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Listed 100 (total found 109) sub titles with search on: Mythology for destination: "THIVES Ancient city VIOTIA".


Mythology (109)

Aboriginals

Ogygus, Ogygean gates

An aboriginal, king of the Ectenians, father of Alalcomenia and of Eleusis. Epithet of Thebes, gate of Thebes.


Ogyges (Oguges) or Ogygus. Son of Boeotus, and the first ruler of Thebes, which was called after him Ogygia. In his reign a great deluge is said to have occurred. The name of Ogyges is also connected with Attic story, for in Attica an Ogygian flood is likewise mentioned. He was said to be the father of the Athenian hero Eleusis. From Ogyges the Thebans are called by the poets Ogygidae, and Ogygius is used in the sense of Theban.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Historic figures

Thebe

Legendary daughter of Asopus and sister of Aegina, embraced by Zeus, wife of Zethus, gives her name to Thebes.


Gods & demigods

Dionysus Amphietes

Amphietes or Amphieterus, a surname of Dionysus. (Orph. Hymn. 52. 1, 51. 10.) It is believed that at Athens, where the Dionysiac festivals were held annually, the name signified yearly, while at Thebes, where they were celebrated every third year, it was interpretated to be synonymous with trietes.


Aphrodite Apotrophia

Apotrophia, "the expeller", a surname of Aphrodite, under which she was worshipped at Thebes, and which described her as the goddess who expelled from the hearts of men the desire after sinful pleasure and lust. Her worship under this name was believed to have been instituted by Harmonia, together with that of Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos, and the antiquity of her statues confirmed this belief. (Paus. ix. 16.2)


Apollo Ismenius

Ismenius. A surname of Apollo at Thebes, who had a temple on the river Ismenus. (Paus. ii. 10. Β 4, iv. 27. Β 4, ix. 10. Β 2, 5.) The sanctuary of the god, at which the Daphnephoria was celebrated, bore the name of Ismenium, and was situated outside the city.


Mythical monsters

The Sphinx

(Sphinx, "the throttler"). A monster borrowed from Egyptian religion and symbolism, originally represented with the body of a winged lion and the breast and head of a human being, and subsequently in still more wonderful forms, as a man or woman with the breast, feet, and claws of a lion, the tail of a serpent, and the wings of a bird; or as a lion in front and a human being behind, with vulture's claws and eagle's wings. The Egyptian sphinxes are oftener male rather than female, and the Great Sphinx was intended to represent the god Hor-em khu or Horus. It is older than the Fourth Dynasty, which began about B.C. 3700. According to Hesiod, Sphinx was the daughter of the Chimaera and Orthrus; according to others, of Echidna and Typhon. Here (or, according to others, Ares or Dionysus), in anger at the crimes of Laius, sent her to Thebes from Ethiopia. She took up her abode on a rock near the city and gave every passer-by the well-known riddle, "What walks on four legs in the morning, on two at noon, and on three in the evening?" She flung from the rock all who could not answer it. When Oedipus explained the riddle rightly, as referring to man in the successive stages of infancy, the prime of life, and old age, she flung herself down from the rock.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Nymphs

Chariclo

Chariclo, a nymph, the wife of Eueres and mother of Teiresias. It was at her request that Teiresias, who had been blinded by Athena, obtained from this goddess the power to understand the voices of the birds, and to walk with his black staff as safely as if he saw. (Apollod. iii. 6.7; Callim. Hymn. in Pall. 67, &c.)


Ancient tribes

Ectenians

First inhabitants of land of Thebes.


Hyantians, Hyantes

Boeotian tribe, defeated by Cadmus, flee from Thebes and found Hyampolis.


Aonians, Aones

Boeotian tribe, defeated by Cadmus.


(Aones). An ancient Boeotian race, said to have been so called from Aon, son of Poseidon. Hence the poets frequently use Aonia as equivalent to Boeotia. As Mount Helicon and the fountain Aganippe were in Aonia, the Muses are called Aonides or Aoniae.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Ancient myths

Heracles & Megara

Megara, Hercules' First Wife
After defeating the Minyans at Orchomenos, King Creon offered his eldest daughter, Megara, to Hercules as a bride in reward for his prowess in battle. Together, Hercules and Megara had anywhere between three and eight children. Although many different versions of Hercules' doomed marriage to Megara survive, Euripides' Heracles is the most popular account. There still remains much debate surrounding the sequencing of events.
According to Euripides, when Hercules returned home from his trip to the underworld to fetch Cerberus, he found Greece in chaos. During his absence, Lycus had come to Eubea to overthrow Creon and murdered him. At the precise moment of Hercules' return, Lycus was about to murder Megara and their children. Hercules rushed to the defense of his family and slew Lycus with an arrow. Just as Hercules was about to sacrifice to Zeus, however, Hera interfered, causing Hercules to fall into a state of delusion and rage. Hercules shot their children with his arrows, believing them to be Eurystheus' sons and not his own. (Although Apollodoros reports that Megara escaped and married Iolaus, Euripides reports that Hercules shot Megara too.) As Hercules was about to kill his own adopted father, Amphitryton, thinking him to be Eurystheus' father Sthenelus, Athena intervened and pelted Hercules on the chest with a rock, knocking him out cold and sending him into a deep sleep. Once Hercules awoke and realized what he had done, he was horrified by his actions and wanted to commit suicide. Luckily his friend Theseus was there to calm him down, eventually convincing Hercules to go into exile.
Traditionally, Hercules' momentary insanity is explained by Hera's desire to make Hercules commit a crime that would require atonement. Some versions say that following the murders, Hercules traveled to Delphi, and was instructed by the oracle to go to Tiryns and to serve Eurystheus for twelve years and perform any tasks that he might ask of him. If Hercules would complete these tasks and serve his sentence to Eurystheus in full, Hercules would be made immortal. The tasks that followed were to be known later as the labors of Hercules.

This text is cited July 2004 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Megara

Megara. Daughter of Creon of Thebes, married to Herakles, Herakles burns the children he had by her, given by him to Iolaus, her sons by Herakles.


Pentheus & Agave

Son of Echion and Agave, king of Thebes, tries to stop the Bacchic orgies, insults Dionysus and is torn to pieces by Bacchanals and his mother on Mt. Cithaeron.


Pentheus. The son of Echion by Agave, daughter of Cadmus. He was the successor of Cadmus as king of Thebes, and on the introduction of the Bacchic worship resisted it. It is said that Pentheus concealed himself in a tree in order to witness secretly the orgies of the Bacchanals, and on being discovered by them was taken for a wild beast, and torn in pieces by his own mother and his two sisters, Ino and Autonoe, in their Bacchic frenzy. The scene of this occurrence was said to be Mount Cithaeron or Mount Parnassus. The story forms the subject of the Bacchae of Euripides. The Corinthians had a tradition that the tree in which Pentheus hid was afterwards carved into images of the god Dionysus and worshipped (Pausan. ii. 6, 6). Hence some have tried to connect the story of Pentheus with the primitive tree-worship.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Agave. The daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. Her sisters were Autonoe, Ino and Semele, and she also had a brother: Polydoros. She was married to Echion, who was one of the Sparti who had been born out of the dragon's teeth that Cadmus had sown when founding Thebes. Together with Echion she had a son: Pentheus.
  When Semele was killed after she had gotten pregnant with Zeus, Agave and her sisters spread the rumour that their sister had been promiscuous. They said that Semele had been so ashamed of being pregnant that she said that she had slept with a god. Therefore, the sisters said, she got what she deserved.
  Semele's child, Dionysus, had been saved, and Agave and her sisters were to become his followers. Pentheus, who was curious to see what his sisters were up to in the forests, hid in a tree one day and spied on them. When they discovered him they tore him to pieces, but were forced to worship the tree afterwards.
  Agave was later to go with her father to Illyria where she married the king Lycotherses. She later killed him so that her father could take the throne.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the In2Greece URL below.


Agave (Agaue). A daughter of Cadmus, and wife of the Spartan Echion, by whom she became the mother of Pentheus, who succeeded his grandfather Cadmus as king of Thebes. Agave was the sister of Autonoe, Ino, and Semele (Apollod. iii.4.2), and when Semele, during her pregnancy with Dionysus, was destroyed by the sight of the splendour of Zeus, her sisters spread the report that she had only endeavoured to conceal her guilt, by pretending that Zeus was the father of her child, and that her destruction was a just punishment for her falsehood. This calumny was afterwards most severely avenged upon Agave. For, after Dionysus, the son of Semele, had traversed the world, he came to Thebes and compelled the women to celebrate his Dionysiac festivals on mount Cithaeron. Pentheus wishing to prevent [p. 67] or stop these riotous proceedings, went himself to mount Cithaeron, but was torn to pieces there by his own mother Agave, who in her frenzy believed him to be a wild beast (Apollod. iii. 5.2; Ov. Met. iii. 725). Hyginus (Fab. 240, 254) makes Agave, after this deed, go to Illyria and marry king Lycotherses, whom however she afterwards killed in order to gain his kingdom for her father Cadmus. This account is manifestly transplaced by Hyginus, and must have belonged to an earlier part of the story of Agave.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


---Perseus Project


Echion

Echion, one of the Sparti, son-in-law of Cadmus, father of Pentheus, husband of Agave. Agave; daughter of Cadmus, wife of Echion, kills her son Pentheus in a fit of Bacchic frenzy


Echion, one of the five surviving Spartae that had grown up from the dragon's teeth, which Cadmus had sown. (Apollod. iii. 4.1; Hygin. Fab. 178; Ov. Met. iii. 126.) He was married to Agave, by whom he became the father of Pentheus. (Apollod. iii. 5.2.) He is said to have dedicated a temple of Cybele in Boeotia, and to have assisted Cadmus in the building of Thebes. (Ov. Met. x. 68.6.)


The Bacchantes (Bacchae)

Editor’s Information:
The plot of "The Bacchantes", the tragedy written by Euripides, of which the e-text(s) is (are) found in Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings , is taking place in Thebes.


Sparti (spartoi, "the men sown"). The men in full armour who sprang up from the teeth of the dragon of Ares when sown by Cadmus. On their birth they immediately fought with one another, till only five remained. The survivors helped Cadmus to found Thebes, and were the ancestors of the Theban nobility.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The seven gates of the town

Their names were: Electridian, Proetidian, Neistan, Creanean, Hypsistan, Ogygian, Homoloid. The fable has it that the walls of the town were built by the sounds of the seven-string lyre of Amphion.


In the circuit of the ancient wall of Thebes were gates seven in number, and these remain to-day. One got its name, I learned, from Electra, the sister of Cadmus, and another, the Proetidian, from a native of Thebes. He was Proetus, but I found it difficult to discover his date and lineage. The Neistan gate, they say, got its name for the following reason. The last of the harp's strings they call nete, and Amphion invented it, they say, at this gate. I have also heard that the son of Zethus, the brother of Amphion, was named Neis, and that after him was this gate called. The Crenaean gate and the Hypsistan they so name for the following reason. . . and by the Hypsistan is a sanctuary of Zeus surnamed Hypsistus (Most High ). Next after these gates is the one called Ogygian, and lastly the Homoloid gate. It appeared to me too that the name of the last was the most recent, and that of the Ogygian the most ancient. The name Homoloid is derived, they say, from the following circumstance. When the Thebans were beaten in battle by the Argives near Glisas, most of them withdrew along with Laodamas, the son of Eteocles. A portion of them shrank from the journey to Illyria, and turning aside to Thessaly they seized Homole, the most fertile and best-watered of the Thessalian mountains. When they were recalled to their homes by Thersander, the son of Polyneices, they called the gate, through which they passed on their return, the Homoloid gate after Homole. (Paus. 9.8.4)

This extract is from: Pausanias. Description of Greece (ed. W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., & H.A. Ormerod, 1918). Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


The fable of Niobe

Daughter of Tantalus, wife of Amphion, her sons and daughters, boasts herself happier than Latona, children of Niobe slain by Apollo and Artemis, but two of them survive, goes to her father at Sipylus and is turned to stone, story of Niobe connected with Mt. Sipylus, her figure in the rock on Mt. Sipylus, sheds tears in summer.


Niobe. The daughter of Tantalus and Dione. She was the sister of Pelops and wife of Amphion of Thebes. Like her father, she stood in close connection with the gods, especially with Leto, the wife of Zeus, and fell into misfortune by her own arrogance. In her maternal pride for her numerous progeny of six sons and six daughters, the ill-fated woman ventured to compare herself to Leto, who had only two children. To punish this presumption Apollo and Artemis slew with their arrows all Niobe's children in their parents' palace. For nine days they lay in their blood without any one to bury them, for Zeus had changed all people into stone. On the tenth day the gods buried them. Niobe, who was changed to stone on the lonely hills of Sipylus, could not, even in this form, forget her sorrow. So runs Homer's account (Il. xxiv. 612), in which we have the earliest reference to "a colossal relief roughly carved on the rocks" of Mount Sipylus, in Lydia, the face of which is washed by a stream in such a manner that it appears to be weeping (cf. Jebb on Soph. Antig. 831). Pausanias (i. 21, 5) declares that he saw this relief which modern archaeologists now regard as referable to the art of the Hittites.
   The accounts of later writers vary greatly in respect of the number of the daughters of Niobe and of the scene of her death. Sometimes the spot where the disaster occurs is Lydia, sometimes Thebes, where, moreover, the grave of Niobe's children was pointed out; the sons perish in the chase, or on the race-course, while the daughters die in the royal palace at Thebes, or at the Niobe. This story describes Niobe as returning from Thebes to her home on Sipylus, and as there changed into a stone by Zeus, at her own entreaty. The fate of Niobe was often, in ancient times, the theme both of poetry and of art. The group of the children of Niobe, discovered at Rome, near the Lateran Church, in 1583, and now (since 1775) at Florence, is well known; it is probably the Roman copy of a Greek work which stood in Pliny's time in a temple of Apollo at Rome, and with regard to which it was a mooted point with the ancients whether it was from the hand of Scopas or of Praxiteles (Pliny, H. N. xxxvi. 28).

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The children of Amphion & Niobe

1. Amphion, son of Amphion and Niobe, survives his brothers. 2. Amyclas, son of Amphion and Niobe, survives his brothers. 3. Meliboea, daughter of Amphion and Niobe, survives her sisters, her name changed to Chloris.


Ilioneus

Ilioneus, a son of Amphion and Niobe, whom Apollo would have liked to save, because he was praying; but the arrow was no longer under the control of the god. (Ov. Met. vi. 261)


Androclea & Aleis

Daughters of Antipoenus. For when Heracles and the Thebans were about to engage in battle with the Orchomenians, an oracle was delivered to them that success in the war would be theirs if their citizen of the most noble descent would consent to die by his own hand. Now Antipoenus, who had the most famous ancestors, was loath to die for the people, but his daughters were quite ready to do so. So they took their own lives and are honored therefor.


Echion. One of the heroes who sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. He was the husband of Agave and father of Pentheus, who is hence called Echionides.

Agave (Agaue). Daughter of Cadmus and wife of Echion. She, with other women, in a bacchanalian frenzy, tore to pieces her own son Pentheus

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Melia & Caanthus

Higher up than the Ismenian sanctuary you may see the fountain which they say is sacred to Ares, and they add that a dragon was posted by Ares as a sentry over the spring. By this fountain is the grave of Caanthus. They say that he was brother to Melia and son to Ocean, and that he was commissioned by his father to seek his sister, who had been carried away. Finding that Apollo had Melia, and being unable to get her from him, he dared to set fire to the precinct of Apollo that is now called the Ismenian sanctuary. The god, according to the Thebans, shot him. Here then is the tomb of Caanthus. They say that Apollo had sons by Melia, to wit, Tenerus and Ismenus. To Tenerus Apollo gave the art of divination, and from Ismenus the river got its name. Not that the river was nameless before, if indeed it was called Ladon before Ismenus was born to Apollo.


Caanthus (Kaanthos), a son of Oceanus and brother of Melia. He was sent out by his father in search of his sister who had been carried off, and when he found that she was in the possession of Apollo, and that it was impossible to rescue her from his hands, he threw fire into the sacred grove of Apollo, called the Ismenium. The god then killed Caanthus with an arrow. His tomb was shewn by the Thebans on the spot where he had been killed, near the river Ismenius. (Paus. ix. 10.5)


Historis & Pharmacides

Here are portraits of women in relief, but the figures are by this time rather indistinct. The Thebans call them Witches, adding that they were sent by Hera to hinder the birth-pangs of Alcmena. So these kept Alcmena from bringing forth her child. But Historis, the daughter of Teiresias, thought of a trick to deceive the Witches, and she uttered a loud cry of joy in their hearing, that Alcmena had been delivered. So the story goes that the Witches were deceived and went away, and Alcmena brought forth her child.


Historis, a daughter of Teiresias, and engaged in the service of Alcmene. By her cry that Alcmene had already given birth, she induced the Pharmacides to withdraw, and thus enabled her mistress to give birth to Heracles. (Paus. ix. 11. 3.) Some attribute this friendly act to Galinthias, the daughter of Proetus of Thebes.


Myths of Thebes

From Apollodorus LIBRARY Book III (and epitome). Translated by J. G. Frazer, 1921


Myths variations

Children of Oedipus by Jocasta

Old fables mention two children, Phrastor and Laonytus, who were both killed during the mythic war between Thebans and Orchomenians.


Children of Oedipus by Jocasta (tragedies)

Eteocles and Polynices, who were both killed in a single combat at the epic Seven against Thebes.


Children of Oedipus by Euryganea

(Paus. 9,5,11).


Epic poems

Oedipodia

(Paus. 9,5,11).


Seven Against Thebes


Editor’s Information:
The plot of "The Seven Against Thebes" a tragedy written by Aeschylus, of which the e-text(s) is (are) found in Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings , is taking place at Thebes.


Seven Against Thebes: Various WebPages


Leades

Leades, a son of Astacus, who, according to Apollodorus (iii. 6.8), fought in the defence of Thebes against the Seven, and slew Eteocles; but Aeschylus (Sept. 474) represents Megareus as the person who killed Eteocles.


Epigoni

A poem attributed by some to Homer, reference therein to Hyperboreans, their war on Thebes, march against Thebes, capture Thebes, hold Nemean games, their graves, statues of E. at Delphi.


Epigoni (Epigonoi, "descendants").The sons of the Grecian heroes who were killed in the First Theban War. The War of the Epigoni is famous in ancient history. It was undertaken ten years after the first. The sons of those who had perished in the first war resolved to avenge the death of their fathers. The god, when consulted, promised them victory if led by Alcmaeon, the son of Amphiaraus. Alcmaeon accordingly took the command. Another account, however, given by Pausanias (ix. 9, 2), makes Thersander, son of Polynices, to have been at the head of the expedition. The other leaders were Amphilochus, brother of Alcmaeon; Aegialeus, son of Adrastus; Diomedes, of Tydeus; Promachus, of Parthenopaeus; Sthenelus, of Capaneus; and Eurypylus, of Mecisteus. The Argives were assisted by the Messenians, Arcadians, Corinthians, and Megarians. The Thebans obtained aid from the neighbouring States. The invaders ravaged the villages about Thebes. A battle ensued, in which Laodamas, the son of Eteocles, slew Aegialeus, and fell himself by the spear of Alcmaeon. The Thebans then fled; and, by the advice of Tiresias, they secretly left their city, which was entered and plundered by the Argives, and Thersander was placed on the throne. With the exception of the events of the Trojan War and the return of the Greeks, nothing was so closely connected with the Iliad and Odyssey as the War of the Argives against Thebes, since many of the principal heroes of Greece, particularly Diomedes and Sthenelus, were themselves among the conquerors of Thebes, and their fathers before them, a bolder and wilder race, had fought on the same spot, in a contest which, although unattended with victory, was still far from inglorious. Hence, also, reputed Homeric poems on the subject of this war were extant, which perhaps really bore a great affinity to the Homeric time and school. The second part of the Thebais, which related to the exploits of the Epigoni, was, according to Pausanias (ix. 9, 2), ascribed by some to Homer himself. The Epigoni was still commonly ascribed to Homer in the time of Herodotus

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Epigoni (Epigonoi), that is, the heirs or descendants. By this name ancient mythology understands the sons of the seven heroes who had undertaken an expedition against Thebes, and had perished there. Ten years after that catastrophe, the descendants of the seven heroes went against Thebes to avenge their fathers, and this war is called the war of the Epigoni. According to some traditions, this war was undertaken at the request of Adrastus, the only surviver of the seven heroes. The names of the Epigoni are not the same in all accounts (Apollod. iii. 7.2, &c.; Diod. iv. 66; Paus. x. 10.2; Hygin. Fab. 71); but the common lists contain Alemaeon, Aegialeus, Diomedes, Promachus, Sthenelus, Thersander, and Euryalus. Alcmaeon undertook the command, in accordance with an oracle, and collected a considerable band of Argives. The Thebans marched out against the enemy, under the command of Laodamas, after whose fall they took to flight to protect themselves within their city. On the part of the Epigoni, Aegialeus had fallen. The seer Teiresias, however, induced the Thebans to quit their town, and take their wives and children with them, while they sent ambassadors to the enemy to sue for peace. The Argives, however, took possession of Thebes, and razed it to the ground. The Epigoni sent a portion of the booty and Manto, the daughter of Teiresias, to Delphi, and then returned to Peloponnesus. The war of the Epigoni was made the subject of epic and tragic poems (Paus. ix. 9. 3). The statues of the seven Epigoni were dedicated at Delphi (Paus. x. 10.2).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Kings

Polydorus & Nycteis

Polydorus; son of Cadmus and Harmonia, king of Thebes, marries Nycteis, father of Labdacus, makes log into image of Dionysus Cadmus. Nycteis; daughter of Nycteus, wife of Polydorus, mother of Labdacus.


Polydorus: Perseus Project index.


Nycteus

Son of Chthonius, father of Nycteis, brother of Lycus, banished for murder, settles at Hyria, comes to Thebes, regent of Thebes for Labdacus, father of Antiope, marches against Aegialea to recover Antiope, but is defeated and slain, threatens his daughter Antiope, and kills himself, father of Callisto, according to Asius.


Nycteus (Nukteus). Son of Hyrieus and Clonia and father of Antiope, who is hence called Nycteis. Antiope was carried off by Epopeus, king of Sicyon; whereupon Nycteus, who governed Thebes, as the guardian of Labdacus, invaded Sicyon with a Theban army. Nycteus was defeated, and died of his wounds, leaving his brother Lycus guardian of Labdacus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Lycus & Dirce

Lycus; son of Hyrieus, brother of Nycteus, banished for murder, settles at Hyria, comes to Thebes and usurps the kingdom, regent of Thebes for Labdacus and Laius, charged by Nycteus to recover Antiope, captures Sicyon and recovers Antiope, illtreats Antiope, and is killed by her sons Amphion and Zethus. Dirce; illtreats Antiope, honours Dionysus, is tied by Antiope's sons to a bull, her body thrown into a spring, which is called Dirce after her.


Lycus (Lukos). Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno, married to Dirce. He assumed the government of Thebes after his brother Nycteus, for Labdacus, who was a minor; and, after the death of Labdacus, for his son Laius. He was either killed by Amphion and Zethus, or (according to another account) handed the government of Thebes over to them at the behest of Hermes.

Dirce (Dirke). The wife of Lycus, who married her after divorcing his former wife Antiope. Dirce treated Antiope with great cruelty; and accordingly, when Amphion and Zethus, the sons of Antiope by Zeus, obtained possession of Thebes, they took a signal vengeance upon Dirce. They tied her to a wild bull, which dragged her about till she perished. They then threw her body into a fountain near Thebes, which was henceforth called the fountain of Dirce. The adjective Dircaeus is frequently used as equivalent to Boeoticus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Labdacus

Son of Polydorus father of Laius.


Labdacus (Labdakos). A son of Polydorus by Nycteis, the daughter of Nycteus, king of Thebes. His father and mother died during his childhood, and he was left to the care of Nycteus, who, at his death, left his kingdom in the hands of Lycus, with orders to restore it to Labdacus as soon as of age. On succeeding to the throne, Labdacus, like Pentheus, opposed the cult of Bacchus, and underwent a similar fate. He was father to Laius, and his descendants were called Labdacidae.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Labdacus (Labdakos), a son of the Theban king, Polydorus, the son of Cadmus, by Nycteis, who was descended from a Spartan family. Labdacus lost his father at an early age, and was placed under the guardianship of Nycteus, and afterwards under that of Lycus, a brother of Nycteus. When Labdacus had grown up to manhood, Lycus surrendered the government to him; and on the death of Labdacus, which occurred soon after, Lycus again undertook the guardianship of his son Laius, the father of Oedipus. (Paus. ix. 5. Β 2; Eurip. Herc. Fur. 27; Apollod. iii. 5. Β 5)


Labdacidae

Labdacidae (Labdakidai), a patronymic from Labdacus, and frequently used not only to designate his children, but his descendants in general, and is therefore applied not only to Oedipus, his son, but to Polyneices, Eteocles, and Antigone. The family of the Labdacidae is particularly famous in ancient story, on account of the misfortunes of all that belonged to it. (Soph. Antig. 560; Stat. Theb. vi. 451, and many other passages.)


Laius & Epicaste (= Iocaste, Jocasta)

Laius; son of Labdacus and father of Oedipus, king of Thebes, the government of Thebes usurped in his childhood, expelled by Amphion and Zethus, received by Pelops in Peloponnese, loves Chrysippus, son of Pelops, and carries him off, succeeds to the kingdom of Thebes and marries Jocasta (Epicasta), exposes his son Oedipus, slain by Oedipus at Cleft Way, buried by Damasistratus, games in honour of, at Thebes. Jocasta; daughter of Menoeceus, mother of Oedipus, called Epicaste by Homer, marries her son Oedipus unwittingly, and hangs herself.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Laius (Laios). A son of Labdacus, and father of Oedipus. After his father's death he was placed under the guardianship of Lycus, and on the death of the latter, Laius was obliged to take refuge with Pelops in Peloponnesus. But when Amphion and Zethus, the murderers of Lycus, who had usurped his throne, had lost their lives, Laius returned to Thebes, and ascended the throne of his father. He married Jocaste (Homer calls her Epicaste), and became by her the father of Oedipus, by whom he was slain without being known to him. His body was buried by Damasistratus, king of Plataeae. (Herod. v. 59; Paus. ix. 5. Β§ 2; Apollod. iii. 5. Β§ 5, &c.; Diod. v. 64)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Laodamas

Son of Eteocles, king of Thebes, leader of the Thebans against the Epigoni, killed by Alcmaeon, being defeated by Argives, departs to Illyria.


Laodamas. A son of Eteocles, and kin- of Thebes: in his youth he had been under the guardianship of Creon. (Paus. i. 39. Β 2.) It was in his reign that the Epigoni marched against Thebes. Laodamas offered them a battle on the river Glisas, and slew their leader Aegialeus, but he himself was killed by Alcmaeon. (Apollod. iii. 7. Β§ 3.) Others related, that after the battle was lost, Laodamas fled in the night with the remnant of his army, and took refuge in the territory of the Encheleans in Illyricum. (Paus. ix. 5. Β 7; Herod. v. 61.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2006 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Thersander & Demonassa

Son of Polynices, ancestor of Theras, gives the robe (of Harmonia) to Eriphyle, father of Tisamenus, marches with Epigoni against Thebes, captures Thebes, king of Thebes, recalls fugitives, slain by Telephus in Mysia, his tomb in market-place of Elaea, sacrifices to him, his statues at Argos and Delphi.


Thersander (Thersandros). The son of Polynices and Argia, and one of the Epigoni. He went with Agamemnon to Troy, and was slain in that expedition by Telephus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Tisamenus

Son of Thersander and Demonassa, king of Thebes.


Autesion

Theban, descended from Polynices, father of Argea, son of Tisamenus, father of Theras, visited by Furies of Laius and Oedipus, migrates to Dorians.


Autesion, a son of Tisamenus, grandson of Thersander, and great-grandson of Polyneices. He is called the father of Theras and Argeia, by the latter of whom Aristodemus became the father of Eurysthenes and Procles. He was a native of Thebes, where he had succeeded his father as king, but at the command of an oracle he went to Peloponnesus and joined the Dorians. (Apollod. ii. 8.2; Paus. iii. 15.4, 3.3, ix. 5.8; Herod. iv. 147, vi. 52; Strab. viii.)


Ptolemaeus

He was Damaschinon's son and became king after him.


Xanthus, the last king of Thebes

Son of Ptolemy, king of Thebes, slain by Andropompus.


Heroes

Neis, Neistan gate

The Neistan gate, they say, got its name for the following reason. The last of the harp's strings they call nete, and Amphion invented it, they say, at this gate. I have also heard that the son of Zethus, the brother of Amphion, was named Neis, and that after him was this gate called.


Proetus, Proetidian gates

A Boeotian.


Homoleus, Homoloian gate

Homoleus, (Homoloeus), a son of Amphion, from whom the Homoloian gate of Thebes was believed to have derived its name. (Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 1126.) Others, however, derived the name of the gate from the hill Homole, or from Homolois, a daughter of Niobe. (Paus. ix. 8.3; Schol. ad Eurip. l. c. ; Tzetz, ad Lycoph. 520.)


Menoeceus

Father of Hipponome, his charioteer Perieres, father of Jocasta or Epicasta, father of Creon.


Menoeceus

Son of Creon, kills himself in obedience to oracle to save Thebes, his tomb.


Melanippus

A legendary Theban hero; his cult introduced at Sicyon, slays Tydeus and Mecisteus, slain by Amphiaraus, his grave.


Periclymenus

A Theban, son of Poseidon and Chloris, daughter of the seer Tiresias. In the war of the Seven against Thebes he slew Parthenopaeus, and was in pursuit of Amphiaraus at the moment when the latter sank into the earth.


Amphidicus

Amphidicus (Amphidikos), a Theban who, in the war of the Seven against his native city, slew Parthenopaeus (Apollod. iii. 6.8). According to Euripides (Phoen. 1156), however, it was Periclymenus who killed Parthenopaeus. Pausanias (ix. 18.4) calls him Asphodicus, whence sone critics wish to introduce the same name in Apollodorus.


Iolaos (Iolaus)

A Theban, son of Iphicles and nephew of Herakles, charioteer of Herakles, shares labours of Herakles, father of Lipephile, kills Eurystheus, wins chariot-race at Olympia and at funeral games of Pelias, leads colony of Athenians and Thespians to Sardinia, worshipped by Sardinians, altar of I. at Athens, gymnasium and shrine at Thebes, receives Megara in marriage from him.


Philotas

A Theban, descendant of Peneleos, joint founder of Priene.


Hyperenor

Hyperenor, (Huperenor), one of the Spartae, or the men that grew up from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus, was worshipped as a hero at Thebes. (Apollod. iii. 4.1; Paus. ix. 5.1; Hygin. Fab. 178.) There are two other mythical personages of this name, one a son of Poseidon and Alcyone (Apollod. iii. 10.1), and the other a son of the Trojan Panthous, who was slain by Menelaus. (Hom. Il. xiv. 516, xvii. 24.)


Heroines

Electra, Electrean Gate

Daughter of Atlas, one of the Pleiades, has Iasion and Dardanus by Zeus, takes refuge at the Palladium, sister of Cadmus, one of the gates of Thebes named after her (Paus, 9,8,4).


Antigone

Daughter of Oedipus, goes with him to Attica, secretly buries the dead body of Polynices, burns body of Polynices, herself buried alive in the grave.


Antigone. A daughter of Oedipus by his mother Iocaste, and sister of Ismene and of Eteocles and Polynices. In the tragic story of Oedipus, Antigone appears as a noble maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her father and her brothers. When Oedipus had put out his eyes, and was obliged to quit Thebes, he was accompanied by Antigone, who remained with him till he died at Colonus, and then returned to Thebes. After her two brothers had killed each other in battle, and Creon, the king of Thebes, would not allow Polynices to be buried, Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the body of her brother. Creon thereupon ordered her to be immured in a subterranean cave, where she killed herself. Her lover, Haemon, the son of Creon, killed himself by her side. A play of Sophocles gets its title from her name.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Antigone. A daughter of Oedipus by his mother Jocaste. She had two brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, and a sister Ismene. In the tragic story of Oedipus Antigone appears as a noble maiden, with a truly heroic attachment to her father and brothers. When Oedipus, in despair at the fate which had driven him to murder his father, and commit incest with his mother, had put out his eyes, and was obliged to quit Thebes, he went to Attica guided and accompanied by his attached daughter Antigone (Apollod. iii. 5.8, &c..) She remained with him till he died in Colonus, and then returned to Thebes. Haemon, the son of Creon, had, according to Apollodorus, died before this time; but Sophocles, to suit his own tragic purposes, represents him as alive and falling in love with Antigone. When Polyneices, subsequently, who had been expelled by his brother Eteocles, marched against Thebes (in the war of the Seven), and the two brothers had fallen in single combat, Creon, who now succeeded to the throne, issued an edict forbidding, under heavy penalties, the burial of their bodies. While every one else submitted to this impious command, Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the body of Polyneices. According to Apollodorus (iii. 7.1), Creon had her buried alive in the same tomb with her brother. According to Sophocles, she was shut up in a subterraneous cave, where she killed herself, and Haemon, on hearing of her death, killed himself by her side; so that Creon too received his punishment. A different account of Antigone is given by Hyginus (Fab. 72). Aeschylus and Sophocles made the story of Antigone the subject of tragedies, and that of the latter, one of the most beautiful of ancient dramas, is still extant. Antigone acts a part in other extant dramas also, as in the Seven against Thebes of Aeschylus, in the Oedipus in Colonus of Sophocles, and in the Phoenissae of Euripides.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Editor’s Information:
The plot of "Antigone", the tragedy written by Sophocles, of which the e-text(s) is (are) found in Greece (ancient country) under the category Ancient Greek Writings , is taking place in Thebes.


Ismene

Daughter of Oedipus.


Autonoe

Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, was the wife of Aristaeus, by whom she became the mother of Polydorus (Hesiod. Theog. 977; Paus. x. 17.3). According to Apollodorus (iii. 4.2, &c.), Polydorus was a brother of Autonoe, and Actaeon was her son. (Comp. Diod. iv. 81). Autonoe together with her sister Agave tore Pentheus to pieces in their Bacchic fury (Hygin. Fab. 184). At last grief and sadness at the lamentable fate of the house of her father induced her to quit Thebes, and she went to Erineia in the territory of Megara, where her tomb was shewn as late as the time of Pausanias (i. 44.8). There are five other mythical personages of this name. (Hesiod. Theog. 258 ; Apollod. i. 2.7, ii. 1.5, 7.8; Paus. viii. 9.2; Hom. Od. xviii. 182).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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