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Mythology (25)

Ancient myths

Narcissus & Echo

THESPIES (Ancient city) VIOTIA
   (Narkissos). The beautiful son of the river-god Cephissus. He rejected the love of the nymph Echo, and Nemesis punished him for this by inspiring him with a passion for the reflection of himself which he saw in the water of a fountain. He pined away in the desire for it; and to see one's reflection in the water was hence considered as a presage of death. The flower of the same name, into which he was changed, was held to be a symbol of fragility and death, and was sacred to Hades, the divinity of the world below. Persephone had just gathered a narcissus, when she was carried off by Hades.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Narcissus (Narkissos), a son of Cephissus and the nymph Liriope of Thespiae. He was a very handsome youth, but wholly inaccessible to the feeling of love. The nymph Echo, who loved him, but in vain, died away with grief. One of his rejected lovers, however, prayed to Nemesis to punish him for his unfeeling heart. Nemesis accordingly caused Narcissus to see his own face reflected in a well, and to fall in love with his own image. As this shadow was unapproachable Narcissus gradually perished with love, and his corpse was metamorphosed into the flower called after him narcissus. This beautiful story is related at length by Ovid (Met. iii. 341). According to some traditions, Narcissus sent a sword to one of his lovers, Ameinius, who killed himself with it at the very door of Narcissus' house, and called upon the gods to avenge his death. Narcissus, tormented by love of himself and by repentance, put an end to his life, and from his blood there sprang up the flower narcissus (Conon, Narrat. 24). Other accounts again state that Narcissus melted away into the well in which he had beheld his own image (Paus. ix. 31.6); or that he had a beloved twin sister perfectly like him, who died, whereupon he looked at his own image reflected in a well, to satify his longing after his sister. Eustathius (ad Hom. p. 266) says that Narcissus was drowned in the well.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Narcissus and Echo
The vocal nymph this lovely huntsman view'd,
As he into the toils his prey pursu'd,
Though of the power of speaking first debarr'd,
She could not hold from answering what she heard.
The jealous Juno by her wiles betray'd,
Took this revenge on the deceitful maid,
For when she might have seiz'd her faithless Jove,
Often in am'rous thefts of lawless love;
Her tedious talk would make the goddess stay,
And give her rivals time to run away:
Which when she found, she cried, "For such a wrong,
Small be the power of that deluding tongue."
Immediately the deed confirm'd the threats,
For Echo only what she hears repeats.
Now at the sight of the fair youth she glows,
And follows silently where'er he goes.
The nearer she pursu'd, the more she mov'd
Thro' the dear track he trode, the more she lov'd.
Still her approach inflamed her fierce desire,
As sulph'rous torches catch the neighb'ring fire.
How often would she strive, but strove in vain,
To tell the passion and confess her pain?
A thousand tender things her thoughts suggest,
With which she would have woo'd; but they suppress'd
For want of speech, lay buried in her breast.
Begin she could not, but she staid to wait
Till he should speak, and she his speech repeat.
Now several ways his young companions gone,
And for some time Narcissus left alone;
Where are you all?" at last she hears him call;
And she straight answers him, "Where are you all?"
Around he lets his wandering eye-sight roam,
But sees no creature whence the voice should come.
"Speak yet again," he cries, "is any nigh?"
Again the mournful Echo answers, "I."
"Why come not you!" says he, "appear in view:
" She hastily returns, " Why come not you ?"
Once more the voice th' astonish'd huntsman tried,
Louder he called, and louder she replied.
Then let us join," at last Narcissus said;
"Then let us join," replied the ravish'd maid.
Scarce had she spoke, when from the woods she sprung,
And on his neck with close embraces hung.
But he with all his strength unlocks her fold,
And breaks unkindly from her feeble hold:
Then proudly cries, "Life shall this breast forsake
Ere you, loose nymph, on me your pleasure take."
"On me your pleasure take," the nymph replies,
While from her the disdainful huntsman flies.
Repuls'd, with speed she seeks the gloomiest groves,
And pines to think on her rejected loves.
Alone laments her ill-requited flame,
And in the closest thickets shrouds her shame.
Her rage to be refus'd yields no relief,
But her fond passion is encreas'd by grief.
The thoughts of such a slight all sleep suppress'd,
And kept her languishing for want of rest:
Now pines she quite away with anxious care,
Her skin contracts, her blood dissolves to air,
Nothing but voice and bones she now retains,
These turn to stones, but still the voice remains:
In woods, caves, hills, for ever hid she lies,
Heard by all ears, but never seen by eyes.
Thus her and other nymphs his proud disdain
With an unheard of cruelty had slain;
Many on mountains and in rivers born,
Thus perish'd underneath his haughty scorn;
When one who in their suffrings bore a share,
With suppliant hands address'd this humble pray'r,
Thus may he love himself, and thus despair!"
Nor were her pray'rs at an ill hour preferr'd;
Rhamnusia, the revengeful goddess, heard.
Nature had plac'd a crystal fountain near,
The water deep, but to the bottom clear;
Whose silver spring ascended gently up,
And bubbled softly to the silent top.
The surface smooth as icy lakes appear'd,
Unknown by herdsman, undisturb'd by herd.
No bending tree above its surface grows,
Or scatters thence its leaves or broken boughs;
Yet at a just convenient distance stood,
All round the peaceful spring, a stately wood,
Thro' whose thick tops no sun could shoot his beams,
Nor view his image in the silver streams.
Thither from hunting, and the scorching heat,
The wearied youth was one day led by fate:
Down on his face to drink the spring he lies,
But as his image in that glass he spies,
He drinks in passion deeper at his eyes.
His own reflection works his wild desire,
And he himself sets his own self on fire:
Fix'd as some statue, he preserves his place,
Intent his looks, and motionless his face;
Deep thro' the spring his eye-balls dart their beams,
Like midnight stars that twinkle in the streams.
His iv'ry neck the crystal mirrow shows,
His waving hair above the surface flows,
His cheeks reflect the lily and the rose.
His own perfection all his passions mov'd,
He loves himself who for himself was lov'd;
Who seeks, is sought; who kindles the desires,
Is scorch'd himself; who is admir'd, admires.
Oft would he the deceitful spring embrace,
And seek to fasten on that lovely face
Oft with his down-thrust arms he thought to fold
About that neck that still deludes his hold,
He gets no kisses from those coz'n'ng lips;
His arms grasp nothing; from himself he slips;
He knows not what he views, and yet pursues
His desp'rate love, and burns for what he views.
"Catch not so fondly at a fleeting shade,
And be no longer by yourself betray'd;
It borrows all it has from you alone,
And it can boast of nothing of its own:
With you it comes, with you it stays, and so
Would go away, had you the power to go."
Neither for sleep nor hunger would he move,
But gazing still augments his hopeless love;
Still o'er the spring lie keeps his bending head,
Still with that flatt'ring form his eyes lie fed,
And silently surveys the treacherous shade.
To the deaf woods at length his grief he vents,
And in these words the wretched youth laments:
Tell me, ye hills, and dales, and neighboring groves,
You that are conscious of so many loves;
Say, have you ever seen a lover pine
Like me, or ever knew a love like mine ?
I know not whence this sudden flame should come,
I like and see, but see I know not whom;
What grieves me more, no rocks, nor rolling seas,
Nor strong-wall'd cities, nor untrodden ways,
Only a slender silver stream destroys,
And casts the bar between our sundred joys;
E'en he too seems to feel an equal flame,
The same his passion, his desires the same;
As oft as I my longing lips incline
To join with his, his mouth to meet with mine.
So near our faces and our mouths approach,
That almost to ourselves we seem to touch.
Come forth, whoe'er thou art, and do not fly
From one so passionately fond as I;
I've nothing to deserve your just disdain,
But have been lov'd, as I love you, in vain.
Yet all the signs of mutual love you give,
And my poor hopes in all your actions live;
When in the stream our hands I strive to join,
Yours straight ascend, and half way grasp at mine.
You smile my smiles; when I a tear let fall,
You shed another, and consent in all;
And when I speak, your lovely lips appear
To utter something which I cannot hear.
Alas! 'tis I myself; too late I see,
My own deceitful shade has ruin'd me;
With a mad passion for myself I'm curs'd,
And bear about those flames I kindled first.
In so perplex'd a case, what can I do ?
Ask, or be ask'd? shall I be woo'd, or woo?
All that I wish, I have ; what would I more?
Ah ! 'tis my too great plenty makes me poor.
Divide me from myself, ye powers divine,
Nor let his being intermix with mine!
All that I love and wish for, now retake;
A strange request for one in love to make!
I feel my strength decay with inward grief,
And hope to lose my sorrows with my life;
Nor would I mourn my own untimely fate,
Were he I love allow'd a longer date:
This makes me at my cruel stars repine,
That his much dearer life must end with mine.'
This said, again he turns his wat'ry face,
And gazes wildly in the crystal glass,
While streaming tears from his full eye-lids fell,
And drop by drop rais'd circles in the well;
The several rings larger and larger spread,
And by degrees dispers'd the fleeting shade,
Which when perceiv'd, "Oh, whither would you go?
(He cries,) ah! whither, whither fly you now?
Stay, lovely shade, do not so cruel prove,
In leaving me, who to distraction love;
Let me still see what ne'er can be possess'd,
And with the sight alone my phrensy feast."
Now frantic with his grief, his robe he tears,
And tokens of his rage his bosom bears;
The cruel wounds on his pure body show,
Like crimson mingling with the whitest snow;
Like apples with vermilion-circle's stripe,
Or a fair bunch of grapes not fully ripe.
But when he looks and sees the wounds he made,
Writ on the bosom of the charming shade,
His sorrows would admit of no relief,
But all his sense was swallow'd in his grief.
As wax, near any kindled fuel plac'd, Melts,
and is sensibly perceiv'd to waste;
As morning frosts are found to thaw away,
When once the sun begins to warm the day;
So the fond youth dissolves in hopeless fires,
And by degrees consumes in vain desires.
His lovely cheeks now lost their white and red,
Diminish'd was his strength, his beauty fled;
His body from its just proportions fell,
Which the scorn'd Echo lately lov'd so well
Yet though her first resentments she retaind,
And still remember'd how she was disdain'd,
She sigh'd, and when the wretched lover cried,
"Alas! alas!" the woful nymph replied.
Then when, with cruel blows his hands would wound
His tender breast, she still restor'd the sound.
Now hanging o'er the spring his drooping head,
With a sad sigh these lying words lie said:
"Ah! boy, belov'd in vain!" through all the plain
Echo resounds, " Ah! boy, belov'd in vain!"
"Farewell," he cries, and with that word he died;
"Farewell!" the miserable nymph replied.
Now pale and breathless on the grass he lies,
For death had shut his self-admiring eyes;
Now wafted over to the Stygian coast,
The waters there reflect his wandering ghost;
In loud laments his weeping sisters mourn,
Which Echo makes the neighb'ring hills return.
All signs of desp'rate grief the nymphs express,
Great is the moan, yet is not Echo's less.

Charles Hopkins, ed.
This text is from: P. Ovidius Naso, History of Love. Cited Jan 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below.

Thespiades and their children

The 50 daughters of Thespius who slept with Heracles and their sons.
Procris, sons Antileon and Hippeus; Panope, son Threpsippas; Lyse, son Eumedes; .., son Creon; Epilais, son Astyanax; Certhe, son Iobes; Eurybia, son Polylaus; Patro, son Archemachus; Meline, son Laomedon; Clytippe, son Eurycapys; Eubote, son Eurypylus; Aglaia, son Antiades; Chryseis, son Onesippus; Oriahe, son Laomenes; Lysidice, son Teles; Menippis, son Entelides; Anthippe, son Hippodromus; Eury.., son Teleutagoras; Hippo, son Capylus; Euboea, son Olympus; Nice, son Nicodromus; Argele, son Cleolaus; Exole, son Erythras; Xanthis, son Homolippus; Stratonice, son Atromus; Iphis, son Celeustanor; Laothoe, son Antiphus; Antiope, son Alopius; Calametis, son Astybies; Phyleis, son Tigasis; Aeschreis, son Leucones; Anthea ... ; Eurypyle, son Archedicus; Erato, son Dynastes; Asopis, son Mentor; Eone, son Amestrius; Tiphyse, Lyncaeus; Olympusa, son Halocrates; Heliconis, son Phalias; Hesychia, son Oestrobles; Terpsicrate, son Euryopes; Elachia, son Buleus; Nicippe, son Antimachus; Pyrippehe, son Patroclus; Praxithea, son Nephus; Lysippe, son Erasippus; Toxicrate, son Lycurgus; Marse, son Bucolus; Eurytele, son Leucippus; Hippocrate, son Hippozygus.

Eponymous founders or settlers


Thespius (Thespios), a son of Erectheus, who, according to some, founded the town of Thespiae in Boeotia (Paus. ix. 26.4; Diod. iv. 29; comp. Schol. ad Hom. Il. ii. 948; Apollod. ii. 7.8). His descendants are called Thespiades (Apollod. ii. 4.10; Senec. Herc. Oet. 369), which name is also given to the Muses (Ov. Met. v. 310.).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Descendant of Erechtheus, king of Thespiae, his fifty daughters have intercourse with Herakles, purifies Herakles, Herakles instructs him as to his sons, sons of Herakles by the daughters of.



ASKRA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Oeoclus Oioklos), a son of Poseidon by Ascra, who in conjunction with the Aloadae, is said to have built the town of Ascra in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 29.1)

Gods & demigods

Eros (Love) & Psyche (Soul)

THESPIES (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Of the gods the Thespians have from the beginning honored Love most, and they have a very ancient image of him, an unwrought stone. Who established among the Thespians the custom of worshipping Love more than any other god I do not know (Paus. 9.27.1).

Eros, in Latin Amor, the god of love. In the sense in which he is usually conceived, Eros is the creature of the later Greek poets; and in order to understand the ancients properly we must distinguish three Erotes: viz. the Eros of the ancient cosmogonies, the Eros of the philosophers and mysteries, who bears great resemblance to the first, and the Eros whom we meet with in the epigrammatic and erotic poets, whose witty and playful descriptions of the god, however, can scarcely be considered as a part of the ancient religious belief of the Greeks. Homer does not mention Eros, and Hesiod, the earliest author that mentions him, describes him as the cosmogonic Eros. First, says Hesiod (Theog. 120,), there was Chaos, then came Ge, Tartarus, and Eros, the fairest among the gods, who rules over the minds and the council of gods and men. In this account we already perceive a combination of the most ancient with later notions. According to the former, Eros was one of the fundamental causes in the formation of the world, inasmuch as he was the uniting power of love, which brought order and harmony among the conflicting elements of which Chaos consisted. In the same metaphysical sense he is conceived by Aristotle (Metaph. i. 4) and similarly in the Orphic poetry (Orph. Hymn. 5; comp. Aristoph. Av. 695) he is described as the first of the gods, who sprang from the world's egg. In Plato's Symposium he is likewise called the oldest of the gods. It is quite in accordance with the notion of the cosmogonic Eros, that he is described as a son of Cronos and Ge, of Eileithyia, or as a god who had no parentage, and came into existence by himself (Paus. ix. c. 27). The Eros of later poets, on the other hand, who gave rise to that notion of the god which is most familiar to us, is one of the youngest of all the gods (Paus. l. c. ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23). The parentage of the second Eros is very differently described, for he is called a son of Aphrodite (either Aphrodite Urania or Aphrodite Pandemos), or Polymnia, or a son of Porus and Penia, who was begotten on Aphrodite's birthday (Plat. l. c. ; Sext. Emp. adv. Math. i. 540). According to other genealogies, again, Eros was a son of Hermes by Artemis or Aphrodite, or of Ares by Aphrodite (Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 23), or of Zephyrus and Iris (Plut. Amal. 20; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 555), or, lastly, a son of Zeus by his own daughter Aphrodite, so that Zeus was at once his father and grandfather (Virg. Cir. 134). Eros in this stage is always conceived and was always represented as a handsome youth, and it is not till about after the time of Alexander the Great that Eros is represented by the epigrammatists and the erotic poets as a wanton boy, of whom a thousand tricks and cruel sports are related, and from whom neither gods nor men were safe. He is generally described as a son of Aphrodite; but as love finds its way into the hearts of men in a manner which no one knows, the poets sometimes describe him as of unknown origin (Theocrit. xiii. 2), or they say that he had indeed a mother, but not a father (Meleagr. Epigr. 50). In this stage Eros has nothing to do with uniting the discordant elements of the universe, or the higher sympathy or love which binds human kind together; but he is purely the god of sensual love, who bears sway over the inhabitants of Olympus as well as over men and all living creatures: he tames lions and tigers, breaks the thunderbolts of Zeus, deprives Heracles of his arms, and carries on his sport with the monsters of the sea (Orph. Hymn. 57 ; Virg. Eclog. x. 29; Mosch. Idyll. vi. 10; Theocrit. iii. 15). His arms, consisting of arrows, which he carries in a golden quiver, and of torches, no one can touch with impunity (Mosch. Idyll. vi.; Theocrit. xxiii. 4; Ov. Trist. v. 1, 22). His arrows are of different power: some are golden, and kindle love in the heart they wound; others are blunt and heavy with lead, and produce aversion to a lover (Ov. Met. i. 468; Eurip. Iphig. Aul. 548). Eros is further represented with golden wings, and as fluttering about like a bird (Comp. Eustath. ad Hom. p. 987). His eyes are sometimes covered, so that he acts blindly (Theocrit. x. 20). He is the usual companion of his mother Aphrodite, and poets and artists represent him, moreover, as accompanied by such allegorical beings as Pothos, Himeros, Dionysus, Tyche, Peitho, the Charites or Muses (Pind. Ol. i. 41; Anacr. xxxiii. 8; Hesiod, Theog. 201; Paus. vi. 24.5, vii. 26.3, i. 43.6). His statue and that of Hermes usually stood in the Greek gymnasia (Athen. xiii. p. 551; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1596).
  We must especially notice the connexion of Eros with Anteros, with which persons usually connect the notion of "Love returned". But originally Anteros was a being opposed to Eros, and fighting against him (Paus. i. 30.1, vi. 23.4). This conflict, however, was also conceived as the rivalry existing between two lovers, and Anteros accordingly punished those who did not return the love of others; so that he is the avenging Eros, or a deus ultor (Paus. i. 30.1; Ov. Met. xiii. 750; Plat. Phaedr.). The number of Erotes (Amores and Cupidines) is playfully extended ad libitum by later poets, and these Erotes are described either as sons of Aphrodite or of nymphs. Among the places distinguished for their worship of Eros, Thespiae in Boeotia stands foremost: there his worship was very ancient, and the old representation of the god was a rude stone (Paus. ix. 27.1), to which in later times, however, the most exquisite works of art were added (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 266). At Thespiae a quinquennial festival, the Erotidia or Erotia, were celebrated in honour of the god (Paus. l. c.; Athen. xiii. p. 561). Besides Sparta, Samos, and Parion on the Hellespont, he was also worshipped at Athens, where he had an altar at the entrance of the Academy (Paus. i. 30.1). At Megara his statue, together with those of I imeros and Pothos, stood in the temple of Aphrodite (Paus. i. 43.6, comp. iii. 26.3, vi. 24.5, vii. 26.3). Among the things sacred to Eros, and which frequently appear with him in works of art, we may mention the rose, wild beasts which are tamed by him, the hare, the cock, and the ram. Eros was a favourite subject with the ancient statuaries, but his representation seems to have been brought to perfection by Praxiteles, who conceived him as a full-grown youth of the most perfect beauty (Lucian, Am. ii. 17; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 5). In later times artists followed the example of poets, and represented him as a little boy.Respecting the connexion between Eros and Psyche, see below Psyche.

Psyche (Psuche), that is, "breath" or "the soul", occurs in the later times of antiquity, as a personification of the human soul, and Apuleius (Met. iv. 28), relates about her the following beautiful allegoric story. Psyche was the youngest of the three daughters of some king, and excited by her beauty the jealousy and envy of Venus. In order to avenge herself, the goddess ordered Amor to inspire Psyche with a love for the most contemptible of all men: but Amor was so stricken with her beauty that he himself fell in love with her. He accordingly conveyed her to some charming place, where he, unseen and unknown, visited her every night, and left her as soon as the day began to dawn. Psyche might have continued to have enjoyed without interruption this state of happiness, if she had attended to the advice of her beloved, never to give way to her curiosity, or to inquire who he was. But her jealous sisters made her believe that in the darkness of night she was embracing some hideous monster, and accordingly once, while Amor was asleep, she approached him with a lamp, and, to her amazement, she beheld the most handsome and lovely of the gods. In her excitement of joy and fear, a drop of hot oil fell from her lamp upon his shoulder. This awoke Amor, who censured her for her mistrust, and escaped. Psyche's peace was now gone all at once, and after having attempted in vain to throw herself into a river, she wandered about from temple to temple, inquiring after her beloved, and at length came to the palace of Venus. There her real sufferings began, for Venus retained her, treated her as a slave, and inmposed upon her the hardest and most humiliating labours. Psyche would have perished under the weight of her sufferings, had not Amor, who still loved her in secret, invisibly comforted and assisted her in her labours. With his aid she at last succeeded in overcoming the jealousy and hatred of Venus; she became immortal, and was united with him for ever. It is not difficult to recognise in this lovely story the idea of which it is merely the mythical embodiment, for Psyche is evidently the human soul, which is purified by passions and misfortunes, and is thus prepared for the enjoyment of true and pure happiness.In works of art Psyche is represented as a maiden with the wings of a butterfly, along with Amor in the different situations described in the allegoric story.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Eros. The god of love among the Greeks. His name does not occur in Homer; but in Hesiod (Theog. 120 foll.) he is the fairest of the deities, who subdues the hearts of both gods and men. He is born from Chaos at the same time as the Earth and Tartarus, and is the comrade of Aphrodite from the moment of her birth. Hesiod conceives Eros not merely as the god of sensual love, but as a power which forms the world by inner union of the separated elements--an idea very prevalent in antiquity, especially among the philosophers. According to the later and commoner notion, Eros was the youngest of the gods, generally the son of Aphrodite by Ares or Hermes, always a child, thoughtless and capricious. He is as irresistible as fair, and has no pity even for his own mother. Zeus, the father of gods and men, arms him with golden wings, and with bow and unerring arrows, or burning torches. Anteros, the god of mutual love, is his brother, and his companions are Pothos and Himeros, the personifications of longing and desire, with Peitho (Persuasion), the Muses, and the Graces. In later times he is surrounded by a crowd of similar beings, Erotes or Loves.
  One of the chief and oldest seats of his worship was Thespiae in Boeotia. Here was his most ancient image, a rough, unhewn stone. His festival, the Erotia or Erotidia, continued till the time of the Roman Empire to be celebrated every fifth year with much ceremony, accompanied by gymnastic and musical contests. Besides this he received special honour and worship in the gymnasia, where his statue generally stood near those of Hermes and Heracles. In the gymnasia, Eros was the personification of devoted friendship and love between youths and men; the friendship which proved itself active and helpful in battle and bold adventure. This was the reason why the Spartans and Cretans sacrificed to Eros before a battle, and the sacred band of youths at Thebes was dedicated to him; why a festival of freedom (Eleutheria) was held at Samos in his honour, as the god who bound men and youths together in the struggle for honour and freedom; and why at Athens he was worshipped as the liberator of the city, in memory of Harmodius and Aristogiton. In works of art Eros was usually represented as a beautiful boy, close upon the age of youth. In later times he also appears as a child with the attributes of a bow and arrows, or burning torches, and in a great variety of situations. The most celebrated statues of this god were by Lysippus, Scopas, and Praxiteles whose Eros at Thespiae was regarded as a masterpiece, and unsurpassable. The famous torso in the Vatican, in which the god wears a dreamy, lovelorn air, is popularly, but probably erroneously, traced to an original by Praxiteles. The Eros trying his bow, in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, is supposed to be the copy of a work by Lysippus. The Roman god Amor or Cupido was a mere adaptation of the Greek Eros, and was never held in great esteem. Anteros was the brother of Eros and punished those who did not requite the love of others (Ovid, Met.xiii. 750).

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Jan 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Eros. There are two versions of Eros's character and origin, the first making him the oldest deity as the son of Chaos. It was Eros's creative powers that made order emanate out of Chaos, making the creation of Earth possible.
  The more popular, and later, version of Eros as that of a winged baby or youth shooting arrows into people's and god's hearts, making them fall in love. This is the best known image of him, and it is often believed that it was Eros that stood model for the christian cherubs.
  Aphrodite was his mother and the difference between the two is traditionally that Eros symbolized the crazed, many times blind love, and Aphrodite more of a deep love but also sexual lust.
  One of the most famous stories of Eros is the one about the young princess Psyche, but it is a late story told by Apuleius in the second century AD, often called the last great myth of antiquity.
  The word “erotic” is derived of Eros's name, and in Roman mythology he was called Cupid or Amor.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.





Evippus. A son of Megareus, who was killed by the Cithaeronean lion. (Paus. i. 41.4)

Historic figures


ASKRA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Mother of Oeoclus by Poseidon


Son of Poseidon.


THESPIES (Ancient city) VIOTIA
Thespeia, a daughter of Asopus , from whom the town of Thespiae in Boeotia derived its name. (Paus. ix. 26.4)


Pothos (Longing)

Pothos, a personification of love or desire, was represented along with Eros and Himeros, in the temple of Aphrodite at Megara, by the hand of Scopas (Paus. i. 43.6; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 7).

Himeros (Desire)

Himeros, the personification of longing love, is first mentioned by Hesiod (Theog. 201), where he and Eros appear as the companions of Aphrodite. He is sometimes seen in works of art representing erotic circles; and in the temple of Aphrodite at Megara, he was represented by Scopas, together with Eros and Pothus (Paus. i. 43. Β§ 6).

Anteros (Love Avenged)

The god of requited love, and brother of Eros

Persons related to the place


Iolaus himself died at Sardis along with the Athenians and Thespians who made the crossing with him is admitted even by the Thebans. The army of Iolaus, consisting of Thespians and men from Attica, which put in at Sardinia and founded Olbia.


The sons of Aloeus held that the Muses were three in number, and gave them the names of Melete (Practice), Mneme (Memory) and Aoede (Song). [3] But they say that afterwards Pierus, a Macedonian, after whom the mountain in Macedonia was named, came to Thespiae and established nine Muses, changing their names to the present ones. Pierus was of this opinion either because it seemed to him wiser, or because an oracle so ordered, or having so learned from one of the Thracians.

The inhabitants founded the cities:

Olbia, Sardinia

Iolaus of Thebes, the nephew of Heracles, led the Athenians and Thespians to Sardinia. A fourth component part of the population was the army of Iolaus, consisting of Thespians and men from Attica, which put in at Sardinia and founded Olbia; by themselves the Athenians founded Ogryle, either in commemoration of one of their parishes in the home land, or else because one Ogrylus himself took part in the expedition.

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Ferry Departures