History LEVADIA (Province) VIOTIA - GTP + Greek Travel Pages

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Listed 25 sub titles with search on: History for destination: "LEVADIA Town VIOTIA".


History (25)

Battles

At the walls of the town, in 395 BC

ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA
For having attacked the walls of Haliartus, in which were troops from Thebes and Athens, Lysander fell in the fighting that followed a sortie of the enemy (Paus. 9,32,5).

The Battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C.

CHERONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
In this battle, Philip II Macedon defeated the rest of the Greeks.

The Aftermath of the Battle of Chaeronea

The course of later history proved the battle of Chaeronea in 338, in which Philip of Macedon and his Greek allies defeated a coalition of other Greek states, to have been a decisive turning point in Greek history: never again would the states of Greece make foreign policy for themselves without considering, and usually following, the wishes of outside powers. This change marked the end of the Greek city-states as independent actors in international politics, but they were to retain their significance as the basic economic and social units of the Greek world. But that role would be fulfilled from now on as subjects or allies of the new kingdoms that later emerged from the Macedonian kingdom of Philip and his son Alexander after the latter's death in 323 B.C. The Hellenistic kingdoms, as these new monarchies are called, like the Roman provinces that in turn eventually replaced them as political masters of the Greeks, depended on the local leaders of the Greek city-states to collect taxes for the imperial treasuries and to insure the loyalty and order of the rest of the citizens.

This text is from: Thomas Martin's An Overview of Classical Greek History from Homer to Alexander, Yale University Press. Cited Jan 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Battle of Coronea, 394 BC

KORONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Agesilaus put the Thessalian cavalry to flight and passed through Thessaly, and again made his way through Boeotia, winning a victory over Thebes and the allies at Coronea. When the Boeotians were put to flight, certain of them took refuge in the sanctuary of Athena surnamed Itonia. Agesilaus, although suffering from a wound received in the battle, did not sin against the suppliants.

Boetians & Phocians (Sacred War)

ORCHOMENOS (Archaeological site) VIOTIA
Phayllus with his army carried the campaign into Boeotia, and, suffering defeat near the city of Orchomenus, lost a great number of men. Later in another battle that took place by the Cephisus River the Boeotians won again and slew over five hundred of the enemy and took no fewer than four hundred prisoners
Editor's note: All information about The Sacred War at Ancient Delphi

Battle of Tegyra, 375 BC

TEGYRA (Ancient city) ORCHOMENOS
Battle of Tegyra. First time Spartans defeated in pitched battle. Victory for both Pelopidas and Thebes

Catastrophes of the place

By the Persians, 480 B.C.

ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA
At the Persian invasion the people of Haliartus sided with the Greeks, and so a division of the army of Xerxes overran and burnt both their territory and their city (Paus. 9.32.5).

By Philip II, 346 BC

ANTIKYRA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


By the Romans under Otilius, 211 BC

Otilius carried out his orders up to a point, but displeased the Romans in certain of his acts. Hestiaea in Euboea and Anticyra in Phocis, which had been compelled to submit to Philip, he utterly destroyed. It was, I think, for this reason that the senate, when they heard the news, sent Flamininus to succeed Otilius in his command.

Xerxes, 480 BC

DAVLIS (Ancient city) VIOTIA
The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . .

By Philip II, 346 BC

Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.

By the Thebans, 371 BC

ORCHOMENOS (Archaeological site) VIOTIA
After its defeat at the battle of Leuctra, the town was destroyed by the Thebans.

By Syllas, 86 BC

After the battle of Chaeronia the war between Syllas and Mithridates was not over. Another battle took place at Orchomenus, where Mithridates had taken shelter. Syllas won that battle too and after his victory he ransacked Orchomenus and the nearby towns and destroyed the harbours of Boeotia (Ekd. Athinon, Pausaniou Periegissis, vol. 5, p. 190, note 1).

By Xerxes, 480 BC

PANOPEFS (Ancient city) CHERONIA
The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . (8,32,1)
So this part of the barbarian army marched as I have said, and others set forth with guides for the temple at Delphi, keeping Parnassus on their right. These, too, laid waste to every part of Phocis which they occupied, burning the towns of the Panopeans and Daulii and Aeolidae.(8.35.1)
This extract is from: Herodotus, with an English translation by A. D. Godley. Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.

By Philip II, 346 BC

Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.

By Xerxes, 480 BC

PARAPOTAMII (Ancient city) CHERONIA
The barbarians. . .overran the whole of Phocis. All that came within their power they laid waste to and burnt, setting fire to towns and temples. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae . . .

This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


By Philip II, 346 BC

STIRIS (Ancient city) DISTOMO
Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.

Destruction and end of the town

From the Roman Lucritius, 171 B.C.

ALIARTOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA
(Polyv. 30,21,9)

By Philip II, 346 B.C.

AMVROSSOS (Ancient city) VIOTIA
In the tenth year after the seizure of the sanctuary, Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War, in the year when Theophilus was archon at Athens, which was the first of the hundred and eighth Olympiad at which Polycles of Cyrene was victorious in the foot-race. The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. The tale of them was Lilaea, Hyampolis, Anticyra, Parapotamii, Panopeus and Daulis. These cities were distinguished in days of old, especially because of the poetry of Homer.
The army of Xerxes, burning down certain of these, made them better known in Greece, namely Erochus, Charadra, Amphicleia, Neon, Tithronium and Drymaea. The rest of the Phocian cities, except Elateia, were not famous in former times, I mean Phocian Trachis, Phocian Medeon, Echedameia, Ambrossus, Ledon, Phlygonium and Stiris. On the occasion to which I have referred all the cities enumerated were razed to the ground and their people scattered in villages (Paus. 10,3,1-2).

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


By Philippus, 346 BC

FLYGONION (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.

By Philip II, 346 BC

PARAPOTAMII (Ancient city) CHERONIA
Philip put an end to the war, which was called both the Phocian War and the Sacred War . . .The cities of Phocis were captured and razed to the ground. . .and their people scattered in villages.

The place was conquered by:

By the Phocians

ORCHOMENOS (Archaeological site) VIOTIA
(...) I reply, the Phocians over the Thebans. They held Orchomenus, and Coronea, and Tilphosaeum; they had kept within the walls the Theban garrison at Neon;

By Lysander (395 BC)

Now it was the plan that Pausanias should make a circuit by the way of Mount Cithaeron, and then invade Boeotia, while Lysander marched through Phocis to meet him, with a large force. He took the city of Orchomenus, which came over to him of its own accord, and assaulted and plundered Lebadeia.

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