Evander (Euandros, "the good man"). A figure in Latin
mythology. He was said to be the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph. Sixty years
before the Trojan War he led a Pelasgian colony to Latium from Pallantium in Arcadia,
and founded a city, Pallantium, near the Tiber, on the hill which was afterwards
named after it the Palatine. Further it was said that he taught the rude inhabitants
of the country writing, music, and other arts; and introduced from Arcadia the
worship of certain gods, in particular of Pan, whom the Italians called Faunus,
with the festival of the Lupercalia, which was held in his honour. Evander was
worshipped at Rome among the heroes of the country, and had an altar on the Aventine
Hill. But the whole story is evidently an invention of Greek scholars, who derived
the Lupercalia from the Arcadian Lycaea. The name Euandros is perhaps a translation
of the Italian Faunus, while Carmenta, his mother, is an ancient Italian goddess;
but on this, see Nettleship, Lectures and Essays, pp. 50 foll.
Pallas, the son of Evander, is in like manner a creation of the poets. In Vergil he marches, at the command of his father, to assist Aeneas, and falls in single combat with Turnus. Evander had also two daughters, Rome and Dyna.
This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Evander, (Euandros). A son of Hermes by an Arcadian nymph, a daughter of Ladon, who is called Themis or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Cannenta or Tiburtis. (Paus. viii. 43.2; Plnt. Quaest. Rom. 53; Dionys. A. R. i. 31; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 336.) Evander is also called a son of Echemus and Timandra. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 130.) About sixty years previous to the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony from Pallantium in Arcadia into Italy. The cause of this emigration was, according to Dionysius, a civil feud among the people, in which the party of Evander was defeated, and therefore left their country of their own accord. Servius, on the other hand, relates that Evander had killed his father at the instigation of his mother, and that he was obliged to quit Arcadia on that account. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 51; comp. Ov. Fast. i. 480.) He landed in Italy on the banks of the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, and was hospitably received by king Turnus. According to Servius (ad Aen. viii. 562), however, Evander took possession of the country by force of arms, and slew Herilus, king of Praeneste, who had attempted to expel him. He built a town Pallantium, which was subsequently incorporated with Rome, and from which the names of Palatium and Palatinus were believed to have arisen. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 53.) Evander is said to have taught his neighbours milder laws and the arts of peace and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been made acquainted by Heracles (Plut. Quaest. Rom. 56), and music; he also introduced among them the worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, Heracles, and Nice. (Liv. i. 5; Dionys. i. 31, &c.; Ov. Fast. i. 471, v. 91; Paus. l. c.) Virgil (Aen. viii. 51) represents Evander as still alive at the time when Aeneias arrived in Italy, and as forming an alliance with him against the Latins. (Comp. Serv. ad Aen. viii. 157.) Evander had a son Pallas, and two daughters, Rome and Dyna. (Virg. Aen. viii. 574; Serv. ad Aen. i. 277; Dionys. i. 32.) He was worshipped at Pallantium in Arcadia, as a hero, and that town was subsequently honoured by the emperor Antoninus with several privileges. Evander's statue at Pallantium stood by the side of that of his son Pallas. At Rome he had an altar at the foot of the Aventine. (Paus. viii. 44.5; Dionys. l. c.)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Son of Jason or of Phoroneus, accidentally killed by Aetolus, tyrant of Peloponnese, his sons drive Aetolus from Peloponnese, deemed a god, identified with Sarapis, his murder avenged by Argus.
Son of Lycaon, founds Pallantium, sacrifices to Pure Gods, and his sons revolt against Theseus, slain by Theseus, image of him.
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