. Polybius speaks favourably of his character, and commends him for his wisdom and moderation. He was succeeded by Philip. V. (Justin, xxviii. 3, 4; Plut. Arat. and Cleom.; Polyb. ii. 45, &c., 70)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Antigonus, son of Echecrates

Antigonus (Antigonos), son of Echecrates, the brother of Antigonus Doson, revealed to Philip V., king of Macedonia, a few months before his death, B. C. 179, the false accusations of his son Perseus against his other son Demetrius, in consequence of which Philip had put the latter to death. Indignant at the conduct of Perseus, Philip appointed Antigonus his successor; but on his death Perseus obtained possession of the throne, and caused Antigonus to be killed (Liv. xl. 54-58)

Halcyoneus, son of Antigonus Gonatas

Halcyoneus, (Alkuoneus), a son of Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia. We know nothing of the time of his birth, but we find him already grown up to manhood in B. C. 272, when Antitgonus advanced into the Peloponnesus to oppose the schmes of Pyrrhus, and he accompanied his father on that expedition. During the night attack on Argos, by which Pyrrhus attempted to force his way into the city, Halcyoneus was dispatched by Antigonus with a body of troops to oppose him, and a vehement combat took place in the streets. In the midst of the confusion, word was brought to Halcyoneus that Pyrrhus was slain; he hastened to the spot, and arrived just as Zopyrus had cut off the head of the fallen monarch, which Halcyoneous carried in triumph to his father. Antigonus upbraided him for his barbarity, and drove him angrily from his presence. Taught by this lesson, when he soon after fell in with Helenus, the son of Pyrrhus, he treated him with respect, and conduscted him in safety to Antigonus. (Plut. Pyrrh. 34.) It appears from an anecdote told by Aelian (V. H. iii. 5) and Plutarch (De Consolat. 33) that Halcyoneus was killed in battle during the lifetime of Antigonus, but on what occasion we are not informned.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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