SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Epiphanius. Of Constantia and metropolitan of Cyprus, surnamed the Younger, was represented at the third council of Constantinople (the sixth general council) by the bishop of Trimithus, one of his suffragans. Several of the discourses which have been regarded as written by the great Epiphanius are by acuter judges ascribed either to this Epiphanius, or to a third of the same name and bishopric. A work extant in MS. in the Library of St. Mark at Venice, and in the Imperial Library at Vienna, is also by some ascribed to this writer or the following. (Labbe, Concilia, vol. vi. col. 1058; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii., x. ; Petavius, Preface to the second volume of his edition of Epiphanius ; Oudin, Commentarius de Scriptor. Eccles. vol. ii. 318. 19.)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Arcadius, bishop of Constantia in Cyprus, wrote a life of Simeon Stylita, the younger. surnamed Thaumastorita, several passages from which are quoted in the Acts of the second council of Nice. A few other works, which exist in MS., are ascribed to him. (Fabric. Bib. Graec. xi., xii..) Cave (Diss. de Script,. Icnert. Aet.) places him before the eighth century.
AMATHUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
d. 450, feastday: June 16 (Catholic). Bishop of Amathus, Cyprus. The son of a baker opposed to the worship of Aphrodite, he was a dedicated missionary among the last elements of pagan culture on the island. He is patron of wine growers on Cyprus. Tychon brought a dead vine leaf back to life.
Barnabas, one of the early inspired teachers of Christianity, was originally
named Joseph, and received the apellation Barnabas from the apostles. To the few
details in his life supplied by the New Testament various additions have been
made; none of which are certainly true, while many of them are evidently false.
Clemens Alexandrinus, Eusebius, and others, affirm, that Barnabas was one of the
seventy disciples sent forth by our Lord himself to preach the gospel. Baronius
and some others have maintained, that Barnabas not only preached the gospel in
Italy, but founded the church in Milan, of which they say he was the first bishop.
That this opinion rests on no sufficient evidence is ably shewn by the candid
Tillemont. (Memoires, &c. vol. i.) Some other fabulous stories concerning Barnabas
are related by Alexander, a monk of Cyprus, whose age is doubtful; by Theodorus
Lector; and in the Clementina, the Recognitions of Clemens, and the spurious Passio
Barnabae in Cypro, forged in the name of Mark.
Tertullian, in his treatise "de Pudicitia," ascribes the Epistle to the Hebrews to Barnabas; but this opinion, though probably shared by some of his contemporaries, is destitute of all probability.
A gospel ascribed to Barnabas is held in great reverence among the Turks, and has been translated into Italian, Spanish, and English. It seems to be the production of a Gnostic, disfigured by the interpolations of some Mohammedan writer. (Fabric. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti, Pars Tertia; White's Bampton Lecturcs.)
Respecting the epistle attributed to Barnabas great diversity of opinion has prevailed from the date of its publication by Hugh Menard, in 1645, down to the present day. The external evidence is decidedly in favour of its genuineness; for the epistle is ascribed to Barnabas, the coadjutor of Paul, no fewer than seven times by Clemens Alexandrinus, and twice by Origen. Eusebius and Jerome, however, though they held the epistle to be a genuine production of Barnabas, yet did not admit it into the canon. When we come to examine the contents of the epistle, we are at a loss to conceive how any serious believer in divine revelation could ever think of ascribing a work full of such gross absurdities and blunders to a teacher endowed with the gifts of the Spirit. It is not improbable that the author's name was Barnabas, and that the Alexandrian fathers, finding its contents so accordant with their system of allegorical interpretation, came very gladly to the precipitate conclusion that it was composed by the associate of Paul.
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
St. Barnabas Barnabas (originally Joseph), styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture,
and, like St. Paul, ranked by the Church with the Twelve, though not one of them;
b. of Jewish parents in the Island of Cyprus about the beginning of the Christian
Era. A Levite, he naturally spent much time in Jerusalem, probably even before
the Crucifixion of Our Lord, and appears also to have settled there (where his
relatives, the family of Mark the Evangelist, likewise had their homes, Acts,
xii, 12) and to have owned land in its vicinity (iv, 36-37). A rather late tradition
recorded by Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius says that he was one of the seventy
Disciples; but Acts (iv, 36-37) favours the opinion that he was converted to Christianity
shortly after Pentecost (about A.D. 29 or 30) and immediately sold his property
and devoted the proceeds to the Church. The Apostles, probably because of his
success as a preacher, for he is later placed first among the prophets and doctors
of Antioch (xiii, 1), surnamed him Barnabas, a name then interpreted as meaning
"son of exhortation" or "consolation". (The real etymology, however, is disputed.
See Encyl. Bibli., I, col. 484.) Though nothing is recorded of Barnabas for some
years, he evidently acquired during this period a high position in the Church.
When Saul the persecutor, later Paul the Apostle, made his first visit (dated variously from A.D. 33 to 38) to Jerusalem after his conversion, the Church there, remembering his former fierce spirit, was slow to believe in the reality of his conversion. Barnabas stood sponsor for him and had him received by the Apostles, as the Acts relate (ix, 27), though he saw only Peter and James, the brother of the Lord, according to Paul himself (Gal., i, 18, 19). Saul went to his house at Tarsus to live in obscurity for some years, while Barnabas appears to have remained at Jerusalem. The event that brought them together again and opened to both the door to their lifework was an indirect result of Saul's own persecution. In the dispersion that followed Stephen's death, some Disciples from Cyprus and Cyrene, obscure men, inaugurated the real mission of the Christian Church by preaching to the Gentiles. They met with great success among the Greeks at Antioch in Syria, reports of which coming o the ears of the Apostles, Barnabas was sent thither by them to investigate the work of his countrymen. He saw in the conversions effected the fruit of God's grace and, though a Jew, heartily welcomed these first Gentile converts. His mind was opened at once to the possibility of this immense field. It is a proof how deeply impressed Barnabas had been by Paul that he thought of him immediately for this work, set out without delay for distant Tarsus, and persuaded Paul to go to Antioch and begin the work of preaching. This incident, shedding light on the character of each, shows it was no mere accident that led them to the Gentile field. Together they laboured at Antioch for a whole year and "taught a great multitude". Then, on the coming of famine, by which Jerusalem was much afflicted, the offerings of the Disciples at Antioch were carried (about A.D. 45) to the mother-church by Barnabas and Saul (Acts, xi). Their mission ended, they returned to Antioch, bringing with them the cousin, or nephew of Barnabas (Col., iv, 10), John Mark, the future Evangelist (Acts, xii, 25).
The time was now ripe, it was believed, for more systematic labours, and the Church of Antioch felt inspired by the Holy Ghost to send out missionaries to the Gentile world and to designate for the work Barnabas and Paul. They accordingly departed, after the imposition of hands, with John Mark as helper. Cyprus, the native land of Barnabas, was first evangelized, and then they crossed over to Asia Minor. Here, at Perge in Pamphylia, the first stopping place, John Mark left them, for what reason his friend St. Luke does not state, though Paul looked on the act as desertion. The two Apostles, however, pushing into the interior of a rather wild country, preached at Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, at Derbe, and other cities. At every step they met with opposition and even violent persecution from the Jews, who also incited the Gentiles against them. The most striking incident of the journey was at Lystra, where the superstitious populace took Paul, who had just cured a lame man, for Hermes (Mercury) "because he was the chief speaker", and Barnabas for Jupiter, and were about to sacrifice a bull to them when prevented by the Apostles. Mob-like, they were soon persuaded by the Jews to turn and attack the Apostles and wounded St. Paul almost fatally. Despite opposition and persecution, Paul and Barnabas made many converts on this journey and returned by the same route to Perge, organizing churches, ordaining presbyters and placing them over the faithful, so that they felt, on again reaching Antioch in Syria, that God had "opened a door of faith to the Gentiles" (Acts, xiii, 13--xiv, 27; see article Saint Paul).
Barnabas and Paul had been "for no small time" at Antioch, when they were threatened with the undoing of their work and the stopping of its further progress. Preachers came from Jerusalem with the gospel that circumcision was necessary for salvation, even for the Gentiles. The Apostles of the Gentiles, perceiving at once that this doctrine would be fatal to their work, went up to Jerusalem to combat it; the older Apostles received them kindly and at what is called the Council of Jerusalem (dated variously from A.D. 47 to 51) granted a decision in their favour as well as a hearty commendation of their work (Acts, xiv, 27--xv, 30; see articles Council of Jerusalem; Saint Peter). On their return to Antioch, they resumed their preaching for a short time. St. Peter came down and associated freely there with the Gentiles, eating with them. This displeased some disciples of James; in their opinion, Peter's act was unlawful, as against the Mosaic law. Upon their remonstrances, Peter yielded apparently through fear of displeasing them, and refused to eat any longer with the Gentiles. Barnabas followed his example. Paul considered that they "walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel" and upbraided them before the whole church (Gal., ii, 11-15). Paul seems to have carried his point. Shortly afterwards, he and Barnabas decided to revisit their missions. Barnabas wished to take John Mark along once more, but on account of the previous defection Paul objected. A sharp contention ensuing, the Apostles agreed to separate. Paul was probably somewhat influenced by the attitude recently taken by Barnabas, which might prove a prejudice to their work. Barnabas sailed with John Mark to Cypress, while Paul took Silas an revisited the churches of Asia Minor. It is believed by some that the church of Antioch, by its God-speed to Paul, showed its approval of his attitude; this inference, however, is not certain (Acts, xv, 35-41).
Little is known of the subsequent career of Barnabas. He was still living and labouring as an Apostle in 56 or 57, when Paul wrote I Cor. (ix, 5, 6). from which we learn that he, too, like Paul, earned his own living, though on an equality with other Apostles. The reference indicates also that the friendship between the two was unimpaired. When Paul was a prisoner in Rome (61-63), John Mark was attached to him as a disciple, which is regarded as an indication that Barnabas was no longer living (Col., iv, 10). This seems probable. Various traditions represent him as the first Bishop of Milan, as preaching at Alexandria and at Rome, whose fourth (?) bishop, St. Clement, he is said to have converted, and as having suffered martyrdom in Cyprus. The traditions are all late and untrustworthy. With the exception of St. Paul and certain of the Twelve, Barnabas appears to have been the most esteemed man of the first Christian generation. St. Luke, breaking his habit of reserve, speaks of him with affection, "for he was a good man, full of the Holy Ghost and of Faith". His title to glory comes not only from his kindliness of heart, his personal sanctity, and his missionary labours, but also from his readiness to lay aside his Jewish prejudices, in this anticipating certain of the Twelve; from his large-hearted welcome of the Gentiles, and from his early perception of Paul's worth, to which the Christian Church is indebted, in large part at least, for its great Apostle. His tenderness towards John Mark seems to have had its reward in the valuable services later rendered by him to the Church. The feast of St. Barnabas is celebrated on 11 June. He is credited by Tertullian (probably falsely) with the authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the so-called Epistle of Barnabas is ascribed to him by many Fathers.
John F. Fenlon, ed.
Transcribed by: Janet Grayson
This text is cited Oct 2005 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.
d. 4th century, feastday: March 4
d.c. 912, feastday: November 6
d.c. 730, feastday: August 24
d. unknown, feastday: September 21 (Catholic).
d. 760, feastday: March 17
d. unknown, feastday: February 20 (Catholic). Martyrs who were executed in Cyprus, although they may have belonged to the Church in Egypt owing to a reference to them by Eusebius of Caesarea, who identifies them as part of the faithful in Alexandria
KERYNIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
d. 325, feastday: May 6 (Catholic). Bishop of Cyrenia, on Cyprus. He endured a long period of imprisonment during the reign of the Eastern emperor Licinius Licinianus (r. 308- 324).
SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
, , 310 - 403
Epiphanius. Born at Besanduk, near Eleutheropolis, in Judea, after 310; died in 403. While very young he followed the monastic life in Egypt . On his return to Judea he founded a monastery at Besanduk and was ordained to the priesthood. In 367 his reputation for asceticism and learning brought about his nomination as Bishop of Constantia (Salamis) the metropolis of the Island of Cyprus. For nearly forty years he fulfilled the duties of the episcopate, but his activity extended far beyond his island. His zeal for the monastic life, ecclesiastical learning, and orthodoxy gave him extraordinary authority; hence the numerous occasions on which his advice was sought, and his intervention in important ecclesiastical affairs. He went to Antioch, probably in 376, to investigate Apollinarianism and to intervene in the schism that divided that church. He decided in favour of Bishop Paulinus, who was supported by Rome, against Meletius, who was supported by the episcopate of the East. In 382 he assisted at the Council of Rome to uphold the cause of Paulinus of Antioch. About 394, carried away by an apparently excessive zeal, he went to Jerusalem to oppose the supposed Origenism of the bishop, John. In 402 he was at Constantinople to combat the same pretended heresy of St. John Chrysostom. He died on his return journey to Cyprus.
It was at the instance of his correspondents that Epiphanius compiled his works. The earliest (374) is the "Ancoratus", or "The Well-Anchored", i.e. the Christian firmly fixed against the agitations of error. The Trinity and the dogma of the Resurrection are particularly treated by the author, who argues especially against the Arians and the Origenists. There are two symbols at the end of the work: the first, which is the shorter, is very important in the history of symbols, or professions of faith, being the baptismal creed of the Church of Constantia. The second is the personal work of Epiphanius, and is intended to fortify the faithful against current heresies. In the "Ancoratus" Epiphanius confines himself to a list of heresies. Some readers desired to have a detailed work on this question, and Epiphanius composed (374-7) the "Panarion" or "Medicine chest", i.e. a stock of remedies to offset the poisons of heresy. This work is divided into three books comprising in all seven volumes and treating eighty heresies. The first twenty heresies are prior to Jesus Christ; the other sixty deal with Christian doctrine. In reality the number eighty may be reduced to seventy-seven, for among the twenty heresies prior to Christ only seventeen count. Three are generic names, namely Hellenism, Samaritanism, and Judaism. In the editions of the "Panarion" each heresy is numbered in order; hence it is customary to quote the "Panarion" as follows: Epiphanius, Haer. N (the number of the heresy). Necessarily much of the information in this great compilation varies in value. The "Panarion" reflects the character of Epiphanius and his method of working. Sometimes his ardour prevents him from inquiring carefully into the doctrines he opposes. Thus, on his own avowal (Haer., lxxi), he speaks of Apollinarianism on hearsay. At Constantinople he had to acknowledge the Origenist monks whom he opposed that he was not acquainted with either their school or their books, and that he only spoke from hearsay (Sozomen, "Hist. eccl.", VIII, xl). There is, however, in the "Panarion" much information not found elsewhere. Chapters devoted only to the doctrinal refutation of heresies are rare. As an apologist Epiphanius appeared generally weak to Photius.
The "Panarion" furnishes very valuable information concerning the religious history of the fourth century, either because the author confines himself to transcribing documents preserved by him alone or because he writes down his personal observations. With regard to Hieracas (Haer., lxvii), he makes known a curious Egyptian sect by whom asceticism and intellectual work were equally esteemed. In connection with the Meletians of Egypt (Haer., lxviii), he has preserved important fragments of contemporary Egyptian history of this movement. With regard to Arianism (Haer., lxix), if he gives an apocryphal letter of Constantine, he transcribes two letters of Arius. He is the only one to give us any information concerning the Gothic sect of the Audians (Haer., lxx). He has made use of the lost report of the discussion between Photius (Haer., lxxi), and Basil of Ancyra. He has transcribed a very important letter from Bishop Marcellus of Ancyra (Haer., lxxii) to Pope Julius and fragments of the treatise of Acaius of Caesarea against Marcellus. With regard to the Semiarians (Haer., lxxiii), he gives in the Acts of the Council of Ancyra (358) a letter from Basil of Ancyra and one from George of Laodicea, and the stenographic text of a singular sermon of Melitius at the time of his installation at Antioch. In the chapter dealing with the Anomeans (Haer., lxxvi) he has preserved a monograph of Aetius.
For the first three centuries Epiphanius was compelled to use the only literary sources. Some of these have been preserved, such as the great anti-heretical work of St. Irenaeus of Antioch, "Contra Haereses". Other ancient sources utilized by him have been lost, which gives exceptional value to his work. Thus he made use of the "Syntagma" of Hippolytus. The precise determination of all his sources is matter of controversy. His information is especially valuable with regard to the Samaritans (Haer., x-xiii), the Jews (Haer., xiii-xx), the Ebionites (Haer., xxx), and their Gospel; with regard to the Gnostics Valentius (Haer., xxxi) and Ptolemaeus (Haer., xxxiii), whose letter to Flora he quotes; and with regard to the Scriptural criticism of Marcion. The work ends with a long exposition of the Catholic faith. A summary of the "Penarion" is perhaps the work of Epiphanius. A work entitled "Of Measures and Weights" (De mensuribus et ponderibus) has a more general interest than might be imagined from the title. For the time it is a real "Introduction" to the Holy Scripture, containing the history of Biblical texts and Sacred archaeology. The treatise "On the Twelve Precious Stones" is an explanation of the ornaments of the high-priest's breastplate (Ex., xxviii, 17). Mention must finally be made of two letters of Epiphanius preserved in a Latin translation.
In theological matters Epiphanius teaches the doctrine of the Catholic theologians of his time. In the vocabulary of Trinitarian theology he conforms to the language of the Greek Church. He speaks of three hypostases in the Trinity, whereas the Latins and the Paulicians of Antioch speak of one hypostasis in three persons. At bottom it was a mere matter of words, but for some time it occasioned theological dissensions. Ephiphanius clearly teaches that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and the Son. The doctrine that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only prevailed later in the Greek Church. This teaching cannot be traced to Epiphanius (Ancoratus, 8). With regard to the constitution of the Church, he is one of the most explicit of the Greek theologians concerning the primacy of St. Peter ("Ancoratus", 9; "Haer.", lix, 7). Two passages on the Eucharist are famous because they are among those which most clearly affirm the "Discipline of the Secret". The "Secret" was purely pedagogical and often neglected, consisting in grading the doctrinal initiation of catechumens and in not speaking before them of the Christian mysteries save in deliberately vague expressions. Hence the necessity of explaining the words of Epiphanius on the Eucharist ("Ancoratus", 57; "Haer.", xlii, 61). In these two passages, instead of quoting the words of the institution of the Eucharist, the author gives these: "Hoc meum est, hoc." Epiphanius is one of the chief authorities of the fourth century for the devotion to the Blessed Virgin. He expresses himself on the subject in connection with two heresies, of which one diminished, while the other exaggerated, this devotion (Haer." lxxviii, lxxix). A circumstance of his life is well known in the history of images, namely the destruction of an image in the church of Bethel ("Letter to John of Jerusalem" in P.G., XLIII, 390).
His character is most clearly shown by the Origenist controversies, which demonstrated his disinterested zeal but also his quickness to suspect heresy, a good faith which was easily taken advantage of by the intriguing, and an ardour of conviction which caused him to forget the rules of canon law and to commit real abuses of power. He saw in Origen the chief cause of the heresies of his time, and especially of Arianism. He was particularly opposed to his allegorical method, his doctrines concerning the Son, in which he saw the subordination of the Son to the Father, his doctrines concerning the pre-existence of souls and the resurrection ("Ancoratus", 54, 62; "Haer.", lxiv). He did not confine himself to this condemnation of Origen. He reproached the monks and bishops of his time with accepting the Origenist errors. Thence resulted at the end of his life the conflict with John of Jerusalem and with St. John Chrysostom. Apart from the injustice of the controversy, he encroached on the jurisdiction of these bishops. He was made use of by Theophilus of Alexandria, the irreconcilable enemy of Chrysostom. The chief sources relative to this controversy are: St. Jerome, "Contra Joannem Hierosolymitanum" in P.L., XXIII, 355; Idem, "Ad Theophilum" in Pl L., XXII, 736; Epiphanius, "Ad Joannem Hierosolymitanum" in P.G., XLIII, 379; Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", VI, x-xiv; Sozomen, "Hist. eccl.", VIII, xiv-xv. The chief editions of Epiphanius's works are those of Petavius (Paris, 1622); Greek text, Latin tr., and notes reproduced with additions in P.G., XLI-XLIII; and of Dindorf (Leipzig, 1859-62), 5 vols., giving only the Greek text, improved in some parts.
Louis Saltet, ed.
Transcribed by: Stan Walker
This text is cited June 2004 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.
Epiphanius (Epiphanios), a bishop of Salamis in Cyprus, in the fourth century.
He was born of Jewish parents, near Eleutheropolis, in Palestine, about A.D. 320,
and appears to have been educated in Egypt, where he imbibed the principles of
the Gnostics. At length he left them, and, becoming an ascetic, returned to Palestine
and adopted the discipline of St. Hilarion, the founder of monachism in that country.
Epiphanius erected a monastery near the place of his birth, over which he presided
till he was made bishop of Salamis in 367. Here he remained about thirty-six years,
and composed most of his writings. In 391 he commenced a controversy with John,
bishop of Jerusalem, relative to the Platonic doctrines of the learned and laborious
Origen, against which he wrote and preached with implacable bitterness. John favoured
Origen's views, but Epiphanius found in Theophilus, the violent bishop of Alexandria,
a worthy coadjutor, who, in 399, convened a council and condemned all the works
of Origen. Epiphanius himself then called a council in Cyprus, A.D. 401, and reiterated
this condemnation. Afterwards, he embroiled himself with the empress Eudoxia;
for on the occasion of her asking him to pray for the young Theodosius, who was
dangerously ill, he replied that her son should live provided she would disavow
the defenders of Origen. To this presumptuous message the empress indignantly
answered that her son's life was not in the power of Epiphanius, whose prayers
were unable to save that of his own archdeacon who had recently died. After thus
vainly endeavouring to gratify his sectarian animosity, he resolved to return
to Cyprus; but he died at sea on the passage, A.D. 403.
The principal works of Epiphanius are: (1) Panarion, or a Treatise on Heresies--that is, peculiar sects (haireseis). This is the most important of his writings and treats of eighty sects, from the time of Adam to the latter part of the fourth century. (2) Anakephalaiosis, or an Epitome of the Panarion. (3) Ankuroton, or a Discourse on the Faith, explaining the doctrine of the Trinity, Resurrection, etc. (4) A treatise on the ancient weights, measures, and coins of the Jews. St. Jerome admires Epiphanius for his skill in the Hebrew, Syriac, Egyptian, Greek, and Latin languages, and styles him "Pentaglottus" (Pentaglottos), or the Five-tongued. His writings are of great value, as containing numerous citations from curious works which are no longer extant.
This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Epiphanius, (Epiphanios), bishop of Constantia and metropolitan of Cyprus, was
born at Bezanduca, a small town in Palestine, in the district of Eleutheropolis,
in the first part of the fourth century. (Sozomen. vi. 32.) His parents were Jews.
He went to Egypt when young, and there appears to have been tainted with Gnostic
errors, but afterwards feli into the hands of some monks, and by them was made
a strong advocate for the monastic life, and strongly imbued with their own narrow
spirit. He returned to Palestine, and lived there for some time as a monk, having
founded a monastery near his native place. In A. D. 367 he was chosen bishop of
Constantia, the metropolis of the Isle of Cyprus, formerly called Salamis. His
writings shew him to have been a man of great reading; for he was acquainted with
Hebrew, Syriac, Egyptian, Greek, and Latin, and was therefore called pentaglossos.
But he was entirely without critical or logical power, of real piety, but also
of a very bigoted and dogmatical turn of mind, unable to distinguish the essential
from the nonessential in doctrinal differences, and always ready to suppose that
some dangerous heresy lurked in any statement of belief which varied a little
from the ordinary form of expression. It was natural that to such a man Origen,
whom he could not understand, should appear a dangerous teacher of error; and
accordingly in his work on heresies he thinks it necessary to give an essential
warning against him. A report that Origen's opinions were spreading in Palestine,
and sanctioned even by John, bishop of Jerusalem, excited Epiphanius to such a
pitch, that he left Cyprus to investigate the matter on the spot. At Jerusalem
he preached so violent a sermon against any abettors of Origen's errors, and made
such evident allusions to the bishop, that John sent his Archdeacon to beg him
to stop. Afterwards, when John preached against anthropomorphism (of a tendency
to which Epiphanius had been suspected) he was followed up to the pulpit by his
undaunted antagonist, who announced that he agreed in John's censure of Anthropomorphites,
but that it was equally necessary to condemn Origenists. Having excited sufficient
commotion at Jerusalem, Epiphanius repaired to Bethlehem, where he was all-powerful
with the monks; and there he was so successful in his denuneiation of heresy,
that he persuaded some to renounce their connexion with the bishop of Jerusalem.
After this he allowed his zeal to get the better of all considerations of church
order and decency, to such an extent, that he actually ordained Paullinianus to
the office of presbyter, that he might perform the ministerial functions for the
monks (who, as usual at that time, were laymen), and so prevent them from applying
to Jerusalem to supply this want. John naturally protested loudly against this
interference with his diocese, and appealed for help to the two patriarchal sees
of Alexandria and Rome. Peace was not restored to the Church for some time. The
next quarrel in which Epiphanius was involved was with Chrysostom. Some monks
of Nitria had been expelled by Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, as Origenists,
but were received and protected at Constantinople. Upon this Theophilus persuaded
Epiphanius, now almost in his dotage, to summon a council of Cyprian bishops,
which he did A. D. 401. This assembly passed a sentence of condemnation on Origen's
books, which was made known to Chrysostom by letter; and Epiphanius proceeded
in person to Constantinople, to take part in the pending dispute. Chrysostom was
irritated by Epiphanius interfering in the government of his diocese; and the
latter, just before his return home, is reputed to have given vent to his bad
feeling by the scandalous malediction, "I hope that you will not die a bishop!"
upon which Chrysostom replied,--" I hope you will never get home !"
(Sozomen. viii. 15.) For the credit of that really great and Christian man, it
is to be hoped that the story is incorrect; and as both wishes were granted, it
bears strong marks of a tale invented after the deaths of the two disputants.
Epiphanius died on board the ship, which was conveying him back to Cyprus, A.
D. 402, leaving us a melancholy example of the unchristian excesses into which
bigotry may hurry a man of real piety, and a sincere desire to do God service.
The extant works of Epiphanius are (1) Ancoraius, a discourse on the faith, being an exposition of the doctrine of the Trinity; (2) Panarium, a discourse against Heresies, of which he attacks no less than eighty; (3) An epitome of 2, called Anacephalaeosis ; (4) De Ponderibus et Mensuris liber ; (5) Two Epistles ; the first to John bishop of Jerusalem, translated by Jerome into Latin; the second to Jerome himself, in whose works they are both found. A great number of Epiphanius's writings are lost. The earliest editions were at Basle, in Latin, translated by Cornarius, 1543, and again in the following year sumtu et typis Jo. Hervagii. The edition of Dionysius Petavius, in Greek and Latin, appeared at Paris, 1622, 2 vols. fol., and at Leipzig, 1682, with a commentary by Valesius. (Sozomen. l. c.; Hieronym. Apol. 1. adv. Rufin.; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i.; Neander, Kirchengeschichte, vol. ii.)
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
d. 1st century, feastday: February 22
d. 1st century, feastday: February 19
CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE
Georgius of Cyprus, the younger, afterwards Gregorius, has been said by some to have been of Latin parents, but this is shown by Rubeis, editor of the life of George, to be an error. He held the office of protapostolarius at Constantinople at the time of the accession of Andronicus Palaeologus the elder (A. D. 1282). He was a man of learning and eloquence, and the reviver, according to Nicephorus Gregoras, of the long-disused Attic dialect. During the reign of Michiael Palaeologus, father of Andronicus, he had been favourable to the union of the Greek and Latin churches, which Michael had much at heart; and supplied the emperor with arguments with which to press the patriarch of Constantinople (Joseph) and the other opponents of the union; but on the accession of Andronicus, who was opposed to the union, it is probable that George altered his views; for on the death of the patriarch Joseph, Andronicus determined that George, though as yet a layman, should be appointed to the office. The Greek church was at this time torn by dissension. Beside the dispute about the procession of the Holy Spirit, there had been an extensive schism occasioned by the deposition of Arsenius, patriarch of Constantinople early in the reign of Michael (A. D. 1266). The emperor was anxious to heal these dissensions, and possibly thought a layman more likely to assist him in so doing than a professed theologian; and George was recommended to the office by his literary reputation. The emperor, by tampering with some of the bishops, obtained his purpose; and George, after being rapidly hurried through the successive stages of monk, reader, deacon, and priest, was consecrated patriarch (April, A. D. 1283), and took the name of Gregory. The Arsenians, however, refused to return to the church, unless upon the testimony of heaven itself; and it was arranged at a synod or conference at Adramyttium, apparently just after the consecration of Gregory, that they and the party now predominant in the church (called Josephites from the late patriarch) should each prepare a book in support of their respective views, and that the two volumes should be submitted to the ordeal of fire. Both books, as might be expected, were consumed; and the Arsenians regarding this as a token that heaven was against them, submitted, and were at once led by the emperor in person, through a violent snow storm, to receive the communion from the hands of the patriarch Gregory. They soon, however, repented of their submission, and Gregory having excommunicated the refractory, the whole party broke off from the church again. This division was followed by troubles arising out of the controversy on the procession of the Holy Spirit, aggravated by the harshness used under Gregory's influence towards the ex-patriarch, Joannes or John Beccus or Veccus, a distinguished advocate of the doctrine of the Latin church; and a book, which Gregory had been ordered to prepare on the subject, and to the sentiments of which he had procured the approval of the emperor and several of the superior clergy, excited such animadversion and opposition, that, either in disgust or by constraint, he resigned the office of patriarch, A. D. 1289, and retired to a monastery. He died in the course of the following year, as many supposed, from grief and mortification. (Pachymer, De Mich. Palacol. v. 12, De Andron. Paleol. i. 8, 14-22, 34-37, ii. 1-11 ; Niceph. Greg. Hist. Rom. v. 2, vi. 1-4.)
The published works of George of Cyprus are as follows:
1. Ekthesis tou tomou tes pisteos kata tou Bekkou, Expositio Fidei adcersus Beccum (seu Vceenm). This was the work which led to his troubles and consequent abdication.
2. Homologia, Confessio Fidei, delivered in consequence of the outcry against the preceding work.
3. Apologia pros ten kata tou tomou mempsin ischurotate, Responsio validissima ad Expositionis Censuram.
4. Pittakion: this is a letter to the emperor Andronicus, complaining of the wrong done to him. These four pieces are given in Banduri's Imperium Orientale, ed. Paris.
5. Enkomion eis ten Thalassan, Encomium Maris. Publshed by Bonaventura Vulcanius, with a poem of Paulus Silentiarius, Leyden, 1591. These two pieces were published both in a separate volume, and with the Peri Kosmou, De Mundo, of Aristotle. The Encomiunm Maris has been since reprinted.
6. Proverbia, in alphabetical order, subjoined to the edition of the Proverbia of Michael Apostolius by Pantinus, Leyden, 1619.
7. Logos eis ton hagion kai megalomartupa kai tropaiophoron Georgion, Oratio in honored Sancti Georgii Magni Martyris ac Victoris. This encomium on St. George of Cappadocia is printed in the Acta Sanctorum, April Vol. III. A Latin version is given in the body of the volume, and the Greek original in the Appendix. Sententiae, 8vo., Col., 1536. This is given by Fabricius as a separate work; we suspect that it is identical with the Proverbia, No. 6. 9. Encomium Georgii Logothetae Acropolitae; an extract from this was prefixed to the edition of the Chronicon of Acropolita, by Theodore Dousa, Leyden, 1614, and to the Paris edition.
10. Vita Georyii Cyprii. This Greek memoir of George was publishcd by J. F. Bernard de Rubeis, a Dominican, within a Latin version, notes, and dissertations, Venice,, 1753, and was shown by the editor to be an autobiography.
Many other works of George of Cyprus remain in MS.
This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
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