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Listed 100 (total found 105) sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "ALBANIA Country BALKANS" .


Information about the place (105)

Ancient authors' reports

AMANTIA (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Amantia


AMANTIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Amantia

Mediterranean city (Ptol. 3,13,22)


AVLON (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Avlon

(Ptol. 3,13,3)


DIVOLIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Divolia

(Ptol. 3,13,26)


ONCHISTOS (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Ogchistos or Ogchismos

(Ptol. 3,14,2)


SKAMBIS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Skabis

(Ptol. 3,13,26)


Atlapedia

ALBANIA (Country) BALKANS

Columbus Publishing

Commercial WebPages

APOLLONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

BERAT (Town) ALBANIA

KORCE (Town) ALBANIA

KRUJE (Town) ALBANIA

VLORE (Town) ALBANIA

VOUTHROTON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Commercial WebSites

ALBANIA (Country) BALKANS

General

APOLLONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Apollonia

The city was founded in 588 B.C. by colonists from Corinth and Corcyra, to the north of the mouth of the Aous river.


VYLIS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

It was a city of the Elimiotes (Ptol. 3,13,4), founded by the Myrmidones under Neoptolemus (Steph. Byz.). Strabo locates it between the ancient cities Apollonias and Orikon. The remains are situated to the E of Valona (Aulon), in Garditsa location.


Governmental Web-Sites

ALBANIA (Country) BALKANS

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

AMANTIA (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Amantia

  Amantia (Amantia: Eth. Amantieus, Steph. B. s. v.; Amantinos, Ptol. ii. 16. § 3; Amantinus, Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. § 35; Amantianus, Caes. B.C. iii. 12; Amantes, Etym. M. s. v.; Amantes, Plin. iii. 23. s. 26. § 45), a town and district in Greek Illyria. It is said to have been founded by the Abantes of Euboea, who, according to tradition, settled near the Ceraunian mountains, and founded Amantia and Thronium. From hence the original name of Amantia is said to have been Abantia, and the surrounding country to have been called Abantis. (Steph. B. s. v. Abantis, Amantia; Etym. M. s. v. Amantes; Paus. v. 22. § 3.) Amantia probably stood at some distance from the coast, S. of the river Aous, and on a tributary of the latter, named Polyanthes. (Lycophr. 1043.) It is placed by Leake at Nivitza, where there are the remains of Hellenic walls. This site agrees with the distances afforded by Scylax and the Tabular Itinerary, the former of which places Amantia at 320 stadia, and the latter at 30 Roman miles from Apollonia. Ptolemy speaks of an Amantia on the coast, and another town of the same name inland; whence we may perhaps infer that the latter had a port of the same name, more especially as the language of Caesar (B.C. iii. 40) would imply that Amantia was situated on the coast. Amantia was a place of some importance in the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey; and it continued to be mentioned in the time of the Byzantine emperors. (Caes. B.C. iii. 12, 40; Cic. Phil. xi. 1. 1; Leake, Ancient Greece, vol. i. p. 375, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ANTIGONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Antigoneia

  Antigoneia (Antigoneia, Anrigonia, Anti. gonea, Liv.: Eth. Antigoneus, Antigonensis). A town of Epirus in the district Chaonia, on the Aous and near a narrow pass leading from Illyria into Chaonia. (Ta par Antigoneian stena, Pol. ii. 5, 6; ad Antigoneam fauces, Liv. xxxii. 5.) The town was in the hands of the Romans in their war with Perseus. (Liv. xliii. 23.) It is mentioned both by Pliny (iv. 1) and Ptolemy (iii. 14. § 7).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ANTIPATRIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Antipatria

  Antipatria or -ea, a town of Illyricum situated on the right bank of the Apsus, in a narrow pass. (Liv. xxxi. 27; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 361.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


APOLLONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Apollonia

  Apollonia (Pollina, or Pollona), a city of Illyria, situated 10 stadia from the right bank of the Aous, and 60 stadia from the sea (Strab. vii. p. 316), or 50 stadia according to Scylax. It was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans in the seventh century before the Christian era, and is said to have been originally called Gylaceia (Gulakeia), from Gylax, the name of its oecist. (Thuc. i. 26; Scymnus, 439, 440; Paus. v. 21. § 12, 22. § 3; Strab.; Steph. B. s. v.) Apollonia soon became a flourishing place, but its name rarely occurs in Grecian history. It is mentioned in the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey, as a fortified town with a citadel; and the possession of it was of great importance to Caesar in his campaign against Pompey in Greece. (Caes. B.C. iii. 12, seq.) Towards the end of the Roman republic it was celebrated as a seat of learning; and many of the Roman nobles were accustomed to send their sons thither for the purpose of studying the literature and philosophy of Greece. It was here that Augustus spent six months before the death of his uncle summoned him to Rome. (Suet. Aug. 10; Vell. Pat. ii. 59.) Cicero calls it at this period urbs magna et gravis. Apollonia is mentioned by Hierocles (p. 653, ed. Wesseling) in the sixth century; but its name does not occur in the writers of the middle ages. The village of Aulon, a little to the S. of Apollonia, appears to have increased in importance in the middle ages, as Apollonia declined. According to Strabo, the Via Egnatia commenced at Apollonia, and according to others at Dyrrhachium; the two roads met at Clodiana. There are scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city at the present day. Leake discovered some traces of walls and of two temples; and the monastery, built near its site, contains some fine pieces of sculpture, which were found in ploughing the fields in its neighbourhood. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 368, seq.; Tafel, De Via Fgnatia, p. 14, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ARNISSA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Arnissa

nbsp; Arnissa (Arnissa), a town of Macedonia in the province Eordaea, probably in the vale of O' strovo, at the entrance of the pass over the mountains which separated Lyncestis from Eordaea. (Thuc. iv. 108 ; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 315, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


CHIMARA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Chimaera

  Chimaera (Chimaira: Khimara), a town of Epeirus in the district Chaonia, now gives its name to the Acroceraunian mountains, at the foot of which it stands. At Khimara may be seen several pieces of Hellenic work, which serve as foundations to some of the modern houses. (Plin. iv. 1; Procop. de Aedif. iv. 4; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. pp. 7, 82, 89, seq.)


DALMATIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Dalmatia


Dyrrhachium

  Dyrrhachium (Durrhachion, Steph. B.; Ptol. iii. 13. § 3, viii. 12. § 3: Eth. Durrhachios, Durrhachenos, Dyrrachinus), a city on the coast of Illyricum in the Ionic gulf, which was known in Grecian history as Epidamnus. (Epidamnos,, Strab. vii. p. 316.)
  It is doubtful under what circumstances the name was changed to that of Dyrrhachium under which it usually appears in the Latin writers. Some have affirmed that the Romans, considering the word Epidamnus to be of ill omen, called it Dyrrhachium from the ruggedness of its situation. (Plin. iii. 23; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 12.) The latter word is, however, of Greek and not of Latin origin, and is used by the poet Euphorion of Chalcis. (Steph. B. s. v.) Strabo applied the name to the high and craggy peninsula upon which the town was built, as does also the poet Alexander. (Steph. B. s. v.) And as Dyrrhachium did not exactly occupy the site of ancient Epidamnus (Paus. vi. 10. § 2), it probably usurped the place of the earlier name from its natural features.
  Epidamnus was founded on the isthmus of an outlying peninsula on the sea-coast of the Illyrian Taulantii, about 627 B.C., as is said (Euseb. Chron.), by the Corcyraeans, yet with some aid, and a portion of the settlers, from Corinth; the leader of the colony, Phaleus, belonging to the family of the Heraclidae, according to the usual practice, was taken from the mother-city Corinth. (Thuc. i. 24-26.) Hence the Corinthians acquired a right to interfere, which afterwards led to important practical consequences. Owing to its favourable position upon the Adriatic, and fertile territory, it soon acquired considerable wealth, and was thickly peopled.
  The government was a close oligarchy; a single magistrate, similar to the Cosmopolis at Opus, was at the head of the administration. The chiefs of the tribes formed a kind of council, while the artisans and tradesmen in the town were looked upon as slaves belonging to the public. In process of time, probably a little before the Peloponnesian War, in. testine dissensions broke up this oligarchy. The original archon remained, but the phylarchs were replaced by a senate chosen on democratical principles. (Arist. Pol. ii. 4. § 13, iii. 11. § 1, iv, 33. § 8, v. 1. § 6, v. 3. § 4; Muller, Dor. vol. ii. p. 160, trans.; Grote, Greece, vol. iii. p. 546.) The government was liberal in the admission of resident aliens; but all individual dealing with the: neighbouring Illyrians was forbidden, and the traffic was carried on by means of an authorised selling agent, or Poletes. (Plut. Quaest. Graec. c. 29, p. 297; Aelian, V.H. xiii. 16.) The trade was not however confined to the inland tribes, but extended across from sea to sea, even before the construction of the Egnatian Way, and an Inscription (Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 2056) proclaims the gratitude of Odessus in the Euxine sea towards a citizen of Epidamnnus.
  The dispute respecting this city between Corinth and Corcyra was occasioned by a contest between the oligarchical exiles, who had been driven out by an internal sedition, and the Epidamnian democracy, in which the Corinthians supported the former. The history of this struggle has been fully given by Thucydides (l. c.), in consequence of its intimate connection with the origin of the Peloponnesian War, but we are left in ignorance of its final issue. Nor is anything known of its further history till 312 B.C., when, by the assistance of the Corcyraeans, Glaucias, king of the Illyrians, made himself master of Epidamnus. (Diod. xix. 70, 78.) Some years afterwards it was surprised by a party of Illyrian pirates; the inhabitants, on recovering from their first alarm, fell upon their assailants, and succeeded in driving them from the walls. (Polyb. ii. 9.) Not long after, the Illyrians returned with a powerful fleet, and laid siege to the town; but fortunately for the city, the arrival of the Roman consul compelled the enemy to make a hasty retreat. Epidamnus from this time placed itself under the protection of the Romans, to whose cause it appears to have constantly adhered, both in the Illyrian and Macedonian wars. (Polyb. ii. 11; Liv. xxix. 12, xliv. 30.)
  At a later period, Dyrrhachium, as it was then called, and a free state (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 1), became the scene of the contest between Caesar and Pompeius. The latter moved from Thessalonica, and threw himself before Dyrrhachium; the Pompeians entrenched themselves on the right bank of the Apsus, so effectually that Caesar was obliged to take up his position on the left, and resolved to pass the winter under canvass. This led to a series of remarkable operations, the result of which was that the great captain, in spite of the consummate ability he displayed in the face of considerable superiority in numbers and position, was compelled to leave Dyrrhachium to Pompeius, and try the fortune of war upon a second field. (Caesar, B.C. iii. 42-76; Appian, B.C. ii. 61; Dion Cass. xli. 49; Lucan vi.29-63.) Dyrrhachium sided with M. Antonius during the last civil wars of the Republic, and was afterwards presented by Augustus to his soldiers (Dion Cass. ii. 4), when the Illyrian peasants learned the rudiments of municipal law from the veterans of the empire. The inhabitants, whose patron deity was Venus (Catull. Carm. xxxiv. 11), were, if we may believe Plautus (Menaechm. act ii. sc. i. 30-40), a vicious and debauched race. The city itself, under the Lower Roman Empire, became the capital of the new province, Epirus Nova (Marquardt, Handbuch der Rom. Alt. p. 115), and is mentioned by the Byzantine historians as being still a considerable place in their time (Cedren. p. 703; Niceph. Callist. xvii. 3). Gibbon (Decline and Fall, vol. v. pp. 345-349; comp. Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. xv. pp. 133-145) has told the story of the memorable siege, battle, and capture of Dyrrhachium,when the Norman Robert Guiscard defeated the Greeks and their emperor Alexius, A.D. 1081-1082. The modern Durazzo represents this place; the surrounding country is described as being highly attractive, though unhealthy. (Albanien, Rumelien, und die Oesterreichisch Montenegrische Granze, Jos. Muller, Prag. 1844, p. 62.) There are a great number of autonomous coins belonging to this city, none however under the name of Epidamnus, but always with the epigraph DUR, or more rarely DURA, the type, as on the coins of Corcyra, a cow suckling a calf; on the reverse, the gardens of Alcinous. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 155.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EKATOMBEDON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Hecatompedum

  Hecatompedum (Hekartompedon, Ptol. iii. 14. § 7), a town in the interior of Chaonia in Epeirus; probably situated in the vale of the Sukha, above Libokhovo. (Leake, Travels in Northern, Greece, vol. iv. p. 120.)


EPIDAMNOS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Dyrrhachium

  Durrhachion, Eth. Durrhachios, Durrhachenos, Dyrrachinus. A city on the coast of Illyricum in the Ionic gulf, which was known in Grecian history as EPIDAMNUS (Epidamnos, Strab. vii. p. 316.)
  It is doubtful under what circumstances the name was changed to that of DYRRHACHIUM under which it usually appears in the Latin writers. Some have affirmed that the Romans, considering the word Epidamnus to be of ill omen, called it Dyrrhachium from the ruggedness of its situation. (Plin. iii. 23; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 12.) The latter word is, however, of Greek and not of Latin origin, and is used by the poet Euphorion of Chalcis. (Steph. B.) Strabo applied the name to the high and craggy peninsula upon which the town was built, as does also the poet Alexander. (Steph. B.) And as Dyrrhachium did not exactly occupy the site of ancient Epidamnus (Paus. vi. 10. § 2), it probably usurped the place of the earlier name from its natural features.
  Epidamnus was founded on the isthmus of an outlying peninsula on the sea-coast of the Illyrian Taulantii, about 627 B.C., as is said (Euseb. Chron.), by the Corcyraeans, yet with some aid, and a portion of the settlers, from Corinth; the leader of the colony, Phaleus, belonging to the family of the Heraclidae, according to the usual practice, was taken from the mother-city Corinth. (Thuc. i. 24-26.) Hence the Corinthians acquired a right to interfere, which afterwards led to important practical consequences. Owing to its favourable position upon the Adriatic, and fertile territory, it soon acquired considerable wealth, and was thickly peopled.
  The government was a close oligarchy; a single magistrate, similar to the Cosmopolis at Opus, was at the head of the administration. The chiefs of the tribes formed a kind of council, while the artisans and tradesmen in the town were looked upon as slaves belonging to the public. In process of time, probably a little before the Peloponnesian War, in. testine dissensions broke up this oligarchy. The original archon remained, but the phylarchs were replaced by a senate chosen on democratical principles. (Arist. Pol. ii. 4. § 13, iii. 11. § 1, iv, 33. § 8, v. 1. § 6, v. 3. § 4; Muller, Dor. vol. ii. p. 160, trans.; Grote, Greece, vol. iii. p. 546.) The government was liberal in the admission of resident aliens; but all individual dealing with the: neighbouring Illyrians was forbidden, and the traffic was carried on by means of an authorised selling agent, or Poletes. (Plut. Quaest. Graec. c. 29, p. 297; Aelian, V.H. xiii. 16.) The trade was not however confined to the inland tribes, but extended across from sea to sea, even before the construction of the Egnatian Way, and an Inscription (Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 2056) proclaims the gratitude of Odessus in the Euxine sea towards a citizen of Epidamnnus.
  The dispute respecting this city between Corinth and Corcyra was occasioned by a contest between the oligarchical exiles, who had been driven out by an internal sedition, and the Epidamnian democracy, in which the Corinthians supported the former. The history of this struggle has been fully given by Thucydides, in consequence of its intimate connection with the origin of the Peloponnesian War, but we are left in ignorance of its final issue. Nor is anything known of its further history till 312 B.C., when, by the assistance of the Corcyraeans, Glaucias, king of the Illyrians, made himself master of Epidamnus. (Diod. xix. 70, 78.) Some years afterwards it was surprised by a party of Illyrian pirates; the inhabitants, on recovering from their first alarm, fell upon their assailants, and succeeded in driving them from the walls. (Polyb. ii. 9.) Not long after, the Illyrians returned with a powerful fleet, and laid siege to the town; but fortunately for the city, the arrival of the Roman consul compelled the enemy to make a hasty retreat. Epidamnus from this time placed itself under the protection of the Romans, to whose cause it appears to have constantly adhered, both in the Illyrian and Macedonian wars. (Polyb. ii. 11; Liv. xxix. 12, xliv. 30.)
  At a later period, Dyrrhachium, as it was then called, and a free state (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 1), became the scene of the contest between Caesar and Pompeius. The latter moved from Thessalonica, and threw himself before Dyrrhachium; the Pompeians entrenched themselves on the right bank of the Apsus, so effectually that Caesar was obliged to take up his position on the left, and resolved to pass the winter under canvass. This led to a series of remarkable operations, the result of which was that the great captain, in spite of the consummate ability he displayed in the face of considerable superiority in numbers and position, was compelled to leave Dyrrhachium to Pompeius, and try the fortune of war upon a second field. (Caesar, B.C. iii. 42-76; Appian, B.C. ii. 61; Dion Cass. xli. 49; Lucan, vi. 29-63.) Dyrrhachium sided with M. Antonius during the last civil wars of the Republic, and was afterwards presented by Augustus to his soldiers (Dion Cass. ii. 4), when the Illyrian peasants learned the. rudiments of municipal law from the veterans of the empire. The inhabitants, whose patron deity was Venus (Catull. Carm. xxxiv. 11), were, if we may believe Plautus (Menaechm. act ii. sc. i. 30-40), a vicious and debauched race. The city itself, under the Lower Roman Empire, became the capital of the new province, Epirus Nova (Marquardt, Handbuch der Rom. Alt. p. 115), and is mentioned by the Byzantine historians as being still a considerable place in their time (Cedren. p. 703; Niceph. Callist. xvii. 3). Gibbon (Decline and Fall, vol. v. pp. 345-349; comp. Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. xv. pp. 133-145) has told the story of the memorable siege, battle, and capture of Dyrrhachium,when the Norman Robert Guiscard defeated the Greeks and their emperor Alexius, A.D. 1081-1082. The modern Durazzo represents this place; the surrounding country is described as being highly attractive, though unhealthy. (Albanien, Rumelien, und die Oesterreichisch Montenegrische Granze, Jos. Muller, Prag. 1844, p. 62.) There are a great number of autonomous coins belonging to this city, none however under the name of Epidamnus, but always with the epigraph DUR, or more rarely DURA,-the type, as on the coins of Corcyra, a cow suckling a calf; on the reverse, the gardens of Alcinous. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 155.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ILLYRIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Illyricum


KODRION (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Codrion

  Codrion, a fortified town in Illyria, which surrendered to the Romans upon the capture of Antipatria, B.C. 200. It was probably near the latter city, upon the river Apsus. (Liv. xxxi. 27.) It was probably the same town, which is called Chrysondyon by Polybius (v. 108). (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 326, seq.)


LISSOS (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Issus

  Issus (Lissos, Strab. vii. p. 316; Ptol. ii. 16. § 5; Steph. B.; Hierocles; Peut. Tab.), a town of Illyricum, at the mouth of the river Drilo. Dionysius the elder, in his schemes for establishing settlements among the Illyrian tribes, founded Lissus. (Diod. xv. 13.) It was afterwards in the hands of the Illyrians, who, after they had been defeated by the Romans, retained this port, beyond which their vessels were not allowed to sail. (Polyb. ii. 12.) B.C. 211, Philip of Macedon, having surprised the citadel Acrolissus, compelled the town to surrender. (Polyb. viii. 15.) Gentius, the Illyrian king, collected his forces here for the war against Rome. (Liv. xliv. 30.) A body of Roman citizens was stationed there by Caesar (B.C. iii. 26 - 29) to defend the town; and Pliny (iii. 26), who says that it was 100 M.P. from Epidaurus, describes it as oppidum civium Romanorum. Constantine Porphyrogeneta (de Adm. Imp. c. 30) calls it Helissos, and it now bears the name of Lesch. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 477; Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. ii. p. 275.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ONCHISTOS (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Onchesmus

  Onchesmus (Onkesmos), a port-town of Chaonia in Epeirus, opposite the north-western point of Corcyra, and the next port upon the coast to the south of Panormus. (Strab. vii. p. 324; Ptol. iii. 14. § 2.) It seems to have been a place of importance in the time of Cicero, and one of the ordinary points of departure from Epeirus to Italy, as Cicero calls the wind favourable for making that passage an Onchesmites. (Cic. ad Att. vii. 2) According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. Rom. i. 51) the real name of the place was the Port of Anchises (Anchisou limen), named after Anchises, the father of Aeneas; and it was probably owing to this tradition that the name Onchesmus assumed the form of Anchiasmus under the Byzantine emperors. Its site is that of the place now called the Forty Saints. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 11.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ORIKON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Oricum

  Oricum, Oricus (Orikos, Hecat. Fr. 75 ap. Steph. B. s. v.; Herod. ix. 92; Scyl. p. 10; Polyb. vii. 19; Scymn. 440; Eust. ad Dion. 321; Orikon, Ptol. iii. 14. § 2; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 12; Plin. iii. 26), a town and harbour of Illyricum, not far from Apollonia and the mouth of the Aous. Legend ascribes its foundation to the Euboeans on their return from Troy (Scymn. l. c.); and Apollonius (Argon. iv. 1216) speaks of the arrival of a party of Colchians at this port; and thus Pliny (l. c.) calls it a Colchian colony. Oricum is known in history as a haven frequented by the Romans in their communications with Greece, from its being very conveniently situated for the passage from Brundusium and Hydruntum. B.C. 214, the town was taken by Philip V. of Macedonia; but it afterwards fell into the hands of the Romans and M. Valerius Laevinus, who commanded at Brundusium, with a single legion and a small fleet. (Liv. xxiv. 40.) After the campaign of B.C. 167, Aemilius Paulus embarked his victorious troops from Oricum for Italy. (Plut. Aemil. Paul. 29.) Caesar, after he had disembarked his troops at PALAESTE (Lucan iv.460; comp. Caes. B.C. iii. 6, where the reading Pharsalus or Pharsalia, is a mistake or corruption of the MSS.), or the sheltered beach of Palasa, surrounded by the dangerous promontories of the Ceraunian mountains, within one day of his landing marched to Oricum, where a squadron of the Pompeian fleet was stationed. (Caes. B.C. iii. 11; Appian, B.C. ii. 54.) The Oricii declared their unwillingness to resist the Roman consul; and Torquatus, the governor, delivered up the keys of the fortress to Caesar. The small fleet in which he had brought his forces over was laid up at Oricum, where the harbour was blocked up by sinking a vessel at its mouth. Cnaeus, the son of Pompeius, made a spirited attack on this strong. hold, and, cutting out four of the vessels, burnt the rest. (Caes. B.C. iii. 40.) It continued as an important haven on the Adriatic. (Hor. Carm. iii. 7. 5; Propert. Eleg. i. 8, 20; Lucan iii.187.) The [p. 493] name of its harbour was PANORMUS (Panormos, Strab. vii. p. 316), now Porto Raguseo; while the CELYDNUS (Keludnos, Ptol. iii. 13. § § 2, 5) is identified with the river of Dlukadhes. It would seem from Virgil (Aen. x. 136) that Oricum was famous for its turpentine, while Nicander (Ther. 516) alludes to its boxwood. The town was restored by the munificence of Herodes Atticus. (Philostr. Her. Att. 5.) To the f. of the mouth of the river of Dukhades is a succession of lagoons, in the midst of which lies Oricum, on the desert site now called Erikho, occupied (in 1818) only by two or three huts among the vestiges of an aqueduct. (Smytb, Mediterranean, p. 46.) The present name (Iericho, Anna Comn. xiii. p. 389) is accented on the last syllable, as in the ancient word, and E substituted for O by a common dialectic change. (Pouqueville, Voyage, vol. i. p. 2,64; Leake, North. Greece, vol. i. pp. 36, 90.) A coin of Oricus has for type a head of Apollo. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 167.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Scodra

  Scodra (he Skodra, Ptol. ii. 16. (17.) § 12; Skodrai, Hierocl. p. 656: Eth. Scodrenses, Liv. xlv. 26), one of the snore important towns of Roman Illyricum (Montenegro), the capital of the Labeates, seated at the southern extremity of the lake Labeatis, between two rivers, the Clausula on the E., and the Barbanna on the W. (Liv. xliv. 31), and at a distance of 17 miles from the sea-coast (Plin. iii. 22. s. 26). It was a very strong place, and Gentius, king of the Illyrians, attempted to defend it against the Romans, B.C. 168, but was defeated in a battle under the walls. Pliny erroneously places it on the Drilo (l. c.). At a later period it became the chief city of the province Praevalitana. It is the present Scutari, which is also the name of the lake Labeatis. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 476.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

ANTIGONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Antigonea

A town in Epirus at the junction of a tributary with the Aous, and near a narrow pass of the Acroceraunian Mountains.


APOLLONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Apollonia

   An important town in Illyria, not far from the mouth of the Aous, and sixty stadia from the sea. It was founded by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans, and was equally celebrated as a place of commerce and of learning. Many distinguished Romans, among others the young Octavius, afterwards the emperor Augustus, pursued their studies here. Persons travelling from Italy to Greece and the East usually landed either at Apollonia or Dyrrhacium.

This extract is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DALMATIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Dalmatia

Dalmatia or Delmatia. A part of the country along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, included under the general name of Illyricum, and separated from Liburnia on the north by the Titius (Kerka), and from Greek Illyria on the south by the Drilo (Drino), thus nearly corresponding to the modern Dalmatia. The capital was Dalminium or Delminium, from which the country derived its name. The next most important town was Salona, the residence of Diocletian. The Dalmatians were a brave and warlike people and gave much trouble to the Romans. In B.C. 119, their country was overrun by L. Metellus, who assumed, in consequence, the surname Dalmaticus, but they continued independent of the Romans. In B.C. 39, they were defeated by Asinius Pollio, of whose Dalmatic triumph Horace speaks; but it was not till the year 23 that they were finally subdued by Statilius Taurus. They took part in the great Pannonian revolt under their leader Bato ; but after a three years' war were again reduced to subjection by Tiberius, in A.D. 9.


EPIDAMNOS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Dyrrhahium

   The modern Durazzo, formerly called Epidamnus (Epidamnos); a town in Greek Illyria, on a peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. It was founded by the Corcyreans and received the name of Epidamnus; but since the Romans regarded this name as one of bad omen, reminding them of damnum, they changed it into Dyrrhachium. It was the usual place of landing for persons who crossed over from Brundisium, and was to that town what Calais is to Dover. Here commenced the great Via Egnatia. The place was one of much commerce, so that Catullus calls it taberna Hadriae, "the shop of the Adriatic." During the Civil Wars it was the headquarters of Pompey, who kept his military stores here. In A.D. 345 it was destroyed by an earthquake.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FINIKI (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Phoenice

Now Finiki; a city of Epirus on the coast, in the district Chaonia.


ILLYRIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Illyria

   or Illyris, more rarely Illyria (to Illurikon, Illuris, Illuria), included, in its widest signification, all the land west of Macedonia and east of Italy and Rhaetia, extending south as far as Epirus, and north as far as the valleys of the Savus and Dravus, and the junction of these rivers with the Danube. This wide extent of country was inhabited by numerous Illyrian tribes, all of whom were more or less barbarous. They were probably of the same origin as the Thracians. The country was divided into two parts. (1) Illyris Barbara or Romana, the Roman province of Illyricum, extended along the Adriatic sea from Italy (Istria), from which it was separated by the Arsia, to the river Drilo, and was bounded on the east by Macedonia and Moesia Superior, from which it was separated by the Drinus, and on the north by Pannonia, from which it was separated by the Dravus. It thus comprehended a part of the modern Croatia, the whole of Dalmatia, almost the whole of Bosnia, and a part of Albania. It was divided in ancient times into three districts, according to the tribes by which it was inhabited--Iapydia, the interior of the country on the north, from the Arsia to the Tedanius; Liburnia, along the coast from the Arsia to the Titius; and Dalmatia, south of Liburnia, along the coast from the Titius to the Drilo. The Liburnians submitted at an early time to the Romans; but it was not till after the conquest of the Dalmatians, in the reign of Augustus, that the entire country was organized as a Roman province. From this time the Illyrians, and especially the Dalmatians, formed an important part of the Roman legion. (2) Illyris Graeca, or Illyria Propria, also called Epirus Nova, extended from the Drilo, along the Adriatic, to the Ceraunian Mountains, which separated it from Epirus proper; it was bounded on the east by Macedonia. It thus embraced the greater part of the modern Albania.
    It was a mountainous country, but possessed some fertile land on the coast. Its principal rivers were the Aous, Apsus, Genusus, and Panyasus. In the interior was an important lake, the Lychnitis. On the coast there were the Greek colonies of Epidamnus, afterwards Dyrrhachium, and Apollonia. It was at these places that the celebrated Via Egnatia commenced, which ran through Macedonia to Byzantium. The country was inhabited by various tribes--Atintanes, Taulantii, Parthini, Dassaretae, etc. In early times they were troublesome and dangerous neighbours to the Macedonian kings. They were subdued by Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, who defeated and slew in battle their king, Bardylis, in B.C. 359. After the death of Alexander the Great, most of the Illyrian tribes recovered their independence. At a later time the injury which the Roman trade suffered from their piracies brought against them the arms of the Republic. The forces of their queen, Teuta, were easily defeated by the Romans, and she was obliged to purchase peace by the surrender of part of her dominions and the payment of an annual tribute (B.C. 229). The second Illyrian war was finished by the Romans with the same ease. It was commenced by Demetrius of Pharos, who was guardian of Pineus, the son of Agron, but he was conquered by the consul Aemilius Paulus in 219. Pineus was succeeded by Pleuratus, who cultivated friendly relations with the Romans. His son Gentius formed an alliance with Perseus, king of Macedonia, against Rome; but he was conquered by the praetor L. Anicius, in the same year as Perseus (168); whereupon Illyria, as well as Macedonia, became subject to Rome. In the new division of the Empire under Constantine, Illyricum formed one of the great provinces. It was divided into Illyricum Occidentale, which included Illyricum Propria, Pannonia, and Noricum, and Illyricum Orientale, which comprehended Dacia, Moesia, Macedonia, and Thrace.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LISSA (Island) ALBANIA

Issa

Issa. The modern Lissa; a small island in the Adriatic Sea, with a town of the same name, off the coast of Dalmatia, said to have derived its name from Issa, daughter of Macareus of Lesbos, who was beloved by Apollo. (Ovid, Met.vi. 124). The island was inhabited by a hardy race of sailors, whose barks (lembi Issaei) were much prized.


ONCHISTOS (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Onchesmus

(Onchesmos) or Onchismus (Onchismos). A seaport town of Epirus, opposite Corcyra.


ORIKON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Oricum

(Orikon) or Oricus (Orikos). An important Greek town on the coast of Illyria, near the Ceraunian Mountains and the frontiers of Epirus. It was said to have been founded by the Euboeans who were here cast ashore on their return from the Trojan War.


VOUTHROTON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Bouthrotum

Now Butrinto; a town of Epirus, a flourishing seaport on a small peninsula, opposite Corcyra.


Infoplease

ALBANIA (Country) BALKANS

Links

ILLYRIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Illyria

  Region along the coast of the Adriatic Sea facing Italy spanning from northwestern Greece all the way to what is today the Venice area. The people of Illyria was considered “barbarous” by the Greeks (that is, not speaking Greek).
  Greek settlements were established in the southern part of Illyria, including the city of Epidamnus, a colony of Corcyra (itself a colony of Corinth).

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


Maps

ALBANIA (Country) BALKANS

Non-profit organizations WebPages

BERAT (Town) ALBANIA

FIER (Town) ALBANIA

KORCE (Town) ALBANIA

KRUJE (Town) ALBANIA

KUKES (Town) ALBANIA

VLORE (Town) ALBANIA

Non commercial Web-Sites

VOUTHROTON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Perseus Project

EPIDAMNOS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Epidamnos, Epidamnus, Dyrrachium, Dyrrhachium


ILLYRIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Perseus Project index

AMANTIA (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Amantia

Total results on 10/5/2001: 6


ONCHISTOS (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Onchesmus

Total results on 28/6/2001: 4


VOUTHROTON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

VYLIS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Byllis

Total results on 23/4/2001: 4


Present location

ALESSION (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Les or Letz


FINIKI (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Finik

The modern village of Finik retains the name of the ancient city of Phoinice.


PILION (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Pliassa


SORIA (Ancient city) CHAONIA

Soronia

It is located to the N of the Bouthrotos lake.


The Catholic Encyclopedia

ALESSION (Ancient city) ALBANIA

AVLON (Ancient port) ALBANIA

ILLYRIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

VYLIS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

AMANTIA (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Amantia (Klos)

  On the right bank of the lower Aous, a steep-sided hill is fortified with a circuit wall ca. 1900 m long. An ancient road enters the city between two towers of ashlar masonry and foundations of houses are visible inside. Some magistrates of the city are named on an inscribed block in a house of the modern village. Religious and funerary reliefs of Hellenistic and Roman times come from the site. Literary evidence suggests that it was Amantia, the chief city of the Amantes, who issued coins.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


AMANTIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Ploce

  The modern city lies on a high ridge between the Gulf of Orikon and the lower Aous valley, just below a city of the Hellenistic and Roman periods, ringed by a circuit wall ca. 2200 m long in ashlar style. Residential districts extended outside the circuit. A late Hellenistic stadium with steps on three sides has been excavated, and built tombs of Macedonian type have been opened. The site has yielded fine heads of Alexander and Dodonaean Zeus in marble and limestone, architectural members, sculptured reliefs, and coins of Hellenistic and Roman times. The name of this city, situated in the territory of the Amantes, is unknown; some suppose it to be Amantia, but that city lay probably on the route down the Aous valley (see Klos).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ANTIGONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Antigonea

  A city identified by inscriptions on voting discs, lies above Saraginishte E of Argyrokastro on a ridge 762 m above sea level. Founded by Pyrinhos and named after his first wife Antigone, the city had a circuit wall ca. 4000 m long. Chief inland city of Chaonia, it controlled the fertile Drin valley and traded with Apollonia down the Aous valley, Korkyra via Onchesmos or Buthinotum, and Dodona to the S. Its forces could block the pass of the Drin through which the Illyrians and later the Romans entered Epeiros from the N (Polyb. 2.5.6; 2.6.6; and Livy 32.5.9; 43.23.2). Excavations have revealed towers and gateways of fine ashlar masonry, public buildings, some 450 coins of the Hellenistic period and evidence of metalworking in bronze and iron.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ANTIPATRIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Antipatrea

  At the W end of the gorge of the Osum river. The foundations of ancient fortifications are visible at the foot of a Turkish fort; the city was destroyed, by Rome in 200 B.C. (Livy 31.27).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


APOLLONIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Apollonia

  An ancient city near the mouth of the Aous river (the Vojussa). The remains are scattered over the hill of Pojani near a monastery which is said to have been built on the site of a temple of Apollo on the hill of Sthyllas. In the monastery a single Doric column is preserved, belonging to a hexastyle temple of the 5th c. B.C. The necropolis is in the valley of Kryegyata. The founding of Apollonia, in 588 B.C., is attributed to colonists from Corinth and Kerkyra. Its location favored its development. Quite early, the city must have defended itself against incursions by Macedonians and Illyrians as a result of which it sought an alliance with Rome in 260 B.C., and in 229 it came under Roman protection. Cicero called it an "urbs gravis et nobilis" and the city had a renowned school of rhetoric which even Octavian attended.
  The walls, ca. 4 km long and well preserved, are constructed of limestone blocks and fortified with towers. The S side of the acropolis is buttressed by a beautifully terraced wall of ornamentally bossed stones. A gate with a pointed arch is set in the walls.
  The theater, set apart on the W slopes of the hill of the acropolis, is identified by limestone blocks with a molding characteristic of theater seats.
  A Hellenistic portico at the foot of the acropolis had a wall with 17 arched niches in front of which were Ionic half-columns with limestone capitals. In another niche, larger than the others, a small rectangular Hellenistic temple, with angular pilasters, is set. In front of the temple is an elegant altar.
  The small odeon or covered theater next to the temple is Roman in design, rectangular in plan, with a semicircular cavea.
  The monument of the public games superintendents is rectangular (19 x 15 m) on the outside, with a portico along the front and with a pedimental roof. There is a small vestibule inside and a small cavea with an orchestra. There were Corinthian columns on the facade and a richly carved cornice. On the architrave, there is an inscription in Greek which says that the building was constructed in the Antonine period by Q. Villius Crespinus Furius Proculus, a prytaneus, or superintendent of the public games, and high priest for life, in honor and memory of his brother Villius Valerius Furius Proculus, prefect of a cohort in Syria, tribune of Legio X (or XIV) in Pannonia, and a superintendent designate of the public games. The plan and structure of the building are quite similar to those of the bouleuterion of Miletos.
  The acropolis had two summits, the major one being to the S. The lower level of a Greek temple was uncovered there and perhaps a limestone Ionic frieze found in the vicinity is part of that temple. The frieze has relief figures of warriors in combat.
  A bath complex has been partially excavated near the W section of the city walls. Two rooms are visible, one of which has a mosaic pavement, as well as the heating room.
  The remains of a gymnasium have been partially excavated about 300 m S of the monastery. It is perhaps the gymnasium mentioned by Strabo which was destined for other uses in the Roman period. Two archaic antefixes belonged to an older structure as did a stater struck at Metapontion. It was decorated with statues and the base was discovered there for a statue of Aphrodite, as is clear from a Greek inscription on one of its sides which mentions the prytaneus Psillus and the hieromnemones. During the Hellenistic period, the building was provided with a terracotta bathing tub set into the pavement, but in the Roman period it was turned into a home. Coins dating to the 4th c. A.D., have been discovered there.
  Minor monuments include the remains of Roman houses, a triple-opening triumphal arch, a row of shops along a street, and a large hall in which it is tempting to recognize a library.
  The necropolis, in the valley of Kryegyata, includes Greek tombs dating to the 6th c. B.C. as well as Roman tombs. The Roman tombs of the Imperial period are often shaped like small temples.
  Various works of art have been found in the area of the ancient city. The most important is certainly the previously mentioned archaic frieze, coming perhaps from a temple on the acropolis. In the Louvre is a copy of the Anapauomenos of Praxiteles; in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna is a copy of the head of the Ludovisi Ares; and in Tirana is the Meleager of Skopas. The limestone stelai, which are somewhat reminiscent of Tarentine art works, are the most characteristic, in form and decoration, and can be considered Apollonian originals. Among Apollonian works of art is the votive offering dedicated to Olympia for a victory over Thronion. It is the work of Lykios, the son of Myron.

P. C. Sestieri, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ARNISSA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Arnissa

  The first town of the Macedonian kingdom reached after going S through the Kirli Derven pass into Lynkos. In 524 B.C. the Spartan leader Brasidas, abandoned by his Macedonian ally, reached Arnissa after a long day that ended with the storming of the pass (Thuc. 4.128.3). An important Classical site can probably be identified with Arnissa just E of the S end of the pass, N of the village of Petres and near its lake. Rectangular foundations, possibly of a defense wall, are visible; several inscriptions and numerous small objects have been found. There have been no excavations.
  Arnissa was still of some importance in Late Roman times, and appears, misnamed as Larissa, in the Synekdemos of Hierokles (638.11). The village of Ostrovo, at the head of Lake Ostrovo, has been officially renamed Arnissa, but this cannot be correct, since it is based on misidentification of the pass into Lynkos. No ancient name can convincingly be associated with the remains at Ostrovo.

P. A. Mackay, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


AVLON (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Aulon (Bylliace)

  The site is on a low ridge on the coast at the N end of the Gulf of Valona. Inland is a large lagoon which is joined to the sea on the N of the site by a channel (aulon); after this channel Bylliace vzas renamed Aulon, the predecessor of the modern Valona. The site is separated now from the hinterland by a waste of sandy dunes, but in Roman times it was the terminal port of the Via Egnatia which ran from the Adriatic coast to Constantinople. Remains of walls survive on the ridge, along the shore and in the sea where there was once a built quay.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


CHAONIA (Ancient country) ALBANIA

Omphalion

  A precipitous ridge, overlooking the gorge of the Suhe river, is fortified with a circuit wall and powerful towers. The site controls the entry from the Drin valley to the high plateau of Polican, the territory probably of the Omphales, a Chaonian tribe. It is mentioned by Ptolemy (3.13.5).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


CHIMARA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Cemara

  The name survives from ancient times through a bishopric of Chimara. The village, situated in a strong position on the lip of a gorge, is set among the ruined fortifications of the ancient city, which was the capital of the Chaonians of this rocky, steep coast. A small plain below Chimera has an exposed beach, and the place was famous for its so-called royal spring of fresh water (Plin. HN 4.1.4). It was a place of refuge for shipping on the very dangerous Ceraunian coast.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


EKATOMBEDON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Hekatompedon

  Mentioned by Ptolemy (3.14) as an inland city of Chaonia. The site is defended by cliffs on two long sides and by strong walls of ashlar masonry, strengthened with towers, on two short sides; the circumference of the defensible area was some 1700 m. The masonry and the use of bonding cross-walls within the circuit wall date the site to ca. 295-290 B.C., and it is likely that Pyrrhos founded it and Antigonea at the same time. The site has great strategic importance: it commanded the entry from the N into the Drin valley and lay close to the mouth of the Aous pass (Aoi Stena), leading towards Macedonia. The two rivers join just N of Lekel.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ELEOUS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Elaious

  Mentioned as an inland Chaonian town by Ptolemy (3.14). It is the only place in the Drin valley where olives are grown and the ancient name means "olive town." There are remains of a circuit wall ca. 1400 m long on a low ridge and of a temple where the Musllm monastery now stands.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


EPIDAMNOS (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Epidamnos

  A city, ca. 30 km W of Tirana, founded in 627 B.C. by Corinth and Kerkyra. The name Dyrrachion is found on coins; in the Roman period it was prevalent (changed to Dyrrachium). Since the modern city is built over the ancient town, it is primarily on the basis of inscriptions and occasional finds that some idea of its monuments has been formed.
  Inscriptions offer evidence on the following monuments: an aqueduct constructed by Hadrian and restored by Alexander Severus (the inscription comes from Arapaj, a short distance from Durazzo: CIL III, 1-709); the Temple of Minerva; the Temple of Diana (CIL III, 1-602), which is perhaps the one mentioned by Appian (BCiv. 2.60); the equestrian statue of L. Titinius Sulpicianus (CIL III, 1-605); the library (CIL m, 1-67). The last inscription mentions that for the dedication of the library 24 gladiators fought in pairs. The conjecture that there was an amphitheater in the city is confirmed by a passage from the Vita di Skanderbeg by Marino Barlezio: amphitheatrum mira arte ingenioque constructum.
  As a result of occasional discoveries, the following data are available: a 3d c. mosaic pavement with the representation of a female head found at a depth of 5 m (the head, surrounded by garlands of vegetables and flowers, brings to mind those painted on Apulian vases); remains of houses covered by other layers, the lowest of which, of the Greek era, was found at a depth of 5 m.
  Columns with Corinthian capitals and marble facing, discovered on the nearby hillside at Stani, belong probably to the Temple of Minerva or to the Capitolium. The necropolis is E of the hills that stand above the city. The Stele of Lepidia Salvia, a sarcophagus (now at Istanbul) with a scene of the Caledonian boar hunt, and numerous Roman tombs were found in the necropolis.

P. C. Sestieri, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


FINIKI (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Phoinike

  According to Polybios, this was the best fortified town of Epeiros. It rose on a hill shaped like the wrecked keel of a ship, with the village of Finik at the foot of the hill. The walls, in three sections, are preserved on the hill: the acropolis walls, the walls of the period of the enlarging of the acropolis, and the walls of the fortified city. These walls, constructed in ashlar masonry, employed huge blocks, and in some places rest in the living rock. They date between the 4th c. and 2d c. B.C. Inside the acropolis are the remains of Greek and Roman walls. In the village, there are few remains of Greek walls, but the Roman remains are numerous, incorporated for the most part into modern buildings. Some are in opus reticulatum and brick, others in opus incertum and can be dated even to the late Roman period. A small thesauros has been uncovered on the acropolis. In the Byzantine period it was transformed into a baptistery. Three cisterns, dating between the 5th c. B.C. and the 3d c. A.D., are recognizable, as are a few remains of minor buildings.
  The necropolis, set on the slopes of the hill, contains tombs, all of the Hellenistic period, some chest-like in rock slabs and others covered with tiles.

P. C. Sestieri, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


KODRION (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Rrmait (Kodrion)

  To the N of Mt. Tomor. The earliest coins yielded by excavation are of Philip II of Macedon; the massive circuit wall with a fine gateway dates probably to the late 4th c. B.C. Names are preserved on tile stamps and amphora seals; weapons, tools, and fibulas were found. Kodrion figured in the wars between Macedon and Rome (Livy 31.27.4).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


KROTINE (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Krotine

  A city on a high peak of Mt. Shpiragrit. The acropolis and the residential area were enclosed by a circuit wall ca. 2400 m long. The city commanded the route along the E side of the swampy plain of Myzeqija, which led N from Apollonia. Coins and inscriptions are of the Hellenistic period. The city was occupied by Demetrius and captured by the Romans in 219 B.C. (Polyb. 3.18 and 7.9.13; cf. Livy 29.12.3).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


LISSOS (Ancient city) ILLYRIA

Lissos

  An important Illyrian city on the left bank of the Drin where it enters the marshy coastal plain of the Adriatic Sea. The site is a steep-sided high hill, overlooking the river. There are remains of prehistoric and later settlements on the hill, but the extensive fortifications date from the late 4th c. B.C., the styles of the masonry being polygonal and trapezoidal. Later repairs and additions were made in the 1st c. s.c.; Caesar (BCiv 3.29.1) mentions them, and an inscription preserves the names of the magistrates who were in charge of the work. The acropolis on the hilltop is defended by a circuit wall; the lower town, extending down to the bank of the river, was itself fortified by a circuit wall appended to that of the acropolis. Dionysius of Syracuse and later Philip V of Macedon laid claim to the city (D.S. 15.13.4 and 15.14.2; Polyb. 8.15). In antiquity the main bed of the Drin lay farther N and Lissos itself was a port of some consequence because it gave access not only to the hinterland but to the route via the White Drin into the Central Balkan area. Lissos issued coinage.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


MAIANDRIA (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Maiandria

  On a hill in marshy ground near the coast, inland from Buthrotum, are remains of a powerful circuit wall with massive well-cut blocks, similar to that at Phoinike and built probably ca. 325-320 B.C. The name was attributed to Trojans who settled here en route to Latium. Pliny (HN 4.1.4) mentions it as being on the coast of Epeiros; it was probably on the Roman road, which followed the coast.

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ONCHISTOS (Ancient port) ALBANIA

Onchesmos

  A port of call on the coast of Epeiros, just N of Santi Quaranta. Remains of a small Roman theater and of buildings and fortifications of the Late Roman Empire suggest that it became important only in Roman times. Its position is indicated by Strabo (7.7.5), and its wind favored Cicero in sailing to Italy (Att. 7.2.1).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ORIKON (Ancient city) ALBANIA

Orikon

  At the head of the Gulf of Valona. The site is a low rocky outcrop on the coast, approached from the E by a swampy strip of shore and having on the W an open channel that connects the sea and a lagoon inland of the outcrop; the channel and the lagoon afforded small ships an excellent harbor, which was improved by a stone-built quay, still visible under water. Foundations of a circuit wall with towers can be traced in rock-cuttings, a small theater or odeum has been excavated, and there are remains of a road from the harbor to the Roman road which ran S inland of the Ceraunian peninsula. Inscriptions from the area- show that the Dioscuri, Aphrodite, and Eros were worshiped. Though the fortified area was small, Orikon was an important port of call on the coasting route and acted as a market for the hinterland of the Gulf; it issued coinage in the Hellenistic period. Julius Caesar described the place (BCiv. 3.llf).

N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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