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Mythology (37)

Gods & demigods

Apollo Agyieus

Agyieus, a surname of Apollo describing him as the protector of the streets and public places. As such he was worshipped at Acharnae (Paus. i. 31.3), Mycenae (ii. 19.7), and at Tegea (viii. 53.1). The origin of the worship of Apollo Agyieus in the last of these places is related by Pausanias.


Artemis Calliste

Calliste (Kalliste), a surname of Artemis, by which she was worshipped at Athens and Tegea. (Paus. i. 29.2, viii. 35.7.)


Ares Aphneius

Aphneius (Aphneios), the giver of food or plenty, a surname of Ares, under which he had a temple on mount Cnesius, near Tegea in Arcadia. Aereope, the daughter of Cepheus, became by Ares the mother of a son (Aerropus), but she died at the moment she gave birth to the child, and Ares, wishing to save it, caused the child to derive food from the breast of its dead mother. This wonder gave rise to the surname Aphneios. (Paus. viii. 44.6)


Ares Gynaecothoenas

Gynaecothoenas, (Gunaikothoinas), that is, " the god feasted by women," a surname of Ares at Tegea. In a war of the Tegeatans against the Lacedaemonian king Charillus, the women of Tegea made an attack upon the enemy from an ambuscade. This decided the victory. The women therefore celebrated the victory alone, and excluded the men from the sacrificial feast. This, it is said, gave rise to the surname of Apollo. (Paus. viii. 48.3)


Demeter & Cora Carpophori

Carpophori (Karpophoroi), the fruitbearers, a surname of Demeter and Cora, under which they were worshipped at Tegea (Paus. viii. 53.3). Demeter Carpophoros appears to have been worshipped in Paros also.


Eponymous founders or settlers

Tegeates and Maera

Tegeates: Son of Lycaon, husband of Maera, his sons, his tomb. Maera: Daughter of Atlas, wife of Tegeates, her grave, her Dancing-ground.


Maera

Maera, a daughter of Atlas, was married to Tegeates, the son of Lycaon. Her tomb was shown both at Tegea and Mantineia in Arcadia. and Pausanias thinks that she was the same as the Maera whom Odysseus saw in Hades. (Paus. viii. 12. 4, 48. 4, 53. 1)


Ancient myths

Auge & Heracles


Passing by Tegea, Hercules debauched Auge, not knowing her to be a daughter of Aleus.1 And she [p. 255] brought forth her babe secretly and deposited it in the precinct of Athena. But the country being wasted by a pestilence, Aleus entered the precinct and on investigation discovered his daughter's motherhood. So he exposed the babe on Mount Parthenius, and by the providence of the gods it was preserved: for a doe that had just cast her fawn [p. 257] gave it suck, and shepherds took up the babe and called it Telephus.2 And her father gave Auge to Nauplius, son of Poseidon, to sell far away in a foreign land; and Nauplius gave her to Teuthras, the prince of Teuthrania, who made her his wife.
Commentary
  As to the story of Herakles, Auge, and Telephus, see Apollod. 3.9.1; Diod. 4.33.7-12; Strab. 13.1.69; Paus. 8.4.9, Paus. 8.47.4, Paus. 8.48.7, Paus. 8.54.6, Paus. 10.28.8; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 206; Hyginus, Fab. 99ff. The tale was told by Hecataeus (Paus. 8.4.9, Paus. 8.47.4), and was the theme of tragedies by Sophocles and Euripides. Different versions of the story were current among ancient writers and illustrated by ancient artists. One of these versions, which I omitted to notice in that place, ran as follows. On a visit to Delphi, king Aleus of Tegea was warned by the oracle that his daughter would bear a son who would kill his maternal uncles, the sons of Aleus. To guard against this catastrophe, Aleus hurried home and appointed his daughter priestess of Athena, declaring that, should she prove unchaste, he would put her to death. As chance would have it, Herakles arrived at Tegea on his way to Elis, where he purposed to make war on Augeas. The king entertained him hospitably in the sanctuary of Athena, and there the hero, flushed with wine, violated the maiden priestess. Learning that she was with child, her father Aleus sent for the experienced ferryman Nauplius, father of Palamedes, and entrusted his daughter to him to take and drown her. On their way to the sea the girl (Auge) gave birth to Telephus on Mount Parthenius, and instead of drowning her and the infant the ferryman sold them both to king Teuthras in Mysia, who, being childless, married Auge and adopted Telephus. See Alcidamas, Od. 14-16, pp. 179ff., ed. Blass (appended to his edition of Antiphon). This version, which represents mother and child as sold together to Teuthras, differs from the version adopted by Apollodorus, according to whom Auge alone was sold to Teuthras in Mysia, while her infant son Telephus was left behind in Arcadia and reared by herdsmen (Apollod. 3.9.1). The sons of Aleus and maternal uncles of Telephus were Cepheus and Lycurgus (Apollod. 3.9.1). Ancient writers do not tell us how Telephus fulfilled the oracle by killing them, though the murder is mentioned by Hyginus, Fab. 244 and a Greek proverb-writer (Paroemiographi Graeci, ed. Leutsch and Schneidewin, i. p. 212). Sophocles appears to have told the story in his lost play, The Mysians; for in it he described how Telephus came, silent and speechless, from Tegea to Mysia (Aristot. Poet. 1460a 32">P">Aristot. Poet. 1460a 32), and this silence of Telephus seems to have been proverbial. For the comic poet Alexis, speaking of a greedy parasite who used to gobble up his dinner without exchanging a word with anybody, says that, "he dines like speechless Telephus, answering all questions put to him only with nods" (Athenaeus x.18, p. 421 D). And another comic poet, Amphis, describing the high and mighty airs with which fish-mongers treated their customers in the market, says that it was a thousand times easier to get speech of a general than of a fish-monger; for if you addressed one of these gentry and, pointing to a fish, asked "How much?" he would not at first deign to look at you, much less speak to you, but would stoop down, silent as Telephus, over his wares; though in time, his desire of lucre overcoming his contempt of you, he would slap a bloated octopus and mutter meditatively, as if soliloquizing, "Sixpence for him, and a bob for the hammerfish." This latter poet explains incidentally why Telephus was silent; he says it was very natural that fish-mongers should hold their tongue, "for all homicides are in the same case," thus at once informing us of a curious point in Greek law or custom and gratifying his spite at the "cursed fish-mongers," whom he compares to the worst class of criminals. See Athenaeus vi.5, p. 224 DE. As Greek homicides were supposed to be haunted by the ghosts of their victims until a ceremony of purification was performed which rid them of their invisible, but dangerous, pursuers, we may conjecture that the rule of silence had to be observed by them until the accomplishment of the purificatory rite released them from the restrictions under which they laboured during their uncleanness, and permitted them once more to associate freely with their fellows. As to the restrictions imposed on homicides in ancient Greece, see Psyche's Task, 2nd ed. pp. 113ff.; Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, i.80, 83ff. The motive of the homicide's silence may have been a fear lest by speaking he should attract the attention, and draw down on himself the vengeance, of his victim's ghost. Similarly, among certain peoples, a widow is bound to observe silence for some time after her husband's death, and the rule appears to be based on a like dread of exciting the angry or amorous passions of her departed spouse by the sound of the familiar voice.

This extract is from: Apollodorus, Library and Epitome (ed. Sir James George Frazer, 1921). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Auge or Augeia, a daughter of Aleus and Neaera, was a priestess of Athena, and having become by Heracles the mother of a son, she concealed him in the temple of the goddess. In consequence of this profanation of the sanctuary, the country was visited by a scarcity; and when Aleus was informed by an oracle that the temple of Athena was profaned by something unholy, he searched and found the child in it, and ordered him to be exposed on mount Parthenion, where he was suckled by a stag (elaphos), whence the boy derived the name of Telephus. Auge was surrendered to Nauplius, who was to kill her, but he gave her to Teuthras, king of the Mysians, who made her his wife (Apollod. ii. 7.4, iii. 9.1). The same story is related with some modifications by Pausanias (viii. 4.6, 48.5), Diodorus (iv. 33), Hyginus (Fab. 99), and Tzetzes (ad Lycoph. 206;). Respecting her subsequent meeting with her son Telephus, see Telephus. Her tomb was shewn in the time of Pausanias (viii. 4.6) at Pergamus in Mysia. Auge was represented by Polygnotus in the Lesche of Delphi. (x. 28.4). Another mythical personage of this name, one of the Horae, occurs in Hyginus (Fab. 183).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The myth of Scephrus and Limon

Apollo and Artemis, they say, throughout every land visited with punishment all the men of that time who, when Leto was with child and in the course of her wanderings, took no heed of her when she came to their land. So when the divinities came to the land of Tegea, Scephrus, they say, the son of Tegeates, came to Apollo and had a private conversation with him. And Leimon, who also was a son of Tegeates, suspecting that the conversation of Scephrus contained a charge against him, rushed on his brother and killed him. Immediate punishment for the murder overtook Leimon, for he was shot by Artemis. At the time Tegeates and Maera sacrificed to Apollo and Artemis, but afterwards a severe famine fell on the land, and an oracle of Delphi ordered a mourning for Scephrus. At the feast of the Lord of Streets rites are performed in honor of Scephrus, and in particular the priestess of Artemis pursues a man, pretending she is Artemis herself pursuing Leimon.


Kings

Apheidas

Son of Arcas, joint ruler of Arcadia, king of Tegea, ‘lot of A.', his image at Delphi, his time.


Apheidas, a son of Arcas by Leaneira, or according to others, by Meganeira, Chrysopeleia, or Erato (Apollod. iii. 9.1). When Apheidas and his two brothers had grown up, their father divided his kingdom among them. Apheidas obtained Tegea and the surrounding territory, which was therefore called by poets the kleros Apheidanteios. Apheidas had a son, Aleus (Paus. viii. 4.2). Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Hom. Od. xxiv. 305; Ov. Met. xii. 317.


Echemus and Timandra


   Echemus, (Echemos). A king of Arcadia, who slew, in single combat, Hyllus, the son of Heracles, during the Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus. As a result of the combat, the Heraclidae were obliged to promise not to repeat their attempt on the Peloponnesus for fifty years.


Echemus, (Echemos), a son of Aeropus and grandson of Cepheus, succeeded Lycurgus as king of Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 4. 7.) He was married to Timandra, a daughter of Tyndareus and Leda. (Apollod. iii. 10.6.) In his reign the Dorians invaded Peloponnesus, and Echemus succeeded in slaying, in single combat, Hyllus, the son of Heracles. (Paus. viii. 5.1, 45.2; Schol. ad Pind. Ol. x. 79.) The fight was believed to have occurred on the frontier, between Corinth and Megara, and in the latter place Ilyllus was buried. (Paus. i. 41.3, 44.14.) After the fall of Hyllus the Heracleidae were obliged to promise not to repeat their attempts upon Peloponnesus within the next fifty or hundred years, and the Tegeatans were honoured with the privilege of commanding one wing of the Peloponnesian army, whenever the inhabitants of the peninsula undertook an expedition against a foreign enemy. (Herod. ix. 26 ; Diod. iv. 58.) The fight of Echemus and Hyllus was represented on the tomb of Echemus at Tegea. (Paus. viii. 53.5.) According to Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Ekademeia) Echemus accompanied the Dioscuri in their expedition to Attica, whereas Plutarch (Thes. 32) calls the Arcadian companions of the Dioscuri Echedemus and Marathus.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Aepytus

Son of Hippothus, enters sanctuary of Poseidon and is struck blind.


A son of Hippothous, and king of Arcadia. He was a great-grandson of the Aepytus mentioned ancient Lycosoura. He was reigning at the time when Orestes, in consequence of an oracle, left Mycenae and settled in Arcadia. There was at Mantineia a sanctuary, which down to the latest time no mortal was ever allowed to enter. Aepytus disregarding the sacred custom crossed the threshold, but was immediately struck with blindness, and died soon after. He was succeeded by his son Cypselus (Paus. viii. 5.3).


Cypselus

Son of Aepytus, king of Arcadia, gives his daughter Merope to Cresphontes to wife, brings up Aepytus, son of Cresphontes, founds Basilis, his family forfeits the kingdom.


Holaeas

Son of Cypselus, father of Bucolion.


Bucolion

Son of Holaeas and father of Phialus.


Phialus

Son of Bucolion.


Simus

Son of Phialus, king of Arcadia.


Pompus

King of Arcadia.


Polymestor

Son of Aeginetes, king of Arcadia.


Cepheus

Cepheus: Son of Aleus, one of the Argonauts. He was king of Tegea in Arcadia, and perished with most of his sons in an expedition against Heracles.


Cepheus, a son of Aleus and Neaera or Cleobule, and an Argonaut from Tegea in Arcadia, of which lie was king. He had twenty sons and two daughters, and nearly all of his sons perished in an expedition which they had undertaken with Heracles. The town of Caphyae was believed to have derived its name from him (Apollod. i. 9.16, ii. 7.3, iii. 9.1; Apollon. Rhod. i. 161; Hygin. Fab. 14; Paus. viii. 8.3, 23.3)


Heroes

Telephos

Perseus Encyclopedia


   Telephus, Telephos. The son of Heracles and Auge, the daughter of King Aleus of Tegea, and priestess of Athene. As soon as he was born he was exposed by his grandfather, who was angry because his daughter had broken the vows of her office. In some accounts she was set adrift, like Danae, with her child and cast on the Mysian coast. In other versions of the story Telephus was reared by a hind (elaphos), and educated by King Corythus in Arcadia. On reaching manhood, he consulted the Delphic Oracle to learn his parentage, and was ordered to go to King Teuthras in Mysia. He there found his mother, and succeeded Teuthras on the throne of Mysia. He married Laodice or Astyoche, a daughter of Priam; and he attempted to prevent the Greeks from landing on the coast of Mysia. Dionysus, however, caused him to stumble over a vine, whereupon he was wounded by Achilles. Being informed by an oracle that the wound could only be cured by "the wounder," Telephus repaired to the Grecian camp; and as the Greeks had likewise learned from an oracle that without the aid of Telephus they could not reach Troy, Achilles cured Telephus by means of the rust of the spear by which he had been wounded. Telephus, in return, pointed out to the Greeks the road which they ought to take. According to one story, Telephus, in order to induce the Greeks to help him, went to Argos, and suatching Orestes from his cradle threatened to kill him unless Agamemnon would persuade Achilles to heal the wound.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Amphidamas

Amphidamas. A son of Lycurgus and Cleophile, and father of Antimache, who married Eurystheus (Apollod. iii. 9.2). According to Pausanias (viii. 4.6) and Apollonius Rhodius (i. 163) he was a son of Aleus, and consequently a brother of Lycurgus, Cepheus, and Auge, and took part in the expedition of the Argonauts. (Hygin. Fab. 14.)


Scephrus and Limon

Scephrus: Son of Tegeates, slain by his brother Limon, ceremonies performed in his honour. Limon: Son of Tegeates, slays his brother Scephrus, shot by Artemis.


Epochus

Son of Lycurgus, represented in gable of Athena Alea at Tegea.


Settlers

Aleus and Neaera

Aleus: Son of Aphidas, king of Arcadia, his children, father of Lycurgus, Cepheus, and Auge, exposes her child (Telephus), gives her to Nauplius to sell, bids Nauplius drown Auge, founds Alea, founds Tegea, makes sanctuary of Athena Alea at Tegea, founds Stymphalus, house at Tegea. Neaera: Daughter of Pereus, wife of Aleus (or of Autolycus).



Heroines

Marpessa

Surnamed Choera, woman of Tegea, fights bravely against Lacedaemonians.


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