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Listed 10 sub titles with search on: Religious figures biography  for wider area of: "SPAIN Country IBERIAN PENINSULA" .

Religious figures biography (10)


Hosius, bishop of Corduba, 3rd/4th ce. A.D.

Hosius, (Hosios, i. e. Holy), sometimes written Osius, an eminent Spanish ecclesiastic of the fourth century. As he was above a century old at the time of his death, his birth cannot be fixed later than A. D. 257, and is commonly fixed in 256. That he was a Spaniard is generally admitted, though if he be (as Tillemont not unreasonably suspects), the person mentioned by Zosimus (ii. 29), he was an Egyptian by birth. That he was a native of Corduba (Cordova) is a mere conjecture of Nicolaus Antonio. As he held the bishopric of Corduba above sixty years, his elevation to that see was not later than A. D. 296. He assisted at the council of Iliberi or Eliberi, near Granada, and his name appears in the Acta of the council as given by Labbe. (Concil. vol. i. col. 967, &c.) The date of this council is variously computed. Labbe fixes it in A. D. 305, and Cave follows him; but Tillemont contends for A. D. 300. Hosius suffered, as his own letter to the emperor Constantius shows, in the persecution under Diocletian and Maximian, but to what extent, and in what manner, is not to be gathered from the general term "confessus sum," which he uses. The reverence which his unsullied integrity excited was increased by his endurance of persecution ; and he acquired the especial favour of the emperor Constantine the Great. In A. D. 324 Constantine sent him to Alexandria with a soothing letter, in which he attempted to stop the disputes which had arisen between Alexander, the bishop of Alexandria, and the presbyter Arius. He was also instructed to quiet, if possible, the disputes which had arisen as to the observance of Easter. The choice of Hosius for this conciliatory mission, which, however, produced no effect, shows the opinion entertained by the emperor of his moderation and judgment.
  In A. D. 313 he seems to have been concerned in the distribution of money made by Constantine to the churches in Africa (Euseb. H. E. x. 6.) : perhaps it was owing to something which occurred on this occasion, that he was accused by the Donatists of having assisted Caecilianus in persecuting them, and of having instigated the emperor to severe measures against them. They also affirmed that he had been condemned on some charge not stated by a synod of Spanish bishops, and absolved by the prelates of Gaul. Augustin (Contra Epistolam Parmeniani, i. 7) virtually admits the truth of this statement; and, from the nature of the Donatist controversy, it is not improbable that the charge was of some unworthy submission during the persecution of Diocletian--a charge not inconsistent with the closing incident in the career of Hosius.
  Hosius certainly took part in the council of Nicaea (Nice) A. D. 325; and, although the earlier writers, Eusebius, Sozomen, and Socrates give no ground for the assertions of Baronius (Annal. Ec-c/es. ad ann. 325, xx.) that Hosius presided, and that in the character of legate of the pope, who was absent, and even Tillemont admits that the proofs of these assertions are feeble, yet it is remarkable that the subscription of Hosius in the Latin copies of the Acta of the council stands first; and Athanasius says that he usually presided in councils, and that his letters were always obeyed. Perhaps also his presidency may be intimated in what Athanasius (Histor. Arian. ad Monach. c. 42) makes the Arian prelates say to Constantius, that Hosius had published the Nicene creed (ten en) Nikaiai pistin exetheto), an expression which Tillemont interprets of his composing the creed. We hear little of Hosius until the council of Sardica, A. D. 347, where he certainly took a leading part, and at which probably he was again president. In A. D. 355 Constantius endeavoured to persuade Hosius to write in condemnation of Athanasius, and the attempt, which was not successful, drew from the aged bishop a letter, the only literary remain which we have of him, which is given by Athanasius (Hist. Arian. ad Monach. 44). Constantius sent for Hosius to Milan A. D. 355, in hopes of subduing his firmness, but not succeeding, allowed him to return. In 356-7 the emperor made a third trial, and with more success. He compelled Hosius to attend the council of Sirmium; kept him there for a year in a sort of exile (Athanas. ut sup. c. 45), and, according to the dying declaration of the old man, confirmed by Socrates, had him subjected to personal violence. Hosius so far submitted as to communicate with the Arian prelates Valens and Ursacius, but could not be brough t to condemn Athanasius, and with this partial submission his persecutors were obliged to be content. (Athanas. l. c.) This was in 357, and he was dead when Anathasius wrote the account of his sufferings a year after. The manner of his death is disputed. An ancient account states that while pronouncing sentence of deposition on Gregory of Iliberi, who had refused, on account of his prevarication at Sirmium, to communicate with him, he died suddenly. His memory was regarded differently by different persons; Athanasius eulogises him highly, and extenuates his tergiversation; Augustin also defends him. (Athanas. Augustin. Euseb. Il. cc.; Euseb. De Vit. Constantin. ii. 63, iii. 7; Socrat. H. E. i. 7, 8, ii. 20, 29, 31; Soz. i. 10, 16, 17, iii. 11; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. vii.; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacres, vol. iv.; Nicolaus Antonio, Biblioth. Vet. Hisp. lib. ii. c. i. ; Baronius, Annales Eccles.; Galland. Bibl. Patrun, vol. v. Proleg. c. viii.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Eugenius, who was bishop of Toledo from A. D. 646 to 657, is mentioned under Dracontius as the editor and enlarger of the work by Dracontius upon the Creation. He is known also as the author of thirty-two short original poems composed on a great variety of subjects, chiefly however moral and religious, in heroic, elegiac, trochaic, and sapphic measures. These were publisted by Sirmond at Paris, 1619, will be found also in the collected works of Sirmond (Paris 1696 and Venice 1728), in the Bibl. Patr. Max. Lugdun. 1677, and in the edition of Dracontius by Rivinus, Lips. 1651. Two Epigrams by Eugenius -one on the invention of letters, the other on the names of hybrid animals. are contained in the Anthologia Latina of Burmann.

Dracontius, a Christian poet, of whose personal history we know nothing, except that he was a Spanish presbyter, flourished during the first half of the fifth century, and died about A. D. 450. His chief production, entitled Hexaemeron, in heroic measure, extending to 575 lines, contains a description of the six days of the creation, in addition to which we possess a fragment in 198 elegiac verses addressed to the younger Theodosius, in which the author implores forgiveness of God for certain errors in his greater work, and excuses himself to the emperor for having neglected to celebrate his victories. Although the Hexaemeron is by no means destitute of spirit, and plainly indicates that the writer had studied carefully the models of classical antiquity, we can by no means adopt the criticism of Isidorus: "Dracontius composnit heroicis versibus Hexaemeron creations mundi et luculenter, quod composuit, scripsit", if we are to understand that any degree of clearness or perspicuity is implied by the word luculenter, for nothing is more characteristic of this piece than obscurity of thought and perplexity of expression. Indeed these defects are sometimes pushed to such extravagant excess, that we feel disposed to agree with Barthius (Advers. xxiii. 19), that Dracontius did not always understand himself.
It is to be observed that the Hexaemeron exists under two forms. It was published in its original shape along with the Genesis of Claudius Marius Victor, at Paris, 1560; in the "Corpus Christianorum Poetarum," edited by G. Fabricius, Basil. 1564; with the notes of Weitzius, Franc 1610; in the "Magna Bibliotheca Patrum," Colon. 1618; and in the "Bibliotheca Patrum", Paris, 1624.
  In the course of the seventh century, however, Eugenius, bishop of Toledo, by the orders of king Chindasuindus, undertook to revise, correct, and improve the Six Days; and, not content with repairing and beautifying the old structure, supplied what he considered a defect in the plan by adding an account of the Seventh Day. In this manner the performance was extended to 634 lines. The enlarged edition was first published by Sirmond along with the Opuscula of Eugenius, Paris, 1619. In the second volume of Sirmond's works (Ven. 1728), we read the letter of Eugenius to Chindasuindus, from which we learn that the prelate engaged in the task by the commands of that prince; and we find the Elegy addressed to Theodosius. The Eugenian version was reprinted by Rivinus, Lips. 1651, and in the "Bibliotheca Maxima Patrum", Lugdun. More recent editions have appeared by F. Arevalus, Rom. 1791, and by J. B. Carpzovius, Helmst. 1794.
  The Dracontius mentioned above must not be confounded with the Dracontius to whom Athanasius addressed an epistle; nor with the Dracontius on whom Palladius bestowed the epithets of endoxos and Daumastos; nor with the Dracontius, bishop of Pergamus, named by Socrates and Sozomenus.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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Gregorius of Baetica, bishop of Illiberis

Gregorius of Baetica, otherwise of Illiberis, so called because he was bishop of Illiberis or Illiberi (now Elvira, near Granada), in the province of Baetica (now Andalusia), in Spain, was an ecclesiastical writer of the fourth century. Jerome, who mentions hint in his Chronicon (ad Ann. 371), describes him as a Spanish bishop, a friend of Lucifer of Caralis (Cagliari), and a strenuous opponent of the Arians, from whom, in the time of their ascendancy, he suffered much. The emperor Theodosius the Great addressed an edict to Cynegius, praefect of the praetorium, desiring him to defend Gregory and others of similar views from the injuries offered to them by the heretics. Gregory was the author of divers treatises, among which was one De Fide, which Jerome characterises as "elegans libellus". This work is supposed by Quesnel, editor of the Codex Canonum Romanus, to be the third of the "tres Fidei Formulae" contained in that work, and which bears an inscription ascribing it improperly to Gregory Nazianzen. The work De Fide contra Arianos given in some editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum, under the name of Gregory of Baetica is really by Faustinus. The pseudo Flavius Dexter identifies this Gregory of Baetica with Gregory, praefect of the praetorium in Gaul.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Dec 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Flavius Dextet

Flavius Dextet, a Spaniard, the son of Pacian. He was praetorian praefect, and a devoted advocate of Christianity. He was a contemporary of St. Jerom, who dedicated to him his book De Viris Illustribus. He was said, according to Jerom, to have written a book entitled Omnimoda Historia, but Jerom had not seen it. This book had been long considered as lost; when, in the end of the sixteenth century, a rumour was spread of its discovery, and a work under that title was published, first at Saragossa, A. D. 1619, and has been since repeatedly reprinted, but it is now generally regarded as a forgery.

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