gtp logo

Location information

Listed 45 sub titles with search on: Information about the place  for wider area of: "BULGARIA Country BALKANS" .

Information about the place (45)


Columbus Publishing

Commercial WebPages

Commercial WebSites

Educational institutions WebPages

Governmental Web-Sites

National Information & Advertising Center


Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


  Apollonia (Apollonia: Eth. Apolloniates, Apolloniates, Apollinas, -atis, Apolloniensis). (Sizeboli), a town of Thrace, on the Pontus Euxinus, a little S. of Mesambria, was a colony of the Milesians. It had two large harbours, and the greater part of the town was situated on a small island. It possessed a celebrated temple of Apollo, and a colossal statue of this god, 30 cubits in height, which M. Lucullus carried to Rome and placed in the Capitol. (Herod. iv. 90; Strab. vii. p. 319, xii. p. 541, Plin. xxxiv. 7. s. 18. § 39; Scymnus, 730; Arrian, Peripl. p. 24, Anon. Peripl. p. 14.) It was subsequently called Sozopolis (Sozopolis, Anon. Peripl. p. 14). whence its modern name Sizeboli.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  Philippopolis (Philippopolis, Ptol. iii. 11. § 12; Polyb. v. 100; Steph. B. s. v.), a town of Thrace, founded by Philip of Macedon, on the site of a previously existing town, called Eumolpias or Poneropolis. (Amm. Marc. xxvi. 10. § 4; Plin. iv. 11. s. 18.) From its situation on a hill with three peaks or summits, it was also called Trimontium. (Plin. l. c.; Ptol. l. c.) It lay on the SE. side of the Hebrus. The Thracians, however, regained possession of it (Polyb. l. c.; Liv. xxxix. 53), and it remained in their hands till they were subdued by the Romans. Its size maybe inferred from the fact of the Goths having slaughtered 100,000 persons in it (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 5. § 17), though doubtless many persons from the environs had taken refuge there. The assumption that it likewise bore the name of Hadrianopolis, rests only on an interpolation in Ptolemy. It is still called Philippopoli, and continues to be one of the most considerable towns of Thrace. (Tac. Ann. iii. 38; Itin. Ant. p. 136; Hierool. p. 635.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities


Now Philippopoli; an important town in Thrace, founded by Philip of Macedon, was situated in a large plain, southeast of the Hebrus, on a hill with three summits, whence it was sometimes called Trimontium. Under the Roman Empire it was the capital of the province of Thracia.


Now Varna; a Greek town in Thracia (in the later Moesia Inferior), on the Pontus Euxinus. It was founded by the Milesians, and carried on an extensive commerce.



Local government Web-Sites

Bulgarian National Association of Municipalities


Stara Zagora Regional Economic Development Agency


Local government WebPages


  Nicopolis-ad-Istrum is one of the most thoroughly explored Roman towns on Bulgarian territory. The City of Victory was founded by Emperor Trayan in hon our of his victory over the Dacians in 102-106 A.D. It lasted till the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 17th century - in that period the town was devastated by the invasions of the Avars and the Slavs.
   As a result of the archaeological excavations and studies, which continued for not less than 100 years, many findings came to the surface: parts of the fortified system and its gates and towers, the street network of the city, the water supply and the sewerage systems, a great number of public and residential buildings. The visitor's route usually begins through the northern gate of the fortress, then continues along one of the main streets, and goes up the original stairs of the city square - and meanwhile the richly ornamented architectural details never cease to arouse their admiration. The building where the City Council held its sessions is particularly impressive. No one could miss neither the little musical theatre, nor the open square with the limestone pedestals for the statues of the emperors, their wives and notable citizens, all of which have been preserved on their original places. More than hundred mounds of necropolises have been kept either. A small lapidarium stores exhibits of tombstone architecture.
   The most interesting findings today occupy their rightful place in the Archaeological Museum in Veliko Tarnovo. Nicopolis-ad-Istrum is situated at about 20 km to the north of Veliko Tarnovo, along the route to Rousse and at 3 km distance from the village of Nikyup; the deviation is after the exit from the village of Polikraishte, to the left.


Non-profit organizations WebPages

Perseus Project index


Total results on 4/7/2001: 32


Econ - the economic portal


The Catholic Encyclopedia







The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


  On the W coast of the Black Sea, a Milesian colony (Ps. Scym., 730-731; Strab. C.319), founded ca. 600 B.C. Two large gates and an island are known where the celebrated Sanctuary of Apollo and the major part of the ancient city were situated. A Greek inscription records the reconstruction of the ruined city and of the famous sanctuary by a Thracian tribe. The Imperial coins continue to use the name Apollonia until the 3d c. A.D., when the name Sozopol appears. During the Byzantine Empire Sozopol was the seat of a bishop, a rich and prosperous city that was frequented by the Genoese until it fell under Turkish domination in 1383. Today it is a modest town. Nothing of the ancient city remains visible above ground. Early excavations furnished little clarification. It is certainly on the island of St. Ciriaco where the stele of Anaxandros was found that the Temple of Apollo must be sought since all the material found in 1904, including a series of terracotta figurines datable to the 6th c. B.C., is connected with that cult; on the island of St. George there are traces of Byzantine construction. Both older and more recent excavations at Kalfata and the port of Giardino brought to light rich Greek necropoleis containing painted funerary vases dating between the 5th and the 2d c. B.C. The promontory is called Cape Kolokuntas (pumpkins) because of the great number of tumuli in the area. They are scattered over the upland and contain dromoi and funerary chambers, as was the Thracian custom. There are also cultural blendings as in the tumulus of Mapes, with dromoi and painted sarcophagi, where the Greek influence dominates.
  For the Temple of Apollo, Kalamis made the bronze statue of the god (ca. 13.2 m tall), which was stolen by Licinius Lucullus in A.D. 73 after the seizure of Apollonia, and transported to the Campidoglio in Rome. The symbolic lion of Apollo is found on the coins of Apollonia. There are many inscriptions and also an important decree. The only notable monument surviving is the stele of Anaxandros, now in the National Museum of Sofia. It is a masterpiece of Ionic art from the end of the 6th c. B.C., representing the deceased cloaked, with his dog. At the Louvre is a fragment of a slab from Apollonia in the archaic Ionic style.

A. Frova, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


CABYLE (Ancient city) BULGARIA
  On the right bank of the river Tonzos (modern Tundza) near the city of Yambol, a settlement of the Bronze Age (2d millennium B.C.). The Thracian city was conquered by the Macedonians in 342-341 (Dem. 8.44; 10.15). It was an economic and trade center of the state of the Thracian king Seuthes III (323-311 B.C.) (Theopomp. fr. 246; Harp. s.v.; Strab. 7.320; Steph. Byz. 346.1). It was conquered by Rome in 72 B.C. (Eutr. 6.10), and it became a city in the Roman province of Thracia. The territory of the city included the middle reaches of the river Tonzos. In A.D. 378 a battle was fought between the Romans and the West Goths nearby (Amm. Marc. 31.15.5). It was a rest stop on the road to Adrianopolis (Edirne) and Anchialus (Pomorie). In the 4th c. it was the seat of a bishop but disappeared in the 6th c.
  In the 3d c. B.C. the city minted its own coins. There was an agora, a temple of Artemis-Hekate-Phosphorion and a temple of Apollo (IG Bulg. III/2, n. 1731). In A.D. 145 immigrants from Perinthos erected votive inscriptions to Herakles Agoraios. Excavations have uncovered a large basilica of late antique date and parts of the defense wall. The finds from Kabyle are in the Regional Museum of Yambol.

V. Velkoy, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


  A city on the right bank of the Maritza river in the great lagoon between the Balkan and Rhodopian mountains at the junction of the Belgrade-Istanbul and Danube-Aegean roads. The city was founded in 342 B.C. by Philip II of Macedon over a prior Thracian center (Pulpudava). Conquered again by the Thracians after the fall of the Macedonians, the city remained under Thracian control until it was conquered by the Romans, who made it the capital of the province of Thrace, the metropolis and seat of the provincial assembly; in 248 it became a colony. It was provided with a circuit wall by Marcus Aurelius. Captured temporarily and sacked by the Goths in 251, it became an episcopal seat in the 4th c. It was occupied by the Huns and restored during the reign of Justinian.
  Traces remain of the Thracian-Macedonian (4th c. B.C.) polygonal circuit wall. It encircled the three hills (a prehistoric site) with an irregular and triangular surface area of ca. 80,000 m and was restored in the late Roman and Byzantine period in opus mixtum and rubble core. Only one gate of the original four has been preserved. The second and larger circuit wall (ca. 430,000 sq. m), in the shape of an irregular pentagon, was constructed during the reign of Marcus Aurelius as a defense against the Marcomanni (mentioned in fragmentary inscriptions). Very little of it has been preserved.
  Of the ancient buildings, only the stadium, to the W and at the front of the hill between the second circuit wall in the central section of the modern city, remains. There are ruins of a temple of Aesculapius to the E, a large bath building with massive vaults on pilasters in the E section, aqueducts, and many architectural fragments belonging to various buildings that have since disappeared. The theater is supposed to have been in the S section of the city S of Taxim-tepe. It is quite probable that the city had a stadium (3d c. B.C. on the evidence of the architectural and decorative elements and according to the ancient sources). The length of the track is a little more than a stade--ca. 180 m--and the width was probably 25 to 30 m, with a capacity possibly of ca. 30,000. The orientation of the stadium was NW to SE. The W side occupied the slopes of Sahat-tepe, taking full advantage of the natural rock and slope of the land; the E side was for the most part artificially elevated with buttressing walls of brick and stone. Inscriptions document the existence of reserved seats for officials and organizers of the games. The monumental entrance to the track, set on a slightly curved line, was built of five large vaulted chambers. This monumental entrance, which must have been on three levels, was probably decorated in the three architectural orders. Herodian mentions the restoration of the Pythian games in the cities of Thrace at the behest of Caracalla in honor and memory of Alexander the Great. Coins minted by Caracalla and later by Elagabalus at Philippopolis commemorate this restoration by the provincial assembly of the Thracians. The coins represent fights, gladiators, a diskobolos, gymnasts exercising, and prizes. The games mentioned are the Pythian in honor of Apollo Pythius, the Alexandria in honor of Alexander the Great, and the Kendreiseia, local games of Thrace in honor of the Thracian deity Kendrizos. At the time of the Gothic invasions, the sources remark that the stadium was within the city.
  The Byzantine chronicler Anna Comnena, who visited Philippopolis at the beginning of the 12th c., mentions a hippodrome without remarking on the stadium. That the stadium no longer existed in her time is proved by the stratigraphy of the excavations where the Byzantine coins are at a level higher than that of the stadium. Inscriptions give evidence of the participation of famous athletes at the games and of the commemoration of statues to them.
  The modern city preserves traces of the old topography along with the separation of the ethnic sections and the irregular, winding course of the streets (characteristically, the houses are wood, the markets are covered, and the baths are Turkish). There is a typical lack of a real urban center.
  The National Archaeological Museum in Plovdiv, second only in size to the one at Sofia, conserves the prehistoric, Thracian, Roman, and mediaeval antiquities. Particularly important are the religious reliefs, and the coin collection is noteworthy.

A. Frova, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

Nicopolis ad Istrum

  A city 20 km from Tarnovo beside the river Rossitza which empties into the Jantra, a tributary of the Danube, at the foot of Mt. Haemus. The city was founded by Trajan at the junction of the roads to Danubium and to Philippopolis. It was raised to the status of a municipium by Hadrian, coined its own money from the reign of Antoninus to that of Gordian III, flourished particularly under Septimius Severus, was captured by the Goths, reconstructed by Justinian, and finally abandoned. The city was Greek in tongue and in its constitution, with many foreign settlers and a large number of religious cults.
   The city was formed on a regular grid plan of which some axis streets have been brought to light. It was encircled by walls and round towers with an appendage, also walled, in the form of an irregular pentagon, on broken ground--much like a defensive castellum. The gates and towers are represented on coins.
   The central area has been excavated, including the forum (55 x 42 m) surrounded on three sides by a colonnade of Ionic columns. On the W side of the forum are the bouleuterion and other structures (perhaps the praetorium) and a colonnaded peristyle opening on one side onto the forum portico. On the other side it opened onto the great propylaea, which presented a facade of four columns supporting a frieze that contained a dedicatory inscription to Trajan. Beside the grandiose peristyle is a small Corinthian-style theater or perhaps an odeion. It had a perfectly semicircular orchestra (9.3 m in diam.). The cavea (21.8 m in diam.), was raised on brick vaults. The theater was inscribed in a rectangle which comprised a series of rooms, rectangular and square (tabernae ?), which opened on the decumanus behind the cavea. Many statue bases have been found, as well as altars, honorary inscriptions (one in honor of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus mentions games given by a high priest and by his daughter), facades with shields and lances, and friezes. An aqueduct, canals, cisterns, and paved roads have been brought to light.
   In the architecture of Nicopolis, Hellenistic elements from Asia Minor predominate. Many architectural pieces are fragmentary. Among the sculptures, a statue of Eros is most noteworthy. It is a Roman copy of the 2d c. A.D. of the Eros of Praxiteles at Paros. There are many religious reliefs (the relief of the gods which is a unique provincial work), a beautiful bronze head of Gordian III (now in the National Museum of Sophia), and many small bronzes.

A. Frova, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Sep 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


  An ancient Thracian center, today the national capital, situated in a valley surrounded by mountains at the juncture of the road from Belgrade to Istanbul and the natural waterway of the Danube to the Aegean. It was occupied by the Romans, conquered by Licinius Crassus (29 B.C.), raised to the status of a colony by Trajan, and coined its own money from the reign of Marcus Aurelius to that of Gallienus. The city was the seat of the council that condemned the Arian heresy (343). It was destroyed by the Huns in the 5th c., was reconstructed by Justinian, under whom Santa Sophia was built. Originally, the Romans had probably established a garrison in the village and area of the Thracian market, giving the city a praetorium and a castellum. The city did not gain great military importance but in the 4th c. when it became the capital of the frontier province, Dacia Mediterranea, it was surrounded by walls (brick and rubble core on a stone base) with round towers. One walled area within the city with the remains of large structures is thought to have been the praesidium. The plan of the city is rectangular, covering an area of ca. 84 ha. The remains of the buildings belong to two distinct periods: 2d and 3d c. stone architecture, and 3d c. and 4th c. brick architecture. Except for some traces of the walls, round towers, and triangular abutments, only the foundations of some buildings are known: a temple of Serapis and its pediment; a brick calidarium of a 3d c. Roman bath, transformed into the church of St. George in the 5th c. Probably the 6th c. a basilica of Santa Sophia was built. It had three aisles and an apse which was close to the ancient necropolis where there are remains of two small ancient churches (with mosaics) and many chambered tombs. The tombs were painted between the 4th and 5th c. with floral motifs, birds, and candelabra, and one with the busts of arch-angels. In all these tombs we may recognize Hellenistic-Oriental and Roman elements. On the coins of Serdica various buildings are represented. Funeral stelai, religious inscriptions, architectural fragments, and inscriptions are collected in the National Museum and displayed in the great nine-domed mosque. The Museum houses antiquities not only from the city but from all over Bulgaria.

A. Frova, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

The World Factbook

You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".

GTP Headlines

Receive our daily Newsletter with all the latest updates on the Greek Travel industry.

Subscribe now!
Greek Travel Pages: A bible for Tourism professionals. Buy online

Ferry Departures