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Listed 29 sub titles with search on: Mythology  for wider area of: "PIRAEUS Prefectural seat ATTIKI" .

Mythology (29)

Ancient myths

Salaminians settled Gallaeci in Spain

On a report of Telamon's death reaching him there, he returned to the old Salamis; but was repelled by Eurysaces, and finally settled among the Gallaeci in the north west of Spain.
(Sir Richard Jebb, Commentary on Sophocles: Ajax intro, section 18)
The country of the Gallaeci or Callaeci in the north of Spain, between the Astures and the Durius
(Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898) id gallaecia)

Hippolytus & Phaedra

TRIZIN (Ancient city) GREECE

Hippolytus (Hippolutos). The Joseph of classical literature, a son of Theseus and Hippolyte, or, according to others, of Theseus and Antiope. Theseus, after the death of his first wife, married Phaedra, the daughter of Minos and sister of Ariadne. This princess was seized with a criminal affection for the son of the Amazon, an affection produced by the wrath of Aphrodite against Hippolytus for neglecting her divinity and for devoting himself solely to the service of Artemis; or else against Phaedra as the daughter of Pasiphae. During the absence of Theseus, the queen made advances to her step-son, which were indignantly rejected. Filled with fear and hate, on the return of her husband she accused Hippolytus of an attempt on her honour. Without giving the youth an opportunity of clearing himself, the monarch, calling to mind that Poseidon had promised him the accomplishment of any three wishes that he might form, cursed and implored destruction on his son from the god. As Hippolytus, leaving Troezen, was driving his chariot along the seashore, a monster, sent by Poseidon from the deep, terrified his horses; they burst away in fury, heedless of their driver, dashed the chariot to pieces, and dragged along Hippolytus, entangled in the reins, until he died. Phaedra ended her days by her own hand; and Theseus, when too late, learned the innocence of his son. Euripides has founded his tragedy, Hippolytus, on this subject, but the legend assumes a somewhat different shape with him. According to the plot of his play, Phaedra hangs herself in despair when she finds that she is slighted by her step-son, and Theseus, on his return from his travels, finds, when taking down her corpse, a writing attached to it, in which Phaedra accused Hippolytus of having attempted her honour. According to another legend, Aesculapius restored Hippolytus to life, and Artemis transported him, under the name of Virbius, to Italy, where he was worshipped in the grove of Aricia. The story of Hippolytus forms the subject of a play by Euripides with that title, of a Latin tragedy by Seneca, and the Phedre of Racine.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Editor’s Information:
About Hippolytus, Euripides wrote the homonymous tragedy, of which the e-text(s) is (are) found in Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings.

Eponymous founders or settlers


Troezen, (Troizen), a son of Pelops, and founder of the town of Troezen or Troezene. He was the father of Anaphlystus and Sphettus. (Paus. ii. 30.8)

Gods & heroes related to the location


FALIRON (Ancient demos) PIRAEUS
A son of Alcon, and grandson of Erechtheus or Eurysthenes, was one of the Argonauts, and the founder of Gyrton. (Orph. Arg. 144.) He is said to have emigrated with his daughter Chalciope or Chalcippe to Chalcis in Euboea, and when his father demanded that he should be sent back, the Chalcidians refused to deliver him up. (Schol. ad Apollon. Riod. i. 97.) In the port of Phalerum near Athens, which was believed to have derived its name front him, an altar was dedicated to him. (Paus. i. l. 4.)


The goddess of beauty and love (Il. 3.54, 19.282, 24.699, Od. 4.14 & 261, 20.74). She was a daughter of Zeus (Il. 5.348, 14.214, 20.105) by Dione (Il. 5.370) and was surnamed Cypris (Il. 5.330 & 422) and Cytherea (Od. 8.288, 18.192). She was also the wife of Hephaestus but not loyal to him as she had a love affair with Ares (Od. 8.267 etc.).

Aphrodite Lat. Venus). The Greek goddess of love. Her attributes combine, with Hellenic conceptions, a great many features of Eastern, especially Ph?nician, origin, which the Greeks must have grafted upon their native notions in very old times. This double nature appears immediately in the contradictory tales of her origin. To the oldest Greeks she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione (and is sometimes called by that name herself); yet from a very early time she appears as Aphrogenia, the “foam-born” (see Uranus), as Anadyomene, "she who rises" out of the sea, and steps ashore on Cyprus, which had been colonized by Phoenicians time out of mind; even as far back as Homer she is Cypris, the Cyprian. The same transmarine and Eastern origin of her worship is evidenced by the legend of the island of Cythera, on which she was supposed to have first landed from a sea-shell. Other names applied to her are Pelagia (from Pelagos), Anadyomene (as having risen from the water), Erycina (from Mount Eryx in Sicily), Paphia, and Cypris, besides those mentioned below.
    Again, the common conception of her as goddess of love limited her agency to the sphere of human life. But she was, at the same time, a power of nature, living and working in the three elements of air, earth, and water. As goddess of the shifting gale and changeful sky, she was Aphrodite Urania (Ourania), the "heavenly," and at many places in Greece and Asia her temples crowned the heights and headlands; for instance, the citadels of Thebes and Corinth, and Mount Eryx in Sicily. As goddess of storm and lightning, she was represented armed, as at Sparta and Cythera; and this, perhaps, explains why she was associated with Ares both in worship and in legend, and worshipped as a goddess of victory.
    The moral conception of Aphrodite Urania as goddess of the higher and purer love, especially wedded love and fruitfulness, as opposed to mere sensual lust, was but slowly developed in the course of ages.
    As goddess of the sea and maritime traffic, especially of calm seas and prosperous voyages, she was widely worshipped by sailors and fishermen at ports and on sea-coasts, often as the goddess of calm, while Poseidon was the god of disturbance. Next, as regards the life of the earth, she was the goddess of gardens and groves, of spring and its bounties, especially tender plants and flowers, as the rose and myrtle; hence, as the fruitful and bountiful, she was worshipped most of all at that season of the year in which her birth from the sea was celebrated at Paphos in Cyprus. But to this, her time of joyful action, was opposed a season of sorrow, when her creations wither and die--a sentiment expressed in her inconsolable grief for her beloved Adonis, the symbol of vegetation perishing in its prime, a myth derived by the Greeks from the Babylonian worship of Adon or Thammuz, and akin to those of Linus, Hyacinthus, and Narcissus. In the life of gods and men, she showed her power as the golden, sweetly smiling goddess of beauty and love, which she knew how to kindle or to keep away. She outshone all the goddesses in grace and loveliness; in her girdle she wore united all the magic charms that could bewitch the wisest man and subdue the very gods. Her retinue consisted of Eros (Cupid), the Hours, the Graces, Peitho (Persuasion), Pothos and Himeros (personifications of longing and yearning). By uniting the generations in the bond of love, she became a goddess of marriage and family life, and the consequent kinship of the whole community. As such she had formerly been worshipped at Athens under the name of Pandemos (=all the people's), as being a goddess of the whole country. By a regulation of Solon, the name acquired a very different sense, branding her as goddess of prostitution; and then it was that the new and higher meaning was imported into the word Urania.
    In later times, the worship of Aphrodite as the goddess of mere sensual love made rapid strides, and in particular districts assumed forms more and more immoral, in imitation of the services performed to love-goddesses in the East, especially at Corinth, where large bands of girls were consecrated as slaves to the service of the gods and the practice of prostitution. And later still, the worship of Astarte ("Star"), the Syrian Aphrodite, performed by eunuchs, spread all over Greece. See Aphrodisia; Meretrix.
    In the Greek myths Aphrodite appears occasionally as the wife of Hephaestus. Her love adventures with Ares are notorious. From these sprang Eros and Anteros, Harmonia, the wife of Cadmus, and Deimos and Phobos (Fear and Alarm), attendants on their father. By Anchises she was the mother of Aeneas. The chief seats of her worship were Paphos, Amathus, and Idalion (all in Cyprus), Cnidus in Dorian Asia Minor, Corinth, the island of Cythera, and Eryx in Sicily. As mother of Harmonia, she was a guardian deity of Thebes. Among plants, the myrtle, the rose, and the apple were specially sacred to her as goddess of love; among animals, the ram, he-goat, hare, dove, sparrow, and other creatures of amorous nature (the ram and dove being widely current symbols of great antiquity); as sea-goddess, the swan, mussel, and dolphin; as Urania, the tortoise.
    The various myths connected with the name of Aphrodite have inspired many exquisite poems in modern literature. In recent English verse reference may be made to the magnificent Chorus to Aphrodite in Swinburne's Atalanta in Calydon; Hake's Birth of Venus; Morris's Aphrodite in his Epic of Hades; and Rossetti's Ve- nus Verticordia and Venus Victrix.
    In ancient art, in which Aphrodite is one of the favourite subjects, she is represented in a higher or lower aspect, according as the artist's aim was to exhibit Urania or the popular goddess of love. In the earlier works of art she usually appears clothed, but in later ones more or less undraped--either as rising from the sea or leaving the bath, or (as in still later times) merely as an ideal of female beauty. In the course of time the divine element disappeared, and the presentation became more and more ordinary. While the older sculptures show the sturdier forms, the taste of later times leans more and more to softer, weaker outlines. Most renowned in ancient times [p. 97] were the statue at Cnidus by Praxiteles (a copy of which is now at Munich), and the painting of Aphrodite Anadyomene by Apelles. Of original statues preserved to us, the most famous are the Aphrodite of Melos (see illustration), now at Paris, and that of Capua at Naples, both of which bring out the loftier aspect of the goddess; and the Medicean Venus at Florence, the work of a late Attic sculptor, Cleomenes, in the delicate forms of face and body that pleased a younger age.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Aphrodite, one of the great Olympian divinities, was, according to the popular and poetical notions of the Greeks, the goddess of love and beauty. Some traditions stated that she had sprung from the foam (aphros) of the sea, which had gathered around the mutilated parts of Uranus, that had been thrown into the sea by Kronos after he had unmanned his father (Hesiod. Theog. 190). With the exception of the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite there is no trace of this legend in Homer, and according to him Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione (Il. v. 370, &c., xx. 105.) Later traditions call her a daughter of Kronos and Euonyme, or of Uranus and Hemera. (Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 23; Natal. Com. iv. 13). According to Hesiod and the Homeric hymn on Aphrodite, the goddess after rising from the foam first approached the island of Cythera, and thence went to Cyprus, and as she was walking on the sea-coast flowers sprang up under her feet, and Eros and Himeros accompanied her to the assembly of the other great gods, all of whom were struck with admiration and love when she appeared, and her surpassing beauty made every one desire to have her for his wife. According to the cosmogonic views of the nature of Aphrodite, she was the personification of the generative powers of nature, and the mother of all living beings. A trace of this notion seems to be contained in the tradition that in the contest of Typhon with the gods, Aphrodite metamorphosed herself into a fish, which animal was considered to possess the greatest generative powers (Ov. Met. v. 318, &c.; comp. Hygin. Poet. Astr. 30). But according to the popular belief of the Greeks and their poetical descriptions, she was the goddess of love, who excited this passion in the hearts of gods and men, and by this power ruled over all the living creation (Hom. Hymn. in Ven.; Lucret. 15, &c.). Ancient mythology furnishes numerous instances in which Aphrodite punished those who neglected her worship or despised her power, as well as others in which she favoured and protected those who did homage to her and recognized her sway. Love and beauty are ideas essentially connected, and Aphrodite was therefore also the goddess of beauty and gracefulness. In these poiits she surpassed all other goddesses, and she received the prize of beauty from Paris; she had further the power of granting beauty and invincible charms to others. Youth is the herald, and Peitho, the Horae, and Charites, the attendants and companions of Aphrodite (Pind. New. viii. 1, &c.). Marriages are called by Zeus her work and the things about which she ought to busy herself (Hom. Il. v. 429; comp. Od. xx. 74; Pind. Pyth. ix. 16, &c.). As she herself had sprung from the sea, she is represented by later writers as having some influence upon the sea (Virg. Aen. viii. 800; Ov. Heroid. xv. 213; comp. Paus. ii. 34.11).
  During the Trojan war, Aphrodite, the mother of Aeneas, who had been deelared the most beautiful of all the goddesses by a Trojan prince, naturally sided with the Trojans. She saved Paris from his contest with Menelaus (Il. iii. 380), but when she endeavoured to rescue her darling Aeneas from the fight, she was pursued by Diomedes, who wounded her in her hand. In her fright she abandoned her son, and was carried by Iris in the chariot of Ares to Olympus, where she complained of her misfortune to her mother Dione, but was laughed at by Hera and Athena (Il. v. 311, &c.). She also protected the body of Hector, and anointed it with ambrosia (Il. xxiii. 185).
  According to the most common accounts of the ancients, Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus (Odyss. viii. 270), who, however, is said in the Iliad (viii. 383) to have married Charis. Her faithlessness to Hephaestus in her amour with Ares, and the manner in which she was caught by the ingenuity of her husband, are beautifully described in the Odyssey (viii. 266, &c.). By Ares she became the mother of Phobos, Deimos, Harmonia, and, according to later traditions, of Eros and Anteros also (Hesiod. Theog. 934, &c., Scut. Herc. 195; Hom. Il. xiii. 299, iv. 440; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iii. 26; Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 23). But Ares was not the only god whom Aphrodite favoured; Dionysus, Hermes, and Poseidon likewise enjoyed her charms. By the first she was, according to some traditions, the mother of Priapus (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 933) and Bacchus (Hesych. s. v. Bakchou Diones), by the second of Hermaphroditus (Ov. Met. iv. 289, &c.; Diod. iv. 6; Lucian, Dial. Deor. xv. 2), and by Poseidon she had two children, Rhodos and Herophilus (Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. viii. 24). As Aphrodite so often kindled in the hearts of the gods a love for mortals, Zeus at last resolved to make her pay for her wanton sport by inspiring her too with love for a mortal man. This was accomplished, and Aphrodite conceived an invincible passion for Anchises, by whom she became the mother of Aeneas and Lyrus. Respecting her connexions with other mortals see Adonis (in ancient Phoenece) and Butes (in ancient Lilybaeum).
  Aphrodite possessed a magic girdle which had the power of inspiring love and desire for those who wore it; hence it was borrowed by Hera when she wished to stimulate the love of Zeus (Hom. Il. xiv. 214, &c.). The arrow is also sometimes mentioned as one of her attributes (Plnd. Pyth. iv. 380; Theocrit. xi. 16). In the vegetable kingdom the myrtle, rose, apple, poppy, and others, were sacred to her (Ov. Fast. iv. 15. 143; Bion, Idyll. i. 64; Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. 993; Paus. ii. 10.4; Phornut. 23). The animals sacred to her, which are often mentioned as drawing her chariot or serving as her messengers, are the spar row, the dove, the swan, the swallow, and a bird called iynx (Sappho, in Ven. 10; Athen. ix.; Horat. Carm. iv. 1. 10; Aelian, Hist. An. x. 34). As Aphrodite Urania the tortoise, the symbol of domestic modesty and chastity, and as Aphrodite Pandemos the ram was sacred to her. When she was represented as the victorious goddess, she had the attributes of Ares, a helmet, a shield, a sword : or a lance, and an image of Victory in one hand. The planet Venus and the spring-month of April were likewise sacred to her (Cie. de Nat. Deor. iii. 20; Ov. Fast. iv. 90). All the surnames and epithets given to Aphrodite are derived from places of her worship, from events connected with the legends about her, or have reference to her character and her influence upon man, or are descriptive of her extraordinary beauty and charms. All her surnames are explained in separate articles.
  The principal places of her worship in Greece were the islands of Cyprus and Cythera. At Cnidus in Caria she had three temples, one of which contained her renowned statue by Praxiteles. Mount Ida in Troas was an ancient place of her worship, and among the other places we may mention particularly the island of Cos, the towns of Abydos, Athens, Thespiae, Megara, Sparta, Sicyon, Corinth, and Eryx in Sieily. The sacrifices offered to her consisted mostly of incense and garlands of flowers (Virg. Aen. i. 416; Tacit. Hist. ii. 3), but in some places animals, such as pigs, goats, young cows, hares, and others, were sacrificed to her. In some places, as at Corinth, great numbers of females belonged to her, who prostituted themselves in her service, and bore the name of hierodouloi. (Dict.of Ant. s. v. Hetairai.) Respecting the festivals of Aphrodite see Dict. of Ant. s.v. Adonia, Anagogia, Aphrodisia, Katagogia.
  The worship of Aphrodite was undoubtedly of eastern origin, and probably introduced from Syria to the islands of Cyprus, Cythera, and others, from whence it spread all over Greece. It is said to have been brought into Syria from Assyria (Paus. i. 14.6). Aphrodite appears to have been originally identical with Astarte, called by the Hebrews Ashtoreth, and her connexion with Adonis clearly points to Syria. But with the exception of Corinth, where the worship of Aphrodite had eminently an Asiatic character, the whole worship of this goddess and all the ideas concerning her nature and character are so entirely Greek, that its introduction into Greece must be assigned to the very earliest periods. The elements were derived from the East, but the peculiar development of it belongs to Greece. Respecting the Roman goddess Venus and her identification with the Greek Aphrodite, see Venus.
  Aphrodite, the ideal of female graec and beauty, frequently engaged the talents and genius of the ancient artists. The most celebrated representations of her were those of Cos and Cnidus. Those which are still extant are divided by archaeologists into several classes, accordingly as the goddess is represented in a standing position and naked, as the Medicean Venus, or bathing, or half naked, or dressed in a tunic, or as the victorious goddess in arms, as she was represented in the temples of Cythera, Sparta, and Corinth (Paus. iii. 23.1, ii. 5.1, iii. 15.10).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


An Athenian hero, believed to have been a son of Oxyntas, and king of Attica. One of the Attic demes (Thymoetiadae or Thymaetiadae) derived its name from him. (Suid. s. v. ; Paus. ii. 18.7.)

Theseus home was at Thymoetadae

Theseus... set himself to building a fleet, part of it at home in the township of Thymoetadae, far from the public road.. (Plut. Thes.19.1)


Aeacus & Endeis (Endais) - Aeacus & Psamathe

Aeacus was the king of the island of Aegina, son of Zeus by nymph Aegina, father of Peleus and Telamon by Endeis and of Phocus by numph Psamathe (Il. 21.189, also see Hes. Theog. 1003). He arbitrated between Nisus and Sciron in their dispute for the kingship of Megara (Paus. 1,39,6).

Aeacus (Aiakos), a son of Zeus and Aegina, a daughter of the river-god Asopus. He was born in the island of Oenone or Oenopia, whither Aegina had been carried by Zeus to secure her from the anger of her parents, and whence this island was afterwards called Aegina (Apollod. iii. 12.6; Hygin. Fab. 52; Paus. ii. 29.2; comp. Nonn. Dionys. vi. 212; Ov. Met. vi. 113, vii. 472). According to some accounts Aeacus was a son of Zeus and Europa. Some traditions related that at the time when Aeacus was born, Aegina was not yet inhabited, and that Zeus changed the ants (murmekes) of the island into men (Myrmidones) over whom Aeacus ruled, or that he made men grow up out of the earth (Hes. Fragm. 67, ed. Gottling; Apollod. iii. 12.6; Paus. l. c.). Ovid (Met. vii. 520; comp. Hygin. Fab. 52; Strab. viii. p. 375), on the other hand, supposes that the island was not uninhabited at the time of the birth of Aeacus, and states that, in the reign of Aeacus, Hera, jealous of Aegina, ravaged the island bearing the name of the latter by sending a plague or a fearful dragon into it, by which nearly all its inhabitants were carried off, and that Zeus restored the population by changing the ants into men.
  These legends, as Muller justly remarks (Aeginetica), are nothing but a mythical account of the colonisation of Aegina, which seems to have been originally inhabited by Pelasgians, and afterwards received colonists from Phthiotis, the seat of the Myrmidones, and from Phlius on the Asopus. Aeacus while he reigned in Aegina was renowned in all Greece for his justice and piety, and was frequently called upon to settle disputes not only among men, but even among the gods themselves (Pind. Isth. viii. 48; Paus. i. 39.5). He was such a favourite with the latter, that, when Greece was visited by a drought in consequence of a murder which had been committed (Diod. iv. 60, 61; Apollod. iii. 12.6), the oracle of Delphi declared that the calamity would not cease unless Aeacus prayed to the gods that it might; which lie accordingly did, and it ceased in consequence. Aeacus himself shewed his gratitude by erecting a temple to Zeus Panhellenius on mount Panhellenion (Paus. ii. 30.4), and the Aeginetans afterwards built a sanctuary in their island called Aeaccum, which was a square place enclosed by walls of white marble. Aeacus was believed in later times to be buried under the altar in this asacred enclosure (Paus. ii. 29.6). A legend preserved in Pindar (Ol. viii. 39) relates that Apollo and Poseidon took Aeacus as their assistant in building the walls of Troy. When the work was completed, three dragons rushed against the wall, and while the two of them which attacked those parts of the wall built by the gods fell down dead, the third forced its way into the city through the part built by Aeacus. Hereupon Apollo prophesied that Troy would fall through the hands of the Aeacids. Aeacus was also believed by the Aeginetans to have surrounded their island with high cliffs to protect it against pirates (Paus. ii. 29.5). Several other incidents connected with the story of Aeacus are mentioned by Ovid (Met. vii. 506, ix. 435). By Endeis Aeacus had two sons, Telamon and Peleus, and by Psamathe a son, Phocus, whom he preferred to the two others, who contrived to kill Phocus during a contest, and then fled from their native island. After his death Aeacus became one of the three judges in Hades (Ov. Met. xiii. 25; Hor. Carm. ii. 13. 22), and according to Plato (Gorg.; compare Isocrat. Evag. 5) especially for the shades of Europeans. In works of art he was represented bearing a sceptre and the keys of Hades (Apollod. iii. 12.6; Pind. Isthm. viii. 47). Aeacus had sanctuaries both at Athens and in Aegina (Paus. ii. 29.6; Hesych. s. v. ; Schol. ad Pind. Nem. xiii. 155), and the Aeginetans regarded him as the tutelary deity of their island (Pind. Nem. viii. 22).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited June 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

A son of Telamon, king of Salamis, by Periboea or Eriboea (Apollod. iii. 12.7; Paus. i. 42.4; Pind. Isth. vi. 65; Diod. iv. 72), and a grandson of Aeacus. Homer calls him Ajax the Telamonian, Ajax the Great, or simply Ajax (Il. ii. 768, ix. 169, xiv. 410; comp. Pind. Isth. vi. 38), whereas the other Ajax, the son of Oileus, is always distinguished from the former by some epithet. According to Homer Ajax joined the expedition of the Greeks against Troy, with his Salaminians, in twelve ships (Il. ii. 557), and was next to Achilles the most distinguished and the bravest among the Greeks (ii 768, xvii. 279). He is described as tall of stature, and his head and broad shoulders as rising above those of all the Greeks (iii 226); in beauty he was inferior to none but Achilles (Od. xi. 550, xxiv. 17; comp. Paus. i. 35.3). When Hector challenged the bravest of the Greeks to single combat, Ajax came forward among several others. The people prayed that he might fight, and when the lot fell to Ajax (Il. vii. 179, &c.), and he approached, Hector himself began to tremble (215). He wounded Hector and dashed him to the ground by a huge stone. The combatants were separated, and upon parting they exchanged arms with one another as a token of mutual esteem (305, &c.). Ajax was also one of the ambassadors whom Agamemnon sent to conciliate Achille. (ix. 169). He fought several times besides with Hector, as in the battle near the ships of the Greeks (xiv. 409, &c. xv. 415, xvi. 114), and in protecting the body of Patroclus (xvii. 128, 7 32). In the games at the funeral pile of Patroclus, Ajax fought with Odysseus, but without gaining any decided advantage over him (xxiii. 720, &c.), and in like manner with Diomedes. In the contest about the armour of Achilles, he was conquered by Odysseus, and this, says Homer, became the cause of his death (Od. xi. 541, &c.). Odysseus afterwards met his spirit in Hades, and endeavoured to appease it, but in vain.
 Thus far the story of Ajax, the Telamonian, is related in the Homeric poems. Later writers furnish us with various other traditions about his youth, but more especially about his death, which is so vaguely alluded to by Homer. According to Apollodorus (iii. 12.7) and Pindar (Isth. vi. 51, &c.), Ajax became invulnerable in consequence of a prayer which Heracles offered to Zeus, while he was on a visit in Salamis. The child was called Aias from aetos, an eagle, which appeared immediately after the prayer as a favourable omen. According to Lycophron (455 with the Schol.), Ajax was born before Heracles came to Telamon, and the hero made the child invulnerable by wrapping him up in his lion's skin (Comp. Schol. ad Il. xxiii. 841). Ajax is also mentioned among the suitors of Helen (Apollod. iii. 10.8; Hygin. Fab. 81). During the war against Troy, Ajax, like Achilles, made excursions into neighbouring countries. The first of them was to the Thracian Chersonesus, where he took Polydorus, the son of Priam, who had been entrusted to the care of king Polymnestor, together with rich booty. Thence, he went into Phrygia, slew king Teuthras, or Teleutas, in single combat, and carried off great spoils, and Tecmessa, the king's daughter, who became his mistress (Soph. Aj. 210, 480, &c.; Hor. Carm. ii. 4. 5). In the contest about the armour of Achilles, Agamemnon, on the advice of Athena, awarded the prize to Odysseus. This discomfiture threw Ajax into an awful state of madness. In the night he rushed from his tent, attacked the sheep of the Greek army, made great havoc among them, and dragged dead and living animals into his tent, fancying that they were his enemies. When, in the morning, he recovered his senses and beheld what he had done, shame and despair led him to destroy himself with the sword which Hector had once given him as a present. (Pind. Nem. vii. 36; Soph. Aj. 42, 277, 852; Ov. Met. xiii. 1, &c.; Lycophr. l. c.). Less poetical traditions make Ajax die by the hands of others. His step-brother Teucrus was charged by Telamon with the murder of Ajax, but succeeded in clearing himself from the accusation (Paus. i. 28.12). A tradition mentioned by Pausanias (i. 35.3; comp. Ov. Met. xiii. 397) states, that from his blood there sprang up a purple flower which bore the letters ai on its leaves, which were at once the initials of his name and expressive of a sigh. According to Dictys, Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, deposited the ashes of the hero in a golden urn on mount Rhoeteion; and according to Sophocles, he was buried by his brother Teucrus against the will of the Atreidae. Pausanias (iii. 19.11) represents Ajax, like many other heroes, as living after his death in the island of Leuce. It is said that when, in the time of the emperor Hadrian, the sea had washed open the grave of Ajax, bones of superhuman size were found in it, which the emperor, however, ordered to be buried again (Philostr. Her. i. 2; Paus. iii. 39.11). Respecting the state and wandering of his soul after his death, see Plato, De Re Publ. x. in fin.; Plut. Sympos. ix. 5.
  Ajax was worshipped in Salamis as the tutelary hero of the island, and had a temple with a statue there, and was honoured with a festival, Aianteia. At Athens too he was worshipped, and was one of the eponymic heroes, one of the Attic tribes (Aeantis) being called after him (Paus. i. 35.2; Plut. Sympos. i. 10). Not far from the town Rhoeteion, on the promontory of the same name, there was likewise a sanctuary of Ajax, with a beautiful statue, which Antonius sent to Egypt, but which was restored to its original place by Augustus (Strab. xiii.). According to Dictys Cretensis (v. 16) the wife of Ajax was Glauca, by whom she had a son, Aeantides; by his beloved Tecmessa, he had a son, Eurysaces (Soph. Aj. 333). Several illustrious Athenians of the historical times, such as Miltiades, Cimon, and Alcibiades, traced their pedigree to the Telamonian Ajax (Paus. ii. 29.4; Plut. Alcib.1). The traditions about this hero furnished plentiful materials, not only for poets, but also for sculptors and painters. His single combat with Hector was represented on the chest of Cypselus (Paus. v. 19.1); his statue formed a part of a large group at Olympia, the work of Lycius (Paus. v. 22.2; comp. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10.36 ; Aelian, V. H. ix. 11). A beautiful sculptured head, which is generally believed to be a head of Ajax, is still extant in the Egremont collection at Petworth.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Ajax (Aias)

Son of Telamon, king of Salamis, and grandson of Aeacus. Homer calls him Aiax the Telamonian, Aiax the Great, or simply Aiax, whereas the other Aiax, son of Oileus, is always distinguished from the former by some epithet. He sailed against Troy in twelve ships, and is represented in the Iliad as second only to Achilles in bravery. In the contest for the armour of Achilles he was conquered by Odysseus, and this, says Homer, was the cause of his death. Later poets relate that his defeat by Odysseus threw him into a state of madness; that he rushed from his tent and slaughtered the sheep of the Greek army, fancying they were his enemies; and that at length he put an end to his own life. From his blood there sprang up a purple flower bearing the letters Ai (Ai) on its leaves, which were at once the initials of his name and expressive of a sigh. Homer does not mention his mistress Tecmessa.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Editor’s Information:
The electronic text(s) of Sophocles’ tragedy Ajax can be found at the location Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings.


A son of Aeacus and Endeis, and a brother of Peleus. He emigrated from Aegina to Salamis, and was first married to Glance, a daughter of Cenchreus (Diod. iv. 72), and afterwards to Periboea or Eriboea, a daughter of Alcathous, by whom he became the father of Ajax (Pind. Isthm. vi. 65; Apollod. iii. 12.6). He was one of the Calydonian hunters and of the Argonauts (Apollod. i. 8.2, 9.16, iii. 12.7 ; Paus. i. 42.4; Hygin. Fab. 173 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 175). Miltiades traced his pedigree to Telamon (Paus. ii. 29.4). After Telamon and Peleus had killed their step-brother Phocus. they were expelled by Aeacus from Aegina, and Telamon went to Cychreus in Salamis, who bequeathed to him his kingdom (Apollod. l. c. ; Paus. ii. 29.2, 7.) He is said to have been a great friend of Heracles (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 1289; Theocrit. Id. xiii. 38), and to have joined him in his expedition against Laomedon of Troy, which city he was the first to enter. He there erected to Heracles Callinicus or Alexicacus, an altar. Heracles, in return gave to him Theaneira or Hesione, a daughter of Laomedon, by whom he became the father of Teucer and Trambelus (Apollod. ii. 6.4, iii. 10.8, 12.7; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 468 ; Diod. iv. 32). On this expedition Telamon and Heracles also fought against the Meropes in Cos, on account of Chalciope, the beautiful daughter of Eurypylus, the king of the Meropes, and against the giant Alcioneus, on the isthmus of Corinth (Pind. Nem. iv. 40, with the Schol.). He also accompanied Heracles on his expedition against the Amazons, and slew Melanippe. (Pind. Nem. iii. 65, with the Schol.)

The son of Aeacus and Endeis, and brother of Peleus. Having assisted Peleus in slaying their half-brother Phocus, Telamon was expelled from Aegina, and came to Salamis. Here he was first married to Glauce, daughter of Cychreus, king of the island, on whose death Telamon became king of Salamis. He afterwards married Periboea or Eriboea, daughter of Alcathous, by whom he became the father of Aiax, who is hence frequently called Telamoniades and Telamonius heros. Telamon himself was one of the Calydonian hunters and one of the Argonauts. He was also a warm friend of Heracles, whom he joined in his expedition against Laomedon of Troy, which city he was the first to enter, and also against the Amazons. Heracles, in return, gave to him Theanira or Hesione, a daughter of Laomedon, by whom he became the father of Teucer and Trambelus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Eurysaces (Eurusakes), a son of the Telamonian Ajax and Tecmessa, was named after the broad shield of his father. (Soph. Aj. 575; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 857; Serv. ad Aen. i. 623; Philostr. Heroic. 11. 2.) An Athenian tradition related, that Eurysaces and his brother Philaeus had given up to the Athenians the island of Salamis, which they had inherited from their grandfather, and that the two brothers received in return the Attic franchise. One of the brothers then settled at Brauron, and the other at Melite. Eurysaces was honoured like his father, at Athens, with an altar. (Plut. Sol. 10; Paus. i. 35. § 2.)

Cychreus or Cenchreus (Kuchreus)

Cychreus or Cenchreus (Kuchreus), a son of Poseidon and Salamis, became king of the island of Salamis, which was called after him Cychreia, and which he delivered from a dragon. He was subsequently honoured as a hero, and had a sanctuary in Salamis. (Apollod. iii. 12.7; Diod. iv. 72.) According to other traditions, Cychreus himself was called a dragon on account of his savage nature, and was expelled from Salamis by Eurylochus; but he was received by Demeter at Eleusis, and appointed a priest to her temple. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Kuchreios.) Others again said that Cychreus had brought up a dragon, which was expelled by Eurylochus. (Strab. ix.) There was a tradition that, while the battle of Salamis was going on, a dragon appeared in one of the Athenian ships, and that an oracle declared this dragon to be Cychreus. (Paus. i. 36.1; comp. Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 110, 175; Plut. Thes. 10, Solon. 9.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited July 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Scirus (Skiros), a soothsayer of Dodona, who, in the reign of Erechtheus, came to Salamis, and was afterwards honoured in the island with heroic honours. Salamis is further said to have been called after him, Sciras. (Paus. i. 36.3; Strab. ix.; Steph. Byz. s. v.)


TRIZIN (Ancient city) GREECE
Born in Troezen (see more at Athens ancient city)



(Troezenians) They say that Orus was the first to be born in their land. Now, in my opinion, Orus is an Egyptian name and utterly un-Greek; but they assert that he became their king, and that the land was called Oraea after him and that Althepus, the son of Poseidon and of Leis, the daughter of Orus, inheriting the kingdom after Orus, named the land Althepia. (Paus. 2.30.5)

Althepus & Leis

Son of Poseidon and Leis, second king of Troezenia, founds temple of Demeter Lawgiver.

Althepus (Althepos), a son of Poseidon and Leis, a daughter of Orus, king of Troezen. The territory of Troezen was called after him Althepia. In his reign Pallas and Poseidon disputed the possession of the country with each Other (Paus. ii. 30. 6.)


Saron, a mythical king of Troezene, who built a sanctuary of Artemis Saronia on the sea-coast. Once while chasing a stag into the sea he was drowned, and his body, which was washed on shore in the grove of Artemis, was buried there, and the gulf between Attica and Argolis was, from this circumstance, called the Saronic Gulf (Paus. ii. 30.7). Near Troezene there was a little town called Saron (Steph. Byz. s. v.), and Troezene itself is said at one time to have been called Saronia (Eustath. ad Hom.)

After Althepus, Saron became king. They said that this man built the sanctuary for Saronian Artemis by a sea which is marshy and shallow, so that for this reason it was called the Phoebaean lagoon. Now Saron was very fond of hunting. As he was chasing a doe, it so chanced that it dashed into the sea and he dashed in alter it. The doe swam further and further from the shore, and Saron kept close to his prey, until his ardor brought him to the open ocean. Here his strength failed, and he was drowned in the waves. The body was cast ashore at the grove of Artemis by the Phoebaean lagoon, and they buried it within the sacred enclosure, and after him they named the sea in these parts the Saronic instead of the Phoebaean lagoon. They know nothing of the later kings down to Hyperes and Anthas. (Paus. 2.30.7)

Hyperus (Hyperes), Anthas & Aetius, son of Anthas

They (Troezenians) know nothing of the later (after Saros) kings down to Hyperes and Anthas. These they assert to be sons of Poseidon and of Alcyone, daughter of Atlas, adding that they founded in the country the cities of Hyperea and Anthea; Aetius, however, the son of Anthas, on inheriting the kingdoms of his father and of his uncle, named one of the cities Poseidonias. When Troezen and Pittheus came to Aetius there were three kings instead of one, but the sons of Pelops enjoyed the balance of power. Here is evidence of it. When Troezen died, Pittheus gathered the inhabitants together, incorporating both Hyperea and Anthea into the modern city, which he named Troezen after his brother. Many years afterwards the descendants of Aetius, son of Anthas, were dispatched as colonists from Troezen, and founded Halicarnassus and Myndus in Caria. Anaphlystus and Sphettus, sons of Troezen, migrated to Attica, and the parishes are named after them. (Paus. 2.30.8-9)

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Salamis, a daughter of Asopus, and by Poseidon the mother of Cenchreus or Cychreus. (Paus. i. 35.2; Apollod. iii. 12.7; Diod. iv. 72.) From her the island of Salamis was believed by the ancients to have received its name.

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