Listed 12 sub titles with search on: History for wider area of: "CHANIA Municipality CRETE" .
Archidamus was king of the Lacedaemonians for twenty-three years, and Agis his son succeeded to the throne and ruled for fifteen1 years. After the death of Archidamus his mercenaries, who had participated in plundering the shrine, were shot down by the Lucanians, whereas Phalaecus, now that he had been driven out of Lyctus, attempted to besiege Cydonia (343/2 B.C.). He had constructed siege engines and was bringing them up against the city when lightning descended and these structures were consumed by the divine fire, and many of the mercenaries in attempting to save the engines perished in the flames. Among them was the general Phalaecus. But some say that he offended one of the mercenaries and was slain by him. The mercenaries who survived were taken into their service by Eleian exiles, were then transported to the Peloponnese, and with these exiles were engaged in war against the people of Elis. When the Arcadians joined the Eleians in the struggle and defeated the exiles in battle, many of the mercenaries were slain and the remainder, about four thousand, were taken captive. After the Arcadians and the Eleians had divided up the prisoners, the Arcadians sold as booty all who had been apportioned to them, while the Eleians executed their portion because of the outrage committed against the oracle.
This extract is from: Diodorus Siculus, Library (ed. C. H. Oldfather, 1989). Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.
The island of Crete seemed to be favorably disposed (B.C. 74) towards
Mithridates, king of Pontus, from the beginning, and it was said that they furnished
him mercenaries when he was at war with the Romans. It is believed also that they
recommended to the favor of Mithridates the pirates who then infested the sea,
and openly assisted them when they were pursued by Marcus Antonius. When Antonius
sent legates to them on this subject, they made light of the matter and gave him
a disdainful answer. Antonius forthwith made war against them, and although he
did not accomplish much, he gained the title of Creticus for his work. He was
the father of the Mark Antony who, at a later period, fought against Octavius
Ceasar at Actium. When the Romans declared war against the Cretans, on account
of these things, the latter sent an embassy to Rome to treat for peace. The Romans
ordered them to surrender Lasthenes, the author of the war against Antonius, and
to deliver up all their pirate ships and all the Roman prisoners in their hands,
together with 300 hostages, and to pay 4000 talents of silver.
As the Cretans would not accept these conditions, Metellus was chosen as the general against them. He gained a victory over Lasthenes at Cydonia. The latter fled to Gnossus, and Panares delivered over Cydonia to Metellus on condition of his own safety. While Metellus was besieging Gnossus, Lasthenes set fire to his own house there, which was full of money, and fled from the place. Then the Cretans sent word to Pompey the Great, who was conducting the war against the pirates, and against Mithridates, that if he would come they would surrender themselves to him. As he was then busy with other things, he commanded Metellus to withdraw from the island, as it was not seemly to continue a war against those who offered to give themselves up, and he said that he would come to receive the surrender of the island later. Metellus paid no attention to this order, but pushed on the war until the island was subdued, making the same terms with Lasthenes as he had made with Panares. Metellus was awarded a triumph and the title of Creticus with more justice than Antonius, for he actually subjugated the island (B.C. 69).
Appian, The Foreign Wars (Sic.1.6., ed. Horace White, 1899)
It was against this ever-victorious Polycrates that the Lacedaemonians now made war, invited by the Samians who afterwards founded Cydonia in Crete.
CHANIA (Town) CRETE
Historically and Archaelogically, the hill of Kasteli is one of the most significant parts of the city, as it has been inhabited since Neolithic times. The factors which contributed to the uninterrupted use of Kasteli as a residential area were : its geographic position and the fertile plain on the south, both of which contributed to making the district an important commercial and transport junction. Excavations have brought to light remains dating from the first Minoan period (2800-2000 B.C.). The houses of that period are large with well constructed rooms. The walls and floors are painted with a bright red colour. The Kasteli area was also inhabited in the Post-Minoan period (1580/1550 - 1100 B.C.). According to the evidence offered by the clay tablets in Linear A scripture found on the hill, the area was reserved for royal use. Between 1380 and 1100 B.C. it developed into a commercial centre which was in constant communication with the rest of Crete and Greece.A historically significant ceramics workshop, known as "the Kythonia Workshop" has also been found in the Hania area. It now belongs to the post-royal period.
During the so called Historical Years, Kythonia seems to have been a powerful city-state, whose domain extended from Hania Bay to the feet of the White Mountains. Kythonia was constantly at war with other city-states such as Aptera, Falasarna nad Polyrrinia. In 69 B.C. the Roman Consul Cointus Metellus defeated the Cretans and conquered Kythonia to which he granted the privileges of an independent city-state.
Kythonia reserved the right to mint its own coins until the 3rd century A.D. The Roman conquest put an end to the civil wars and a period of peace began, unique in the history of the island. The Kythonia of the Historical Years was of the same size as the city of Hania at the beginning of the 20th century
Information about the Kythonia of the Christian Years is limited. The most important archeological finds are those of the remains of a Basilica, discovered recently near the Venician Cathedral in the centre of Kasteli. Various sources mention the Kythonia Diocese and the Bishop Kythonios, who participated in the Sardinian Synod in 343. Kythonia is mentiond among the 22 most important cities of Crete in the "Document of Ieroklis" in the 6th Century. The Kytonia Diocese is also mentioned in all the "Ecclesiastical Minutes" (taktica), before and after the Arabian Occupation.
The occupation of Crete by the Arabs was effected gradually from 821 to 824. The consequences of the arrival of the Arabs in Crete were rather painful for the local population, who were subjected to a long and horrible period of slavery, resulting in the alienation of Crete from the Byzantine empire. St. Nicholas Stouthitis was born in 763 in Kythonia, which he left at the age of 10 to go to Constantinople. In 961, Nikiforos Fokas managed to free Crete and bring it back under the control of the Byzantine empire.
The first action of the Byzantine empire, after reconquering Crete, was to re-establish their authority and power. Not only should all traces of the Arab occupation be abolished but also the defense of the island had to be organised quickly in order to avoid any Arab attempt to take back the island. Thus, strong fortifications are constructed along the coast and at strategic positions. The hill of Kasteli is fortified with a wall along its perimeter. This was constructed with building materials taken from the ancient city. It is still regarded as a remarkable military accomplishment and a proof of the continuous existence of the city in the period between the Arab and the Venician occupations.
After the 4th Crusade and the dismantling of the Byzantine empire, in 1204, Crete is given to Bonifacio, the Marquis de Monfera. He, in turn, chooses to sell it to the Venicians for 100 silver marks. In 1252 the Venicians manage to subdue the locals as well as the Genoans, who, under the leadership of the Count of Malta Henrico Pescatore, had seized Crete. Hania is chosen as the seat of the Rector (Administrator General) of the region and flourishes as a significant commercial centre due to the fertility of the land. Contact with Venice leads to the social, economic and cultural conditions necessary for the growth of a culture strongly affected both by the Venician and the local element.
The Turks land near the Monastery of "Gonia" (Corner) in Kissamos, which they plunder and burn. They seize the fortified isle of "Agioi Theodori" and, after a two month siege, the City of Hania on 2nd August 1645. A new state of affairs prevails in the city, where churches are turned into mosques and Christian fortunes come to the hands of the conquerors. The Turks reside mostly in the eastern districts, Kasteli and Splanzia, where they convert the church of St Nicholas of the Dominicans into their central mosque "Houghiar Tzamissi" (The Sovereign's Mosque). Besides turning catholic churches into mosques, they build new ones such as "Kioutsouk Hassan Tzamissi" on the harbour. They also build public baths (Hamam) and fountains. In 1821 many Christians are slaughtered and the Bishop of Kissamos, Melhisethek Thespotakis is hanged in Splantzia. In 1878, the Treaty of Halepa is signed and the Christians are granted certain rights. In 1898, the semi-autonomous "Cretan State" is established and the city of Hania flourishes as the Capital of Crete
This text is cited Sep 2002 from the Municipality of Chania URL below, which contains images.
KYDONIA (Ancient city) CHANIA
And colonists were sent forth by the Aeginetans both to Cydonia in Crete and to the country of the Ombrici.
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