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Listed 46 sub titles with search on: Mythology for wider area of: "FOKIDA Prefecture STEREA HELLAS" .


Mythology (46)

Colonizations by the inhabitants

LYKORIA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Lycoritae settled Asine in Argolis

  The people of Asine originally adjoined the Lycoritae on Parnassus. Their name, which they maintained after their arrival in Peloponnese, was Dryopes, from their founder. Two generations after Dryops, in the reign of Phylas, the Dryopes were conquered in battle by Heracles and brought as an offering to Apollo at Delphi. When brought to Peloponnese according to the god's instructions to Heracles, they first occupied Asine by Hermion. They were driven thence by the Argives and lived in Messenia. This was the gift of the Lacedaemonians, and when in the course of time the Messenians were restored, they were not driven from their city by the Messenians. But the people of Asine give this account of themselves. They admit that they were conquered by Heracles and their city in Parnassus captured, but they deny that they were made prisoners and brought to Apollo. But when the walls were carried by Heracles, they deserted the town and fled to the heights of Parnassus, and afterwards crossed the sea to Peloponnese and appealed to Eurystheus. Being at feud with Heracles, he gave them Asine in the Argolid. The men of Asine are the only members of the race of the Dryopes to pride themselves on the name to this day.


First ancestors

OZOLEA LOKRIS (Ancient area) FOKIDA

Locrus

Locrus (Lokros). A son of Physcius and grandson of Amphictyon, became by Cabya the father of Locrus, the mythical ancestor of the Ozolian Locrians (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15). According to some the wife of the former Locrus was called Cambyse or Protogeneia (Pind. Ol. ix. 86 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 277).


Gods & demigods

DELFI (Ancient sanctuary) FOKIDA

Apollo

Apollo. Gives Poseidon Calauria in exchange for Delphic oracle, comes to Delphi, kills the Python, and takes over the oracle.
Editor's note: All information about Apollo at Delos Island


Pythes

  Afterwards the dwellers around called the city Pytho, as well as Delphi, just as Homer so calls it in the list of the Phocians. Those who would find pedigrees for everything think that Pythes was a son of Delphus, and that because he was king the city was called Pytho. But the most widespread tradition has it that the victim of Apollo's arrows rotted here, and that this was the reason why the city received the name Pytho. For the men of those days used pythesthai for the verb "to rot," and hence Homer in his poem says that the island of the Sirens was full of bones, because the men who heard their singing rotted (epythonto ). The poets say that the victim of Apollo was a dragon posted by Earth to be a guard for the oracle. It is also said that he was a violent son of Crius, a man with authority around Euboea. He pillaged the sanctuary of the god, and he also pillaged the houses of rich men. But when he was making a second expedition, the Delphians besought Apollo to keep from them the danger that threatened them.


Eurynomus

Eurynomus, (Eurunomos), a daemon of the lower world, concerning whom there was a tradition at Delphi, according to which, he devoured the flesh of dead human bodies, and left nothing but the bones. Polygnotus represented him in the Lesche at Delphi, of a dark-blue complexion, shewing his teeth, and sitting on the skin of a vulture. (Paus. x. 28.4.).


Celedones

Celedones (Keledones), the soothing goddesses, were frequently represented by the ancients ill works of art, and were believed to be endowed, like the Sirens, with a magic power of song. For this reason, they are compared to the Iynges. Hephaestus was said to have made their golden images on the ceiling of the temple at Delphi. (Paus. ix. 5.5; Athen. vii.)


Gaia, Gaea, Terra (Earth)

Gaea. She was the wife of Uranus (Sky) and mother of the Titans, Cyclopes and Hecatonchires (= Hundredhanded) (Il. 3.104, 19.259). There was a sanctuary, an altar and an oracle dedicated to Gaea in Olympia (Paus. 5,14,10).


Gaia, Gaea, Terra (Earth). The Greek goddess of the earth. According to Hesiod she came into being after Chaos, and brought forth of herself the Sky (Ouranos), the mountains, and the Sea (Pontos). By Uranus she was mother of the Titans, Cyclopes, and Hecatoncheires. From the blood of her mutilated husband sprang the Erinyes, Giants, and Melian nymphs; to Pontus she bore Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia. Other terrible beings, such as the giants Typhon, Antaeus, and Tityus, were her offspring, as also the autochthones or aborigines, such as Erechtheus and Cecrops. In Homer she is invoked with Zeus, the Sun, Heaven, and Hell as a witness to oaths, and was worshipped with the sacrifice of a black lamb; but she was especially honoured as the mother of all, who nourishes her creatures and pours rich blessings upon them. In Athens, in particular, she was worshipped as kourotrophos, or the nourisher of children, and at the same time as the goddess of death, who summons all her creatures back to her and hides them in her bosom. She was honoured also as the primeval prophetess, especially in Delphi, the oracle of which was at first in her possession as the power who sent forth the vapours which inspired the seer. The corresponding Roman goddess was Tellus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Gaea or Ge (Gaia), the personification of the earth. She appears in the character of a divine being as early as the Homeric poems, for we read in the Hiad (iii. 104) that black sheep were sacrificed to her, and that she was invoked by persons taking oaths (iii. 278, xv. 36, xix. 259, Od. v. 124). She is further called, in the Homeric poems, the mother of Erechthens and Tithyus (Il. ii. 548, Od. vii. 324, xi. 576; comp. Apollon. Rhod. i. 762, iii. 716). According to the Theogony of Hesiod (117, 12,5, &c.), she was the first being that sprang front Chaos, sand gave birth to Uranus and Pontus. By Uranus she then became the mother of a series of beings: Oceanus, Coeus, Creius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rheia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe, Thetys, Cronos, the Cyclopes, Brontes, Steropes, Arges, Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges. These children of Ge and Uranus were hated by their father, and Ge therefore concealed. them in the bosom of the earth; but she made a large iron sickle, gave it to her sons, and requested them to take vengeance upon their father. Cronos undertook the task, and mutilated Uranus. The drops of blood which fell from him upon the earth (Ge), became the seeds of the Erinnyes, the Gigantes, and the Melian nymphs. Subsequently Ge became, by Pontus, the mother of Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia (Hes. Theog. 232, &c.; Apollod. i. 1.1, &c.). Besides these, however, various other divinities and monsters sprang from her. As Ge was the source from which arose the vapours producing divine inspiration, she herself also was regarded as an oracular divinity, and it is well known that the oracle of Delphi was believed to have at first been in her possession (Aeschyl. Eum. 2; Paus. x. 5.3), and at Olympia, too, she had an oracle in early times (Paus. v. 14.8). That Ge belonged to the Deoi chthinioi, requires no explanation, and hence she is frequently mentioned where they are invoked (Philostr. Va. Apoll. vi. 39; Ov. Met. vii. 196). The surnames and epithets given to Ge have more or less reference to her character as the all-producing and all-nourishing mother (mater omniparens et alma), and hence Servius (ad Aen. iv. 166) classes her together with the divinities presiding over marriage. Her worship appears to have been universal among the Greeks, and she had temples or altars at Athens, Sparta, Delphi, Olympia, Bura, Tegea, Phlyus, and other places (Thuc. ii. 15; Paus. i. 22.3, 24.3, 31.2, iii. 11.8, 12.7, v. 14.8, vii. 25.8, viii. 48.6). We have express statements attesting the existence of statues of Ge in Greece, but none have come down to us. At Patrae she was represented in a sitting attitude, in the temple of Demeter (Paus. vii. 21.4), and at Athens, too, there was a statue of her (i. 24.3). Servius (ad Aen. x. 252) remarks that she was represented with a key.
  At Rome the earth was worshipped under the name of Tellus (which is only a variation of Terra). There, too, she was regarded as an infernal divinity (Dea chthonia) being mentioned in connection with Dis and the Manes, and when persons invoked them or Tellus they sank their arms downwards, while in invoking Jupiter they raised them to heaven (Varro, de Re Rust. i. 1. 15; Macrob. Sat. iii. 9; Liv. viii. 9, x. 29). The consul P. Sempronius Sophus, in B. C. 304, built a temple to Tellus in consequence of an earthquake which had occurred during the war with the Picentians. This temple stood on the spot which had formerly been occupied by the house of Sp. Cassius, in the street leading to the Carinae (Flor. i. 19. Β§ 2; Liv. ii. 41; Val. Max. vi. 3.1; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 6, 14; Dionys. viii. 79). Her festival was celebrated on the 15th of April, immediately after that of Ceres, and was called Fordicidia or Hordicidia. The sacrifice, consisting of cows, was offered up in the Capitol inthe presence of the Vestals. A male divinity, to whom the pontiff prayed on that occasion, was called Tellumo.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  Mother Earth, daughter of Chaos and wife of Uranus (heaven). The couple were united in a constant caress until Gaea made one of her sons, Cronus (“time”, castrate Uranus, thus separating heaven from earth. Cronus became the ruler, and time began.
  Gaea gave birth to the sea. Then, she and Uranus had the Titans, Cronus was the youngest, and the Cyclops. They also had the Hecatoncheirs which were giants with a hundred hands and fifty heads. Because they were the strongest, Uranus feared them and kept them locked in the deepest of Earth. This caused Gaea pain, and so made Cronus cut off his fathers genitalia. From Uranus' blood the Erinyes, Giants and Nymphs of the Forest were born. Gaea's last son was the monster Typhon who had a hundred heads and produced the lava that came out of Mount Etna.
  This goddess has given us the words “geology” and “geography”.
  She also had the following epithets: Carpophorus, Curotropos and Eurysternos.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.


LYKORIA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Apollo Lycoreus

Lycoreus, a surname of Apollo, perhaps in the same sense as Lyceius; but he is usually so called with reference to Lycoreia, on Mount Parnassus. (Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1490; Callim. Hymn. in Apoll. 19; Orph. Hymn. 33. 1.)


MYONIA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Theoi Meilichioi

Meilichius (Meilichios), i. e. the god that can be propitiated, or the gracious, is used as a surname of several divinities.
1. Of Zeus, as the protector of those who honoured him with propitiatory sacrifices. At Athens cakes were offered to him every year at the festival of the Diasia. (Thucyd. i. 126; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 7.4.) Altars were erected to Zeus Meilichius on the Cephissus (Paus. i. 37.3), at Sicyon (ii.9.6), and at Argos (ii. 20.1; Plut. De cohib. Ir. 9).
2. Of Dionysus in the island of Naxos. (Athen. iii. p. 78.) 3. Of Tyche or Fortune. (Orph. Hymn. 71. 2.)
The plural theoi meilichioi is also applied to certain divinities whom mortals used to propitiate with sacrifices at night, that they might avert all evil, as e. g. at Myonia in the country of the Ozolian Locrians. (Pans. x. 38. § 4; comp. Orph. E. 30.)


Heroes

FOKIS (Ancient area) GREECE

Laphrius

Perseus Encyclopedia


Castalius

Perseus Encyclopedia


Kephalos

Son of Deion, husband of Procris, loved by Dawn, carried off by Dawn, father of Tithonus by her, in Syria, son of Deioneus, at Thoricus, his wonderful dog, hunts the (Teumessian) vixen, goes with Amphitryon against the Taphians, settles in the Taphian islands, detects his wife in an intrigue, kills her accidentally, tried in the Areopagus and banished, marries Clymene, father of Iphiclus, gives his name to Cephallenia, son of Hermes by Herse.


Heroines

Coronis

(2) Daughter of Phoroneus, king of Phocis, metamorphosed by Athene into a crow when pursued by Poseidon.


Historic figures

AMFISSA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Amphissa

Amphissa, a daughter of Macareus and grand-daughter of Aeolus, was beloved by Apollo, and is said to have given the name to the town of Amphissa in Phocis, where her memory was perpetuated by a splendid monument. (Paus. x. 38.2, &c.)


DORIS (Ancient area) FOKIDA

Dorus

He was the son of Hellen, who came from Pthia, and the nymph Orseis.


Dorus (Doros), the mythical ancestor of the Dorians; he is described either as a son of Hellen, by the nymph Orseis, and a brother of Xuthus and Aeolus (Apollod. i. 7.3; Diod. iv. 60); or as a son of Apollo, by Phthia, and a brother of Laodocus and Polypoites (Apollod. i. 7.6), whereas Servius (ad Aen. ii. 27) calls him a son of Poseidon. He is said to have assembled the people which derived its name from him (the Dorians) around him in the neighbourhood of Parnassus (Strab. viii.; Herod. i. 56)


FOKIS (Ancient area) GREECE

Phocus & Asterodia

Perseus Encyclopedia


Phocus & Antiope

Phocus; son of Ornytion or of Poseidon, settles in Phocis, gives his name to part of Phocis, dwells at Tithorea, marries Antiope, buried with Antiope, his grave, his shrine, his name the Phocian watchword.


KIRRA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Cirrha

Cirrha (Kirra), a nymph from whom the town of Cirrha in Phocis was believed to have derived its name. (Paus. x. 37.4)


KRISSA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Crisus

Asius the epic poet says that to Phocus were born Panopeus and Crisus. To Panopeus was born Epeus, who made, according to Homer, the wooden horse; and the grandson of Crisus was Pylades, whose father was Strophius, son of Crisus, while his mother was Anaxibi ,sister of Agamemnon. Such was the pedigree of the Aeacidae (family of. Aeacus ), as they are called, but they departed from the beginning to other lands.

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Nov 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


LILEA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Naiad Lilaea

[...] They say that Lilaea was one of the Naids, as they are called, a daughter of the Cephisus, and that after this nymph the city was named. Here the river has its source.(Paus.10,33,4)


LYKORIA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Lycorus

Another and different legend is current that Apollo had a son Lycorus by a nymph, Corycia, and that after Lycorus was named the city Lycoreia, and after the nymph the Corycian cave. It is also said that Celaeno was daughter to Hyamus, son of Lycorus, and that Delphus, from whom comes the present name of the city, was a son of Celaeno, daughter of Hyamus, by Apollo.(Paus. 10.6.3)


Kings

DORIS (Ancient area) FOKIDA

Aegimius & Hyllus

   A king of the Dorians, reigning in Thessaly, near the range of Pindus. He aided Heracles, according to the Doric legend, in his contest with the Lapithae, and received as a reward the territory from which they were driven. Aegimius is a conspicuous name among the founders of the Doric line, and mention is made by the ancient writers of an epic poem, entitled Aigimios, which is ascribed by some to Hesiod, by others to Cecrops the Milesian. The posterity of Aegimius formed part of the expedition against the Peloponnesus, and the Doric institutions of Aegimius are spoken of by Pindar as forming the rule or model of government for the Doric race.


The Aetolians border on the western Locrians; and the Aenianians who inhabit Mount Oeta border on the Epicnemidian Locrians; and in the middle between them are Dorians. Now these Dorians are the people who inhabited the Tetrapolis, which, they say, was the metropolis of all the Dorians; and the cities they held were Erineus, Boeum, Pindus and Cytinium. Pindus is situated above Erineus; and a river bearing the same name flows past it, emptying into the Cephissus not very far from Lilaea. By some, however, Pindus is called Acyphas. The king of these Dorians was Aegimius, who was driven from his throne, but was brought back again, as the story goes, by Heracles; accordingly, Aegimius requited the favor to Heracles after the latter's death on Oeta; for he adopted Hyllus, the eldest of the sons of Heracles; and Hyllus and his descendants became his successors on the throne. From here it was that the Heracleidae set out on their return to the Peloponnesus.

This extract is from: The Geography of Strabo, ed. H. L. Jones, Cambridge. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept. 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


FOKIS (Ancient area) GREECE

Deion & Diomede

Deion; son of Aeolus, reigns over Phocis, marries Diomede, father of Cephalus. Diomede; daughter of Xuthus.


Deion. A son of Aeolus and Enarete, was king in Phocis and husband of Diomede, by whom he became the father of Asteropeia, Aenetus, Actor, Phylacus, and Cephalus. (Apollod. i. 7.3, 9.4.) After the death of his brother, Salmoneus, he took his daughter Tyro into his house, and gave her in marriage to Cretheus. His name occurs also in the form Deioneus. (Eustath. ad Hom.)



KRISSA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Strophius & Anaxibia

Strophios. A king of Phocis, son of Crissus and Antiphatia, and husband of Cydragora, Anaxibia, or Astyochia, by whom he became the father of Astydamia and Phylades.


  Anaxibia. The daughter of Pleisthenes and Aerope, and sister of Agamemnon and Menelaus. She was married to king Strophius of Crissa, with whom she had a son and a daughter: Pylades and Astydameia.
  Pylades grew up with his cousin Orestes, who had been sent to Crissa by his sister Electra to avoid the torments of their mother Clytemnestra and her lover Aegisthus. Pylades was later to marry Electra after Agamemnon had been revenged and Orestes acquitted for killing his mother.
  Apart from losing her brother Agamemnon, Anaxibia was the only of Atreus' children who escaped the curse of the family.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.



Pylades

   (Pulades).The son of Strophius and Anaxibia, a sister of Agamemnon. His father was king of Phocis; and after the death of Agamemnon, Orestes was secretly carried to his father's court. Here Pylades contracted that friendship with Orestes which became proverbial. He assisted Orestes in murdering his mother Clytaemnestra, and also accompanied him to the Tauric Chersonesus; and he eventually married his sister Electra, by whom he became the father of Hellanicus, Medon, and Strophius.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



OZOLEA LOKRIS (Ancient area) FOKIDA

Orestheus

   Orestheus. A legendary king of the Locri, whose dog brought forth a log of wood. This he buried, but from it came forth shoots (ozoi) of vine, whence the people got the name of Ozolae.


Mythical monsters

DELFI (Ancient sanctuary) FOKIDA

Python

Python. A serpent sprung from the mud left by the deluge of Deucalion, guardian of the oracle at Delphi. He was slain by Apollo at Delphi


  Apollo learned the art of prophecy from Pan, the son of Zeus and Hybris, and came to Delphi, where Themis at that time used to deliver oracles; and when the snake Python, which guarded the oracle, would have hindered him from approaching the chasm, he killed it and took over the oracle.
Commentary:
  Pan, son of Zeus and Thymbreus (Thymbris? Hybris?), is mentioned by a Scholiast on Pindar, who distinguishes him from Pan, the son of Hermes and Penelope.
  From Plutarch and Aelian we learn that Apollo had to go to Tempe to be purified for the slaughter of the dragon, and that both the slaughter of the dragon and the purification of the god were represented every eighth year in a solemn festival at Delphi. The Pythian games at Delphi were instituted in honour of the dead dragon (Ovid and Hyginus, Fab. 140; compare Clement of Alexandria, Protrept. 2, p. 29, ed. Potter), probably to soothe his natural anger at being slain.

This extract is from: Apollodorus, Library and Epitome (ed. Sir James George Frazer, 1921). Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Nymphs

Castalia

Castalia (Kastalia), the nymph of the Castalian spring at the foot of mount Parnassus. She was regarded as a daughter of Achelous (Paus. x. 8.5), and was believed to have thrown herself into the well when pursued by Apollo (Lutat. ad Stat. Theb. i. 697). Others derived the name of the well from one Castalius, who was either a simple mortal, or a son of Apollo and father of Delphis, who came from Crete to Crissa, and there founded the worship of the Delphinian Apollo. (Ilgen, ad Hom. hymn. in Apoll. p. 341.) A third account makes Castalius a son of Delphus and father of Thyia. (Paus. vii. 18.6, x. 6.2)


  Ascending from the gymnasium along the way to the sanctuary you reach, on the right of the way, the water of Castalia, which is sweet to drink and pleasant to bathe in. Some say that the spring was named after a native woman, others after a man called Castalius. But Panyassis, son of Polyarchus, who composed an epic poem on Heracles, says that Castalia was a daughter of Achelous. For about Heracles he says: "Crossing with swift feet snowy Parnassus He reached the immortal water of Castalia, daughter of Achelous".
  I have heard another account, that the water was a gift to Castalia from the river Cephisus. So Alcaeus has it in his prelude to Apollo. The strongest confirmation of this view is a custom of the Lilaeans, who on certain specified days throw into the spring of the Cephisus cakes of the district and other things ordained by use, and it is said that these reappear in Castalia.

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


LYKORIA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS

Corycia

Νymph, mother of Lycorus by Apollo, gives her name to Corycian cave.


Corycia (Korukia). A nymph, who became by Apollo the mother of Lycorus, or Lycoreus, and from whom the Corycian cave on Mount Parnassus was believed to have derived its name. The Muses are sometimes called by the poets Corycides Nymphae


Corycides. A name applied to the nymphs who were supposed to inhabit the Corycian cave on Mount Parnassus. They were the daughters of the river-god Plistus (Ovid, Met.i. 320; Apoll. Rh. ii. 711). The same name is also given to the Muses.


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