Herodotus, The Histories 2.55 - 2.57 (ed. A. D. Godley) - Perseus Project
DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA
Dodon, a son of Zeus by Europa, from whom the oracle of Dodona was believed to have derived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v. Dodone.) Other traditions traced the name to a nymph of the name of Dodone.
Hyades (Huades), that is, the rainy, the name of a class of nymphs, whose number, names, and descent, are described in various ways by the ancients. Their parents were Atlas and Aethra ( Ov. Fast. v. 169, &c.), Atlas and Pleione (Hygin. Fab. 192), or Hyas and Boeotia (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21 ); and others call their father Oceanus, Melisseus, Cadmilus, or Erechtheus (Hygin. Fab. 182; Theon. ad Arat. Phaen. 171; Serv. ad Aen. i. 74). Thales mentioned two, and Euripides three Hyades (Theon), and Eustathius (ad Hom.) gives the names of three, viz. Ambrosia, Eudora, and Aesyle. Hyginus (Fab. 182), on the other hand, mentions Idothea, Althaea, and Adraste; and Diodorus (v. 52) has Philia, Coronis, and Cleis. Other poets again knew four, and Hesiod five, viz. Phaesyle, Coronis, Cleeia, Phaeote, and Eudora (Comp. the five different names in Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 138; Hygin. Fab. 182, 192). But the common number of the Hyades is seven, as they appear in the constellation which bears their name, viz., Ambrosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyene, or Dione (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21; Hesych. s. v.). Pherecydes, the logographer, who mentioned only six, called them the Dodonaean nymphs, and the nurses appointed by Zeus to bring up Dionysus. In this capacity they are also called the Nysaean nymphs (Apollod. iii. 4.3; Ov. Fast. v. 167, Met. iii 314; Serv. ad Aen. i. 748; Eustath. ad Hom.). When Lycurgus threatened the safety of Dionysus and his companions, the Hyades, with the exception of Ambrosia, fled with the infant god to Thetis or to Thebes, where they entrusted him to Ino (or Juno), and Zeus showed them his gratitude for having saved his son, by placing them among the stars (Hygin. Poet. Asir. ii. 21). Previous to their being thus honoured, they had been old, but been made young again by Medeia, at the request of Dionysus (Hygin. Fab. 182; Ov. Met. vii. 295). As nymphs of Dodona, they were said, in some traditions, to have brought up Zeus (Schol. ad Hom. Il. xviii. 486). The story which made them the daughters of Atlas relates that their number was twelve or fifteen. and that at first five of them were placed among the stars as Hyades, and the seven (or ten) others afterwards under the name of Pleiades, to reward them for the sisterly love they had evinced after the death of their brother Hyas, who had been killed in Libya by a wild beast (Hygin. Fab. 192; Ov. Fast. v. 181; Eustath. ad Hom.). Their name, Hyades, is derived by the ancients from their father, Hyas, or from Hyes, a mystic surname of Dionysus; and according to others, from their position in the heavens, where they formed a figure resembling the Greek letter U. The Romans, who derived it from hus, a pig, translated the name by Suculae (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 43); but the most natural derivation is from Wein, to rain, as the constellation of the Hyades, when rising amultaneously with the sun, announced rainy and tormy weather. (Cic. lc.; Ov. Fast. v. 165; Horat. Carm. i. 3. 14; Virg. Aen. iii. 516; Gell. xii?)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Jan 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Hyas (Huas). The name of the father and brother of the Hyades (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21; Ov. Fast. v. 181; Eustath. ad Hom.). The father was married to Boeotia, and was looked upon as the ancestor of the ancient Hyantes (Plin. H. N. iv. 12). His son, or the brother of the Hyades, was killed in Libya by an animal, a serpent, a boar, or a lion. (Hygin. Fab. 192)
Prophetesses at Dodona.
Litae (Litai), a personification of the prayers offered up in repentance. They are described as the daughters of Zeus, and as following closely behind crime, and endeavouring to make amends for what has been done; but whoever disdains to receive them, has himself to atone for the crime that has been committed. (Hom. Il. ix. 502, &c.; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 768; Hesych. s. v. aigai, calls them Aetae, which however is probably only a mistake in the name.)
Concerning the Hyperborean people, neither the Scythians nor any other inhabitants of these lands tell us anything, except perhaps the Issedones. And, I think, even they say nothing; for if they did, then the Scythians, too, would have told, just as they tell of the one-eyed men. But Hesiod speaks of Hyperboreans, and Homer too in his poem The Heroes' Sons, if that is truly the work of Homer.
But the Delians say much more about them than any others do. They say that offerings wrapped in straw are brought from the Hyperboreans to Scythia; when these have passed Scythia, each nation in turn receives them from its neighbors until they are carried to the Adriatic sea, which is the most westerly limit of their journey; from there, they are brought on to the south, the people of Dodona being the first Greeks to receive them. From Dodona they come down to the Melian gulf, and are carried across to Euboea, and one city sends them on to another until they come to Carystus; after this, Andros is left out of their journey, for Carystians carry them to Tenos, and Tenians to Delos.
This extract is from: Herodotus. The Histories (ed. A. D. Godley, 1920), Cambridge. Harvard University Press. Cited Feb 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.
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