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Biographies (6)


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE)

PATAVION (Ancient city) PADOVA

Titus Livius or Livy
Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic.
  The life of Titus Livius (or Livy, to use his more common English name), is not well known. Almost everything we know about the author of the voluminous History of Rome from its foundation is derived from a handful of anecdotes recorded by later authors, who may have found them in a (now lost) book by the Roman biographer Suetonius called Historians and philosophers. Nevertheless, we know something about Livy's life, and that is more than we can say about several other important ancient authors (e.g., Homer).
  The Christian author Jerome, an excellent chronographer, states that Livy was born in 59 BCE and died in 17 CE. There is no evidence to contradict this piece of information. It makes Livy a near contemporary of the Roman politician Octavian, who was born in 63, became sole ruler of the Roman empire in 31, accepted the surname Augustus in 27, and died in 14 CE.
  That Livy was born in Patavium (modern Padua) is clear from Quintilian, the author of a nice book on the education of orators, who recorded that Livy never lost his Patavian accent.
  We know nothing about his parents. Several inscriptions from Padua mention members of the Livius family, but none of them can convincingly be connected to the historian. However, we can be confident that he belonged to the provincial elite and that his family, although not very rich, had enough money to send him to competent teachers. On the other hand, Livy's difficulties with the Greek language make it clear that he did not enjoy higher education in, say, Athens, which a Roman boy from the richest families certainly would have visited. The History of Rome from its foundation offers no indication that he ever traveled to Greece.
  Padua belonged to a province of the Roman empire that was known as Gallia Cisalpina. During Livy's youth, its governor was Julius Caesar, and it is likely that the boy often heard stories about the wars in Gaul. However, he never got used to military matters. His writings betray that he knew next to nothing about warfare. This, and his lack of political experience, would normally have disqualified Livy as a historian, but as we will see, he was able to write a very acceptable history.
  When he was about ten years old, civil war broke out between Caesar and Pompey the Great. It was decided in 48 during the battle of Pharsalus. Later, Livy recalled a miraculous incident. His own description is not known, but a century later, the Greek author Plutarch of Chaeronea retold the story:
At Patavium, there was a well-known prophet called Caius Cornelius, who was a fellow-citizen and acquaintance of Livy the historian. On the day of the battle this man happened to be sitting at his prophetic work and first, according to Livy, he realized that the battle was taking place at that very moment and said to those who were present that now was the time when matters were being decided and now the troops were going into action; then he had a second look and, when he had examined the signs, he jumped up in a kind of ecstasy and cried out: 'Caesar, the victory is yours!' Those who were standing by were amazed at him, but he took the garland from his head and solemnly swore that he would not wear it again until facts had proved that his arts had revealed the truth to him. Livy, certainly, is most emphatic that this really happened. [Plutarch, Life of Caesar 47; tr. R.Warner]
  There is another story about his youth. The Roman philosopher Seneca tells that when Livy was a young man, he wrote philosophical essays. It may be true, although Livy's writings do not betray a profoundly philosophical mind. However this may be, anecdotes like these give us the impression that the future historian was a serious young man, and this is also the impression one gets from his writings. He lacks irony and humor. On the other hand, he shows a great understanding of human psychology and has great sympathy with suffering people. We may find his gravity and earnestness a bit hard to stomach, but Livy had a heart.
  After the violent death of Julius Caesar, a new round of civil war followed. Padua played a minor role and it is possible that the young Livy witnessed some of the fighting in 44/43. In 31, Caesar's adopted son Octavian was victorious, and many people had a feeling that now, after eighteen years of fratricide, the situation in Italy would normalize. Academic studies were resumed. The poet Virgil wrote his optimistic Georgics and Greek authors like Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Strabo of Amasia came to the capital. Livy seems to have shared in this mood, and published the first five books of his History of Rome from its foundation between 27 and 25.
  By now, he was in his early thirties. We don't know anything about Livy's private life, but an average Roman man would at this age be married and have children. Quintilian states that the historian had a son, for whom he wrote a treatise on style, and a daughter, who was married to a teacher of oratory named Lucius Magius. Pliny the Elder quotes a geographical work written by a son of Livy.
  The History of Rome from its foundation was meant as an example to the Romans. They had suffered, but that had been due to their own, immoral behavior. However, a moral revival was still possible, and Livy offered some uplifting and cautionary tales. It was a serious and important project, and Augustus was interested in it. Livy did not belong to the inner circle of Rome's first emperor, nor was he a protege of Maecenas, but the historian and the emperor respected each other and we know that Augustus once (perhaps after the publication of Books 91-105) made a good-natured joke that Livy still was a supporter of Pompey, the enemy of Caesar. If this was a reproach at all, it was not serious. Livy remained close enough to the imperial court to encourage the young prince Claudius to write history. (The future emperor became a productive author: his histories of Rome, Carthage and the Etruscans consisted of sixty-nine books.)
  Until Livy's death, he wrote on his History of Rome from its foundation. We do not know its publishing history, but the following is a plausible reconstruction:

26 BCE 1-5 Early history
24 6-15 Conquest of Italy
19 16-30 Wars against Carthage
14 31-45 Wars in the eastern Mediterranean
11 46-55 Destruction of Greece and Carthage
1 BCE 56-90 The Gracchi, Marius, Cinna, and Sulla
5 CE 91-105 Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar
8 106-115 Caesar becomes sole ruler
10 116-120 War of Mutina
14 121-133 Wars of the triumvirs and fall of Marc Antony
17 134-142 Reign of Augustus

  He became a well-known person, and there is a famous anecdote, told by Pliny the Younger, that once, a man came all the way from Cadiz in Andalusia, from the legendary edges of the earth, to see the historian. Yet, Livy was not a very popular man. There were not many visitors when he recited from his work. Compared to his more popular contemporary, the elegant poet Ovid, the serious historian from Padua lacked charm, irony, and other cosmopolitan qualities. His world view never was that of the Roman literary elite; he always remained a provincial.It comes as no surprise that Livy probably died at Padua.
  It is possible that Livy owned a house somewhere to the northeast of Rome, because he gives remarkably accurate descriptions of the valley of the river Anio.

Jona Lendering, ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Livius Ancient History Website URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Flaccus, C. Valerius

Flaccus, C. Valerius. All that is known or that can be conjectured with plausibility in regard to this writer may be comprehended in a very few words. From the expressions of his friend Martial (i. 62, 77), we learn that he was a native of Padua; from the exordium of his piece, we infer that it was addressed to Vespasian, and published while Titus was achieving the subjugation of Judea; from a notice in Quintilian, Dod well has drawn the conclusion that he must have died about A. D. 88. The lines (v. 5),
"Phoebe, mone, si Cymaeae mihi conscia vatis
Stat casta cortina domo,"
  whatever may be their import, are not in themselves sufficient to prove, as Pius and Heinsius imagine, that he was a member of the sacred college of the Quindecimviri; and the words Setinus Balbus, affixed to his name in certain MSS., are much too doubtful in their origin and signification to serve as the basis of any hypothesis, even if we were certain that they applied to the poet himself, and not to some commentator on the text, or to some individual who may at one time have possessed the codex which formed the archetype of a family.
  The only work of Flaccus now extant is an unfinished heroic poem in eight books, on the Argonautic expedition, in which he follows the general plan and arrangement of Apollonius Rhodius, whose performance he in some passages literally translates, while in others he contracts or expands his original, introduces new characters, and on the whole devotes a larger portion of the action to the adventures of the voyage before the arrival of the heroes at the dominions of Aetes. The eighth book terminates abruptly, at the point where Medeia is urging Jason to make her the companion of his homeward journey. The death of Absyrtus, and the return of the Greeks, must have occupied at least three or four books more, but whether these have been lost, or whether the author died before the completion of his task, we cannot tell.
  The Argonautica is one of those productions which are much praised and little read. A kind but vague expression of regret upon the part of Quintilian (x. 1), " Multum in Valerio Flacco nuper amisimus," has induced many of the older to ascribe to Flaccus almost every conceivable merit; and, even in modern times, Wagner has not hesitated to rank him next to Virgil among epic bards of Rome. But it is difficult to discover any thing in his lays beyond decent mediocrity. We may accord to him the praise of moderate talents, improved by industry and learning, but we shall seek in vain for originality, or the higher attributes of genius. He never startles us by any gross offence against taste, but he never warms us by a brilliant thought, or charms us by a lofty flight of fancy. His diction is for the most part pure, although strange words occasionally intrude themselves, and common words are sometimes employed in an uncommon sense; his general style is free from affectation, although there is a constant tendency to harsh conciseness, which frequently renders the meaning obscure; his versification is polished and harmonious, but the rhythm is not judiciously varied; his descriptions are lively and vigorous, but his similes too often farfetched and unnatural. He has attained to somewhat of the outward form, but to nothing of the in ward spirit, of his great model, the Aeneid.
  Valerius Flaccus seems to have been altogether unknown in the middle ages, and to have been first brought to light by Poggio Brocciolini, who, while attending the council of Constance in 1416, discovered in the monastery of St. Gall a MS. containing the first three books, and a portion of the fourth. The Editio Princeps was printed very incorrectly, from a good MS., at Bologna, by Ugo Rugerius and Doninus Bertochus, fol. 1472; the second edition, which is much more rare than the first, at Florence, by Sanctus Jacobus de Ripoli, 4to, without date, but about 1431. The text was gradually improved by the collation of various MSS. in the editions of Jo. Bapt. Pius, Bonon. fol. 1519; of Lud. Carrio, Antv. 8vo. 1565-1566; of Nicolaus Heinsius, Amst. 12mo. 1680; and above all in that of Petrus Burmannus, Leid. 4to., 1724, which must be regarded as the most complete which has yet appeared; although those of Harles, Altenb. 8vo. 1781; of Wagner, Gotting. 8vo. 1805; and of Lemaire, Paris, 8vo. 1824, are more convenient for ordinary purposes. The eighth book was published separately, with critical notes and dissertations on some verses supposed to be spurious, by A. Weichert, Misn. 8vo. 1818.
  We have metrical translations,--into English by Nicholas Whyte, 1565, under the title " The story of Jason, how he gotte the golden flece, and how he did begyle Media; out of Laten into Englische ;"--into French by A. Dureau de Lamalle, Paris, 1811 ;--into Italian by M. A. Pindemonte, Verona, 1776 ;--and into German by C. F. Wunderlich, Erfurt, 1805.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Macer Aemilius

Macer Aemilius, of Verona, was senior to Ovid, and died in Asia, B. C. 16, three years after Virgil, as we learn from the Eusebian Chronicle. He wrote a poem or poems upon birds, snakes, and medicinal plants, in imitation, it would appear, of the Theriaca of Nicander. His productions, of which not one word remains, are thus commemorated in the Tristia:
"Saepe suas volucres legit mihi grandior aevo,
Quaeque necet serpens, quae juvet herba, Macer.'
The work now extant, entitled "Aemilius Macer de Herbarum Virtutibus," belongs to the middle ages. Of this piece there is an old translation, "Macer's Herbal, practys'd by Doctor Lynacro. Translated out of Laten into Englysshe, which shewynge theyr Operacyons and Vertues set in the margent of this Boke, to the entent you myght know theyr vertues." There is no date; but it was printed by "Robt. Wyer, dwellynge at the sygne of Saynt Johan evangelyste, in Seynt Martyns Parysshe, in the byshop of Norwytche rentes, besyde Charynge Crosse."

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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