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Listed 100 (total found 431) sub titles with search on: Homeric world  for wider area of: "MARMARA Region TURKEY" .

Homeric world (431)

Ancient towns


A city of Troas and seat of the king Mynes (Il. 2.690).

Trojan War

ALYVI (Ancient city) ALIZONES
Alybe was a city in Pontus, from where the Greeks were supplied with silver (Il. 2.857). The inhabitants were called Halizones, which means "surrounded by sea". Strabo (12,3,19-20 & 14,5,22-4) considers that Alybe is the most ancient name of the country of the Chalybes (later Chaldaeoi), from where the Greeks were provided with metals at first.

Pedasus, Pedasos

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
For this Pedasos in the Troad cf. 21.87, 20.92. Strabo calls it a city of the Leleges opposite Lesbos, and another legend identifies it with Adramyttium. More recently it has been identified with Assos. It is not recorded in the Catalogue. A town of the same name in Messene is mentioned in 9.152, and there was a Pedasa near Halikarnassos. (Commentary by Walter Leaf)

Homer speaks of a Pedasus, a city of the Leleges, as subject to lord Altes:
     Of Altes, who is lord over the war-loving Leleges, who hold steep Pedasus on the Satnioeis.
And the site of the place, now deserted, is still to be seen. Some write, though wrongly, "at the foot of Satnioeis", as though the city lay at the foot of a mountain called Satnioeis; but there is no mountain here called Satinoeis, but only a river of that name, on which the city is situated; but the city is now deserted. The poet names the river, for, according to him,
      he wounded Satnius with a thrust of his spear, even the son of Oenops, whom a peerless Naiad nymph bore unto Oenops, as he tended his herds by the banks of the Satnioeis;
and again:
     And he dwelt by the banks of the fair-flowing Satnioeis in steep Pedasus.
And in later times it was called Satnioeis, though some called it Saphnioeis. It is only a large winter torrent, but the naming of it by the poet has made it worthy of mention. These places are continuous with Dardania and Scepsia, and are, as it were, a second Dardania, but it is lower-lying. (Strab. 13.1.50)

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo (ed. H. L. Jones, 1924), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Aug 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


CHRYSSI (Ancient city) TURKEY
It was located near Thebe and is mentioned by Homer. The town had a harbour and a temple dedicated to Apollo Smintheus (Il. 1.36, 390, 445).


It was a city founded by Dardanus before Troy (Il. 20.216) and did not exist in the time of Strabo (Strab. 13,1,24).


ENOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
It was a Thracian city, of which the leader was Peiroos, son of Imbrasus (Il. 4.520).


LYRNESSOS (Ancient city) TROAS
Lyrnessus (Lurnessos). A town in the Troad, the birthplace of Briseis, and often mentioned by Homer ( Il.ii. 690).


PEDEON (Homeric city) TROAS
It was located in Troad and is mentioned by Homer as the place of abode of Imbrius, son of Mentor (Il. 13.172).


THIVI (Ancient city) TURKEY
It was a city of the Cilicians located on the foot of Mt. Placus and seat of Eetion, father of Andomache, which was sacked by Achilles (Il. 1.366, 6.397, 22.479).



TROAS (Ancient country) TURKEY
  Lectum (to Lekton), a promontory in the south-west of Troas, opposite the island of Lesbos. It forms the south-western termination of Mount Ida. (Hom. Il. xiv. 294; Herod. ix. 114; Thucyd. viii. 101; Ptol. v. 2. § 4; Plin. v. 32; Liv. xxxvii. 37.) In the time of Strabo (xiii. p. 605, comp. p. 583) there was shown on Cape Lectum an altar, said to have been erected by Agamemnon to the twelve great gods; but this very number is a proof of the late origin of the altar. Under the Byzantine emperors, Lectum was the northernmost point of the province of Asia. (Hierocl. p. 659.) Athenaeus (iii. p. 88) states that the purple shell-fish, found near Lectum as well as near Sigeum, was of a large size. The modern name of Lectum is Baba, or Santa Maria.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Troas was a country of Asia Minor and its capital was Troy, also known as Ilion (Il. 2.162, 3.74, Od. 1.62).

Eponymous founders or settlers


TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY
He was the son of Tros, father of Laomedon, brother of Ganymedes and Assaracus, founder of the city of Ilion (Il. 21.232). His grave was between the Scaean gates and the camp of the Achaeans (Il. 10.415, 11.166 & 371).

Illus, (Ilos). The son of Tros, and great-grandson of Dardanus, brother of Assaracus and Ganymede, and father of Laomedon. He once went from his native town of Dardania upon Mount Ida to Phrygia, where he was victorious in an athletic contest held by the king of the country. Besides fifty youths and fifty maidens, the prize of the contest, the king gave him, at the command of an oracle, a spotted cow, and directed him to found a city on the spot where she lay. He accordingly founded on the hill of the Phrygian Ate, the town which after him was called Ilios, and also Troy (Troia) after his father. When he demanded a sign of Zeus, on the following morning he found the statue known as the Palladium before his tent.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Ilus, a son of Tros, and grandson of Erichthonius. His mother was Calirrhoe, and being a greatgrandson of Dardanus, he is called Dardanides (Hom. Il. xi. 372). He was a brother of Assaracus, Ganymedes, and Cleopatra, and married to Eurydice, the daughter of Adrastus, by whom he became the father of Laomedon, so that he was the grandfather of Priam (Apollod. iii. 1.1-3; Hom. Il. xx. 232, &c.). He was believed to be the founder of Troy (Ilion), concerning which the following story is related. Once Ilus went to Phrygia, and there won the prize as a wrestler in the games which the king of Phrygia celebrated. The prize consisted of 50 youths and 50 maidens; and the king, in pursuance of an oracle, at the same time gave him a cow of different colours, requesting Ilas to build a town on the spot where that cow should lie down. Ilus accordingly followed the cow until she laid down at the foot of the Phrygian hill Ate (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ilion ; Hesych. s. v. Atiolophos; Tzetz. ad Lycoph, 29, who gives the story somewhat differently). There Ilus accordingly built Ilion; and after having prayed to Zeus to send him a sign, he found on the next morning the palladium, a statue of three cubits in height, with its feet close together, holding a spear in its right hand, and a distaff in the left. Ilus then built a temple for the statue (Apollod. iii. 12.3). Once, when this temple was consumed by fire, Ilus rescued the statue, but became blind, as no one was permitted to see it; but he afterwards propitiated the goddess, and recovered his sight (Plut. Paral. Gr. et Rom. 17). Hus is said to have expelled Tantalus or his son Pelops from Paphlagonia, for having carried off his brother Ganymedes (Paus. ii. 22.4; Diod. iv. 74). His tomb was shown in the neighbourhood of Troy.
(Hom. Il. x. 415, xi. 166, 372, xxiv. 349; Theocrit. xvi. 75; Eustath. ad Hom.)

Gods & demigods

Apollo Smintheus

CHRYSSI (Ancient city) TURKEY
Smintheus, a surname of Apollo, which is derived by some from sminthos, a mouse, and by others from the town of Sminthe in Troas (Hom. Il. i. 3.9; Ov. Fast. vi. 425, Met. xii. 585 ; Eustath. ad Hom.). The mouse was regarded by the ancients as inspired by the vapours arising from the earth, and as the symbol of prophetic power. In the temple of Apollo at Chryse there was a statue of the god by Scopas, with a mouse under its foot (Strab. xiii. 604, &c.; Eustath. ad Hom.), and on coins Apollo is represented carrying a mouse in his hands. Temples of Apollo Sminthens and festivals (Smintheia) existed in several parts of Greece, as at Tenedos, near Hamaxitos in Aeolis, near Parion, at Lindos in Rhodes, near Coressa, and in other places (Strab. x., xiii.).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Aug 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TROAS (Ancient country) TURKEY
A river-god (Il. 20.52).

Perseus Project

Greek leaders in the Trojan War

ADRASTIA (Ancient city) MYSIA
Amphius (Amphios), a son of Merops and brother of Adrastus. These two brothers took part in the Trojan war against their father's advice, and were slain by Diomedes. (Hom. Il. ii. 828, &c., xi. 328, &c.) Another hero of this name, who was an ally of the Trojans, occurs in Il. v. 612.



ASCANIA (Ancient area) MYSIA
A Mysian ally of the Trojans (Il. 13.792).


ENOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
He was son of Eusorus, a Thracian leader and ally of the Trojans, who was slain by Ajax, son of Telamon (Il. 2.844, 5.462, 6.8).

Perseus Project


He was son of Imbrasus from Aenus, a Thracian leader and ally of the Trojans (Il. 2.844, 4.520 & 525).


TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY
A Trojan, who was slain by Diomedes (Il. 5.144).

Antenor & Theano

Son of Aesyetes, husband of the priestess Theano (Il. 5.70, 6.298), father of Agenor, Helicaon, Acamas etc., who was famous for his prudence (Il. 7.347). Antenor counseled in vain the Trojans to give Helen back to the Achaeans (Il. 3.148).

Antenor. A Trojan prince related to Priam. He was the husband of Theano, daughter of Cisseus, king of Thrace, and father of nineteen sons, of whom the most known were Polybus, Acamas, Agenor, Polydamas, Helicaon, Archilochus, and Laodocus. He is accused by some of having betrayed his country, not only because he gave a favourable reception to Diomedes, Odysseus, and Menelaus, when they came to Troy, as ambassadors from the Greeks, to demand the restitution of Helen, but also because he withheld the fact of his recognizing Odysseus, at the time that hero visited the city under the guise of a mendicant. After the conclusion of the war Antenor, according to some, migrated with a party of followers into Italy, and built Patavium. According to others, he went with a colony of the Heneti, or Veneti, from Paphlagonia to the shores of the Hadriatic, where the new settlers established themselves in the district called by them Venetia.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Antenor, a Trojan, a son of Aesyetes and Cleomestra, and husband of Theano, by whom he had many children (Hom. Il. vi. 398; Eustath. ad Hom.). According to the Homeric account, he was one of the wisest among the elders at Troy, and received Menelaus and Odysseus into his house when they came to Troy as ambassadors (Il. iii. 146, &c., 203, &c.). He also advised his fellow-citizens to restore Helen to Menelaus (Il. vii. 348, &c.). This is the substance of all that is said about him in the Homeric poems; but the suggestion contained therein, that Antenor entertained a friendly disposition towards the Greeks, has been seized upon and exaggerated by later writers. Before the Trojan war, he is said to have been sent by Priam to Greece to claim the surrender of Hesione, who had been carried off by the Greeks; but this mission was not followed by any favourable result (Dares Phryg. 5). When Menelaus and Odysseus came to Troy, they would have been killed by the sons of Priam, had it not been for the protection which Antenor afforded them (Dict. Cret. i. 11). Just before the taking of Troy his friendship for the Greeks assumes the character of treachery towards his own country; for when sent to Agamemnon to negotiate peace, he devised with him and Odysseus a plan of delivering the city, and even the palladium, into their hands (Dict. Cret. iv. 22, v. 8; Serv. ad Aen. i. 246, 651, ii. 15; Tzetzes, ad Lycophr. 339; Suidas, s. v. palladion). When Troy was plundered, the skin of a panther was hung up at the door of Antenor's house, as a sign for the Greeks not to commit any outrage upon it (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. v. 108; Paus. x. 17; Strab. xiii.). His history after this event is related differently. Dictys (v. 17; comp. Serv. ad Aen. ix. 264) states, that he founded a new kingdom at Troy upon and out of the remnants of the old one; and according to others, he embarked with Menelaus and Helen, was carried to Libya, and settled at Cyrene (Pind. Pyth. v. 110); or he went with the Heneti to Thrace, and thence to the western coast of the Adriatic, where the foundation of several towns is ascribed to him (Strab.; Serv. ad Aen. i. 1; Liv. i. 1). Antenor with his family and his house, on which the panther's skin was seen, was painted in the Lesche at Delphi (Paus.).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Son of Ardys, father of Briseis (Il. 1.392, 9.132, 9.274).

Briseus, the father of Briseis, was a son of Ardys and king of the Leleges at Pedasus, or a priest at Lyrnessus. (Hom. Il. i. 392, ii. 689.) Briseus is said to have hanged himself when he lost his daughter. (Dict. Cret. ii. 17.)


ARISVI (Ancient city) TURKEY
The father of Axylus (Il. 6.12).


AVYDOS (Ancient city) MARMARA
The son of Asius and father of Thoon and Xanthus. He came from Abydus (Il. 5.152, 17.583).


Father of Hecamede from the island of Tenedos (Il. 11.626).

Chryses & Chryseis (= Astynome)

CHRYSSI (Ancient city) TURKEY
Chryses was the priest of Apollo Smyntheus and father of Chryseis. After the denial of Agamemnon to free Chryses' daughter, who was part of his spoils, he asked help from the god he served, Apollo, who sent a plague to the Greek camp, which caused the king to return Chryseis to her father (Il. 1.111, 181, 309, 430 etc.).

Chryseis, (Chruseis). Daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo at Chryse, and taken prisoner by Achilles at the capture of Lyrnessus or the Hypoplacian Thebes. In the distribution of the booty she was given to Agamemnon. Her father Chryses came to the camp of the Greeks to solicit her ransom, but was repulsed by Agamemnon with harsh words. Thereupon Apollo sent a plague into the camp of the Greeks, and Agamemnon was obliged to restore her to her father to appease the anger of the god. Her proper name was Astynome.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Chryses (Chruses). A son of Ardys and a priest of Apollo at Chryse. He was the father of Astynome (Chryseis), and when he came to the camp of the Greeks, offering a rich ransom for the liberation of his daughter, he was treated by Agamemnon with harsh words. Chryses then prayed to Apollo for vengeance, and the god sent a plague into the camp of the Greeks, which did not cease raging until Calchas explained the cause of it, and Odysseus took Chryseis back to her father. (Hom. II. i. 10, &c.)


He was a guest-friend of Priam and came from the island of Imbros (Il. 21.40).


PEDEON (Homeric city) TROAS
The father of Imbrius (Il. 13.171).

Perseus Project


PESSOS (Homeric city) MYSIA
The father of Amphius (Il. 5.612).


TROAS (Ancient country) TURKEY
The father of Laogonus and priest of Idaean Zeus (Il. 16.604).


TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY
He was the first-born son of Laomedon and father of Aesepus and Pedasus by the nymph Abarbarea (Il. 6.22).


Son of Priam and Hecuba (Il. 24.249).

Perseus Project

Astyanax or Scamandrius

He was the son of Hector and Andromache, and was also called Scamandrius. The Trojans called him Astyanax, which means "lord of the city", because his father was the "guardian" of Troy (Il. 7.403, 22.506).

Astyanax (Astuanax), the son of Hector and Andromache; his more common name was Scamandrius. After the taking of Troy the Greeks hurled him down from the walls of the city to prevent the fulfilment of a decree of fate, according to which he was to restore the kingdom of Troy (Hom. Il. vi. 400, &c.; Ov. Met. xiii. 415; Hygin. Fab. 109). A different mythical person of the name occurs in Apollodorus. (ii. 7.8)


A Trojan, father of Antenor (Il. 2.793).


A Trojan, father of Alcathous (Il. 13.427).


Father of Tros (Il. 20.466).


Father of Simoeisius (Il. 4.473).

Helicaon & Laodice

Son of Antenor, husband of the daughter of Priam, Laodice (Il. 3.123, 6.252).

Helicaon (Helikaon), a son of Antenor, and husband of Laodice, a daughter of Priam. (Hom. Il. iii. 124; Paus. x. 26.2)

Laodice, (Laodike). A daughter of Priam and Hecabe, and the wife of Helicaon. (Hom. Il. iii. 123; Paus. x. 26.) According to another tradition, she was the beloved of Acamas, the son of Theseus, who, with Diomedes, went as ambassador to Troy, and by whom she became the mother of Munitus. (Parthen. Erot. 16.) On the death of this son, Laodice, in her grief, leaped down a precipice (Lycoph. 497), or was swallowed up by the earth. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 513, 547.) Pausanias (l. c.) saw her represented in the Lesche of Delphi, among the captive Trojan women. Hyginus (Fab.01) calls her the wife of Telephus.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


A Trojan, who was slain by Patroclus (Il. 17.308).


He was the son of Iphitus and charioteer of Hector (Il. 8.128 & 312).


A Trojan, father of Mydon (Il. 5.581).


A Trojan, father of Laogonus and Dardanus (Il. 20.460).


A Trojan, father of Hypsenor and priest of Scamander (Il. 5.77).


He was the father of Abas and Polyidus and reader of dreams (Il. 5.149).


Father of Podes (Il. 17.575).


A Trojan, father of Eniopeus (Il. 8.120).


A Trojan, the father of Charops and Socus (Il. 11.425 & 450).


Father of Archeptolemus (Il. 8.128).


He was a son of Laomedon, brother of Priam, father of Caletor and one of the elders of Troy (Il. 3.147, 15.419).

Perseus Project


He was a son of Priam by Laothoe, whom Achilles sold as a slave in Lemnos but he escaped and went to Arisbe, where he was seen and slain by Achilles (Il. 3.333, 21.34 etc.).

Perseus Project


One of the elders at Troy (Il. 3.148).

Perseus Project


He was the father of Dolon and herald of the Trojans (Il. 10.314).

Panthous & Phrontis

Panthous was the husband of Phrontis, father of Euphorbus (Il. 17.60 & 81) and of Polydamas (Il. 18.250) and one of the Trojan elders (Il. 3.146, 15.446, 17.9 & 24 & 40).


He was also named Alexander (Il. 3.16 & 39, 6.290 & 350). He was a son of Priam, brother of Hector and became the cause of the Trojan War, when he abducted Helen, the wife of Menelaus (Il. 3.442 etc.).

   Paris, also called Alexander (Alexandros). The second son of Priam, king of Troy, by his wife Hecuba. When his mother, being about to give birth to a son, had dreamed that she brought forth a torch which set all Ilium in flames, the soothsayer Aesacus declared that the child would prove the ruin of his country, and recommended its exposure. As soon as born, the child was given to a servant to be left on Ida to perish. He obeyed, but, on returning at the end of five days, he found that a bear had been nursing the infant. Struck with this strange event, he took home the infant, reared him as his own son, and named him Paris. When Paris grew up he distinguished himself by his strength and courage in repelling robbers from the flocks, and the shepherds, in consequence, named him Alexander ("Man-protector"), or, according to the Greek form, Alexandros (apo tou alexein tous andras). In this state of seclusion, too, he united himself to the nymph Oenone, whose fate is elsewhere related. Their happiness was soon disturbed. At the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, the goddess of Discord, who had not been invited to partake of the entertainment, showed her displeasure by throwing into the assembly of the gods who were at the wedding celebration a golden apple, on which were written the words He kale labeto, "Let the beauty (among you) take me." Here, Athene, and Aphrodite laying claim to it, and Zeus being unwilling to decide, the god commanded Hermes to lead the three deities to Mount Ida, and to intrust the decision of the affair to the shepherd Alexander, whose judgment was to be final. The goddesses appeared before him, and each, to influence his decision, made him an alluring offer of future advantage, Here by the promise of a kingdom, Athene by the gift of intellectual superiority and martial renown, and Aphrodite by offering him the fairest woman in the world for his wife. To Aphrodite he assigned the prize, and brought upon himself, in consequence, the unrelenting enmity of her two disappointed rivals, which was extended also to his whole family and the entire Trojan race.
    Soon after this event, Priam proposed a contest among his sons and other princes, and promised to reward the conqueror with one of the finest bulls on Mount Ida. Persons were sent to procure the animal, and it was found in the possession of Paris, who reluctantly yielded it up. The shepherd, desirous of obtaining again this favourite animal, went to Troy, and entered the lists of the combatants. Having proved successful against every competitor, and having gained an advantage over Hector himself, that prince, irritated at seeing himself conquered by an unknown stranger, pursued him closely, and Paris must have fallen a victim to his brother's resentment had he not fled to the altar of Zeus. This place of refuge preserved his life; and Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, struck with the similarity of the features of Paris to those of her brothers, inquired his birth and his age. From these circumstances she soon discovered that he was her brother, and as such she introduced him to her father and to his children. Priam, thereupon, forgetful of the alarming predictions of Aesacus, acknowledged Paris as his son, and all enmity instantly ceased between the newcomer and Hector. Not long after this, at the instigation of Aphrodite, who had not forgotten her promise to him, Paris proceeded on a voyage to Greece, from which the soothsaying Helenus and Cassandra had in vain endeavoured to deter him. The ostensible object of the voyage was to procure information respecting his father's sister Hesione, who had been given in marriage by Hercules to his follower Telamon, the monarch of Salamis. The real motive, however, which prompted the enterprise, was a wish to obtain, in the person of Helen, then the fairest woman of her time, a fulfilment of what Aphrodite had offered him when he was deciding the contest of beauty. Arriving at Sparta, where Menelaus, the husband of Helen, was reigning, he met with a hospitable reception; but, Menelaus soon after having sailed away to Crete, the Trojan prince availed himself of his absence, seduced Helen, and bore her away to his native city, together with a large portion of the wealth of her husband. Hence ensued the war of Troy, which ended in the total destruction of that illfated city.
    Paris, though represented in general as effeminate and vain of his personal appearance, yet dis tinguished himself during the siege of Troy by wounding Diomedes, Machaon, Antilochus, and Palamedes, and subsequently by discharging the dart which proved fatal to Achilles. Aphrodite took him under her special protection, and, in the single combat with Menelaus, rescued him from the vengeance of the latter. On the capture of Troy, Paris was wounded by Philoctetes with one of the arrows of Heracles, and, falling ill, returned to Oenone, whom he had so long before abandoned. Resenting her wrongs she refused to heal him, and he returned to Troy, where he died.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The father of Cleitus (Il. 15.445).


A son of Laomedon, father of Dolops (Il. 15.526) and one of the elders at Troy (Il. 3.147).

Perseus Project


A Trojan herald, who was the son of Epytos (Il. 17.323).


A son of Priam, in the likeness of whom Iris appeared in front of his father (Il. 2.791 etc.).


The father of Scamandrius (Il. 5.49).


A son of Priam and Hecuba (Il. 24.257).

Perseus Project


The father of Ilioneus (Il. 14.490).


Ganymedes, son of Tros, was abducted by the gods because of his divine beauty and, as a result, he became the cupbearer of Zeus and dwelt with the immortals (Il. 5.266, 20.232).

Ganymedes, (Ganumedes). According to Homer and others, he was a son of Tros by Calirrhoe, and a brother of Ilus and Assaracus; being the most beautiful of all mortals, he was carried off by the gods that he might fill the cup of Zeus, and live among the eternal gods. (Hom. Il. xx. 231, &c.; Pind. Ol. 1. 44, xi. in fin.; Apollod. iii. 12.2.) The traditions about Ganymedes, however, differ greatly in their detail, for some call him a son of Laomedon (Cic. Tusc. i. 22; Eurip. Troad. 822), others a son of Ilus (Tzetz. ad Lycph. 34), and others, again, of Erichthonius or Assaracus. (Hygin. Fab. 224, 271.) The manner in which he was carried away from the earth is likewise differently described; for while Homer mentions the gods in general, later writers state that Zeus himself carried him off, either in his natural shape, or in the form of an eagle, or that he sent his eagle to fetch Ganymedes into heaven. (Apollod. l. c. ; Virg. Aen. v. 253; Ov. Met. x. 255; Lucian, Dial. Deor. 4.) Other statements of later date seem to be no more than arbitrary interpretations foisted upon the genuine legend. Thus we are told that he was not carried off by any god, but either by Tantalus or Minos, that he was killed during the chase, and buried on the Mysian Olympus. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Arpalia; Strab. xiii.; Eustath. ad Hom.) One tradition, which has a somewhat more genuine appearance, stated that he was carried off by Eos. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iii. 115.) There is, further, no agreement as to the place where the event occurred. (Strab., Steph. Byz. ll. cc., Horat. Carm. iii. 20, in fin.) The early legend simply states that Ganymedes was carried off that he might be the cupbearer of Zeus, in which office he was conceived to have succeeded Hebe (comp. Diod. iv. 75; Virg. Aen. i. 28) : but later writers describe him as the beloved and favourite of Zeus, without allusion to his office. (Eurip. Orest. 1392; Plat. Phaedr.; Xenoph. Symp. viii. 30; Cic. Tusc. iv. 33.) Zeus compensated the father for his loss with the present of a pair of divine horses (Hom. Il. v. 266, Hymn. in Ven. 202, &c.; Apollod. ii. 5.9 ; Paus. v. 24.1 ), and Hermes, who took the horses to Tros, at the same time comforted him by informing him that by the will of Zeus, Ganymedes had become immortal and exempt from old age. Other writers state that the compensation which Zeus gave to Tros consisted of a golden vine. (Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 1399; Eustath. ad Hom.) The idea of Ganymedes being the cupbearer of Zeus (urniger) subsequently gave rise to his identification with the divinity who was believed to preside over the sources of the Nile (Philostr. Vit. Apoll. vi. 26; Pind. Fragm. 110. ed. Bockh.), and of his being placed by astronomers among the stars under the name of Aquarius. (Eratosth. Catast. 26; Virg. Georg. iii. 304; Hygin. Fab. 224; Poet. Astr. ii. 29.) Ganymedes was frequently represented in works of art as a beautiful youth with the Phrygian cap. He appears either as the companion of Zeus (Paus. v. 24.1), or in the act of being carried off by an eagle, or of giving food to an eagle from a patera. The Romans called Ganymnedes by a corrupt form of his name Catamitus. (Plaut. Men. i. 2. 34.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

   Ganymedes (Ganumedes). The son of Tros, king of Dardania, brother of Ilus and Assaracus. According to Homer he was carried away by the gods for his beauty, to be the cup-bearer of Zeus, and one of the immortals. In the later legend he is carried away by Zeus himself in the shape of an eagle, or by the eagle of Zeus. To make amends to his father, Zeus presented him with four immortal horses for his chariot. Ganymedes was afterwards regarded as the genius of the sources of the Nile, and the astronomers made him into the constellation Aquarius. The rape of Ganymede was represented in a group by the sculptor Leochares.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Epytus, a Trojan, who clung to Aeneias in the night, when Troy was destroyed. He was the father of Periphas, who was a companion of Julus, and who is called by the patronymic Epytides. (Virg. Aen. ii. 340, v. 547, 579; Hom. Il. xvii. 323.)



She was the daughter of Altes, king of the Leleges in Pedasus, and mother of Lycaon and Polydorus by Priam (Ill. 21.85, 22.48).


She was the daughter of Arsinous and was awarded to Nestor, after the sack of the island of Tenedos by Achilles (Il. 11.624).


CHRYSSI (Ancient city) TURKEY
Astynome (Astunome), the daughter of Chryses (whence she is also called Chryseis), a priest of Apollo. She was taken prisoner by Achilles in the Hypoplacian Thebe or in Lyrnessus, whither she had been sent by her father for protection, or, according to others, to attend the celebration of a festival of Artemis. In the distribution of the booty she was given to Agamemnon, who, however, was obliged to restore her to her father, to soothe the anger of Apollo (Hom. Il. i. 378; Eustath. ad Hom.; Dictys Cret. ii. 17..) There are two more mythical personages of this name, one a daughter of Niobe, and the other a daughter of Talaus and mother of Capaneus. (Hygin. Fab. 70)

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