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CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Amathus

AMATHUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Amathus (Amathous, -ountos: Amathousios, Adj. Amathusiacus, Ov. Met. x. 227: nr. Old Limasol), an ancient town on the S. coast of Cyprus, celebrated for its worship of Aphrodite - who was hence called Amathusia - and of Adonis. (Scylax, p. 41; Strab. p. 683; Pans. ix. 41. § 2; Steph. B. s. v.; Tac. Ann. iii. 62; Catull. lviii. 51; Ov. Am. iii. 15 15.) It was originally a settlement of the Phoenicians, and was probably the most ancient of the Phoenician colonies in the island. Stephanus calls Amathus the most ancient city in the island, and Scylax describes its inhabitants as autochthones. Its name is of Phoenician origin, for we find a town of the same name in Palestine. Amathus appears to have preserved its Oriental customs and character, long after the other Phoenician cities in Cyprus had become hellenized. Here the Tyrian god Melkart, whom the Greeks identified with Heracles, was worshipped under his Tyrian name. (Hesych. s. v. Malika, ton Heraklea, Amathousioi. The Phoenician priesthood of the Cinyradae appears to have long continued to exercise its authority at Amathus. Hence we find that Amathus, as an Oriental town, remained firm to the Persians in the time of Dareins I., while all the other towns in Cyprus revolted. (Herod. v. 104, seq.) The territory of Amathus was celebrated for its wheat (Hipponax, ap. Strab. p. 340), and also for its mineral productions (fecundam Amathunta metalli, Ov. Met. x. 220, comp. 531.)
  Amathus appears to have consisted of two distinct parts: one upon the coast, where Old Limasol now stands, and the other upon a hill inland, about 1 1/2 mile from Old Limasol, at the village of Agios Tychonos, where Hammer discovered the ruins of the temple of Aphrodite. (Hammer, Reise, p. 129; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 109, seq.; Movers, Die Phonizier, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 221, 240, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Aphrodisiun

APHRODISION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Aphrodisium (Aphrodision, Strab. p. 682; Ptol. v. 14; Aphrodisias, Steph. B. s. v.: Eth. Aphrodisieus), a city of Cyprus, situated at the narrowest part of the island, only 70 stadia from Salamis. (D'Anville, in Mem. de Litt. vol. xxxii. p. 541.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Arsinoe

ARSINOE (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Arsinoe. A town in the E. of Cyprus, near the promontory of Acamas (Strab. xiv. p. 682; Ptol. v. 14. § 4), formerly called Marion (Marion Steph. B. s. v.; comp. Scylax, s. v. Cyprus). Ptolemy Soter destroyed this town, and removed the inhabitants to Paphos (Diod. xix. 89). For coins of Marion see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 86. The name of Arsinoe was given to it in honour of the Aegyptian princess of that name, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Hierocles and Const. Porphyr. (Them. i. 15) place it between Paphos and Soloi. The modern name is Polikrusoko or Xrisopeou, from the gold mines in the neighbourhood. According to Strabo there was a grove sacred to Zeus. Cyprus, from its subjection to the kings of the Lagid family, had more than one city of this name, which was common to several princesses of that house.
  Another Arsinoe is placed near Ammochostus to the N. of the island (Strab. p. 683). A third city of the same name appears in Strabo, with a harbour, temple, and grove, and lies between Old and New Paphos. The ancient name survives in the present Arschelia (D'Anville, Mem. de l' Acad. des Inscrip. vol. xxxii. pp. 537, 545, 551, 554; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 73, 97, 137; Marati, Viaggi vol. i. p. 200).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Cyprus

CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE
  Cyprus (Kupros: Eth. and Adj. Kuprios, Kupriakos, Kuprieus, Kuprites, Cyprius, Cypriacus: Kibris), an island lying off the coast of Phoenicia and Cilicia.
  The physical features and the legends connected with this chosen seat of Aphrodite, have given rise to a multitude of names. 1. Acamantis (Akamantis). 2. Amathusia (Amathousia). 3. Aspelia. 4. Colinia. 5. Cerastis (Kerasrtis). 6. Cryptos (Kruptos). 7. Macaria (Makaria). 8. Meionis (Meionis). 9. Ophiusa (Ophiusia arva, Ov. Met x. 229). 10. Spheceia (Ophekeia).
  According to ancient admeasurements the circuit of this island amounted to 3420 stadia. (Strab. xiv. p. 682.) Its greatest length from W. to E., between Cape Acamas and the islands called the Keys of Cyprus (Kleides), was reckoned at 1400 stadia. (Strab. l. c.; Plin. v. 35; Agathem. i. 5.) The principal or SW. part of the island has the form of an irregular parallelogram, and terminates with a long narrow peninsula, running in a NE. direction. Its shape was compared fancifully by the old writers to a fleece (Agathem. l. c.), or to a Gallic shield (Hygin. Fab. 276). The surface of the country is almost entirely occupied by the elevated range of Mt. Olympus, whose culminating points reach the height of 7000 feet. The slopes descend both on the N. and S. shores: on the former side the chain is bold and rugged; on the S. side the scenery is still bolder, presenting a deeply serrated outline with thickly wooded steeps, which are broken by masses of limestone, or furrowed by deep picturesque valleys, in which grow the narcissus, the anemone, and ranunculus.
  The mountains contained: copper (chalkos Kuprios, aes Cyprium), the most famous mines of which were to be found at Tamassus, Amathus, Soli, and Curion (Plin. xii. 60, xxxiv. 20), as well as the nobler metals, gold and silver. The precious stones of Cyprus were famous in antiquity. They were: the adamas vergens in aerium colorem (Plin. xxxvii. 15), whether this was the diamond seems doubtful, as it has been thought that Pliny was unacquainted with the real diamond (Dana, Mineralogy, p. 401); the smaragdos (xxxvii. 17), emerald; the chalcosmaragdos turbida aereis venis (xxxvii. 19), malachite (?), or more probably red jasper; paederos (xxxvii. 22), opal; achates (xxxvii. 54), agate; and asbestos (Dioscor. v. 156). The land is described as flowing with wine, oil (Strab. p. 684), and honey (Plin. xi. 14); and the fragrance of its flowers gave it the epithet of euodes - the plaything (athurma) of the goddess of Love. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 508.)
  Cyprus lies between Asia and Africa, and the flora and fauna of the island partake of the characteristics of both continents. A list of the plants, birds, quadrupeds, and fishes, found in Cyprus, is given in Walpole (Turkey and Greece, vol. i. p. 253, foll.). The Ferula Graeca - or nartheka, as it is now called, with a slight alteration from the ancient name - is one of the most important plants of the island in respect to its economical uses. The stalks furnish the poor Cyprian with a great part of his household furniture; and the pith is used instead of tinder for conveying fire from one place to another, as taught by Prometheus of old. (Aesch. Prom. 109.)
  The level tracts were in the neighbourhood of Salamis and Citium, the former was watered by the river Pediaeus, and the latter by the Tretus; but, as these streams are occasionally dry, marshes have in consequence been formed. Strabo (xiv. p. 682) begins his description of the island with Cape Acamas (Akamas), at the W. extremity of the island, which he describes as a thickly wooded headland, divided into two summits rising towards the N. (Comp. Ptol. v. 14 § 1; Plin. v. 31; Stadiasm. § § 282, 292, 293.) The modern name, after the celebrated metropolitan of Cyprus, is Haghios Epiphanios, which is shortened into St. Pifano. The next point, in a S. direction, is Drepanon (Drepanon, Ptol. v. 14. § 1: Trepano). Then the roadstead and harbour of Paphos (Paphos). The cape which closes the bay of Baffo to the W. is the Zephyrium Promontorium (Zephurion, Ptol. v. 14. § 1; Zephuria akra, Strab. p. 683). To the S. is another headland, Arsinoe (Arsinoe), followed by Phrurium (Phrourion, Ptol. v. 14. § 1: Capo Blanco). At a little distance further inland was Hierocepia (Hierokepia, Strab. p. 684). Then follow Palaepaphos (Palaipaphos: Kukla or Konuklia), Boosura (Boosoura: Bisur), Treta (Treta: Tera), and Curium (Kourion) with a port built by the Argives. Near this was the point of Curias (Kourias: Capo delle Gatte), at a little distance from which are some salt marshes which receive an arm of the river Lycus (Lukos, Ptol. v. 14. § 2). Amathus (Amathous: Old Limasol), which next followed, was a Phoenician colony. Beyond was the little town of Palaea (Palaia, Strab. p. 683), at the foot of a mountain shaped like a breast (mastoeides), Olympus (Olumpos: Monte Sta. Croce). Citium (Kition) was a large town with a harbour that could be closed; to the W. of it was the little river Tetius (Tetios, Ptol. v. 14. § 2: Tesis), and to the E. the promontory Dades (Daides, Ptol. l. c.: Kiti). A rugged line of coast follows for several miles along a bay which lies between this headland and that of Throni (Thronoi: Pila). Above Pedalium (Pedalion: Capo della Grega), the next point on the E. coast, rose a hill with a temple consecrated to Aphrodite. The harbour Leucolla (Leukolla: Porta Arnio dia e Lucola). Ammochostus (Ammochostos, Ptol. v. 14. § 3; Stadiasm. § 287), near the river Pediaeus (Pediaios), a name which has been transmitted by corruption to the Venetian Famagosta. Further N. was Salamis (Salamis), Elaea (Elaia, Ptol. l. c.: Chaulu-bernau), Urania (Ouranies pedon hedres, Nonn. Dionys. xiii. 450), Carpasia (Karpasia), and the promontory called Dinaretum, with the islands called the Keys of Cyprus (hai Kleides). The ironbound shore to the NE. was called the shore of the Greeks (Achaion akte: Jalousa), from the story that Teucer and his colonists had landed here. (Strab.) On this coast, 70 stadia from Salamis, was Aphrodisium (Aphrodision, Ptol. v. 14. § 4; Strab.), Macaria (Makaria, Ptol. l. c.), Cerynia (Keruneia), and Lapethus (Lapethos: Lapitho or Lapta). Cape Crommyon (Krommuon akra) was the most N. point of the island; near this were the towns of Cerbia (Kerbeia) and Soli (Soloi). The promontory of Callinusa (Kallinonsa) completes the circuit of the island. In the interior were the towns of Aepeia (Aipeia), Limenia (Limenia), Tamassus (Tamassos), Tremithus (Tremithous), Leucosia (Leukosia), Chytrus (Chutros), and Marium (Marion). An account of these places will be found under their several heads: most of the towns have now disappeared.
  Cyprus seems to have been colonized by the Phoenicians at a very early period, and if we may trust the Syrian annals consulted by the historian Menander (Joseph. Ant. viii. 5. § 3, c. Apion. 1. 18; comp. Virg. Aen. 1, 643), was subject to the Syrians, even in the time of Solomon. We do not know the dates of the establishment of the Greek cities in this island; but there can be no doubt but that they were later than this period, and that a considerable portion of the soil and trade of Cyprus passed from the Phoenicians to the Greeks. Under Amasis the island became subject to the Aegyptian throne (Herod. ii. 182); he probably sent over African colonists. (Comp. Herod. vii. 90.) On the invasion of Aegypt by Cambysses Cyprus surrendered to the Persians, and furnished a squadron for the expedition. (Herod. iii. 19.) It continued to form a part of the Persian empire, and was with Phoenicia and Palestine the fifth satrapy in the arrangement made by Dareius (Herod. iii. 91.) During the Ionian revolt the whole island, except Amathus, threw off the Persian yoke. The Cyprians were attacked by the Persians by land and sea, and after varying success, were defeated, and their leader Onesilus slain. After this the island was again subject to Dareius (Herod. v. 104-116), and in the expedition of Xerxes furnished 150 ships. (Herod. vii. 90.) After the overthrow of the Persians at Salamis, a Grecian fleet was despatched to Cyprus and reduced the greater part of it. (Thuc. i. 94.) The Athenians sent out another expedition against it, but in consequence of a plague and the death of Cimon, the attempt was relinquished. (Thuc. i. 112.) The brilliant period of its history belongs to the times of Evagoras, king of Salamis, when Hellenic customs and civilization received a new impulse. He was succeeded by his son Nicocles; another Evagoras, son of Nicocles, was joined with Phocion, to recover Cyprus for the king of Persia, from whom it had revolted. (Diod. xvi. 42, 46.) Cyprus again became a tributary to the Persians, and remained such till the battle of Issus, when the several states declared for Alexander, and joined the Macedonian fleet with 120 ships at the siege of Tyre. (Arrian. ii. 20.) They were afterwards ordered to cruise off the Peloponnesus with 100 ships along with the Phoenicians. (Arrian. iii. 6.) When the empire of Alexander was broken up, Cyprus fell with Aegypt to the lot of Ptolemy. Demetrius invaded the island with a powerful fleet and army, defeated Ptolemy's brother Menelaus, and shut him up in Salamis, which he besieged both by sea and land. Ptolemy hastened to his relief with 140 ships; and after a sea-fight, one of the most memorable in ancient history, B.C. 306, the whole island fell into the hands of Demetrius. (Diod. xx. 47-53; Plut. Demetr. 15-18; Polyaen. iv. 7. § 7; Justin. xv. 2.) In B.C. 295, Ptolemy recovered the island, and it became from this time an integral portion of the Aegyptian monarchy. (Plut. Demetr. 35, 38.) It formed the brightest jewel in the Alexandrian diadem; the timber of Olympus was used for the navy of Aegypt, and its metallic and other riches contributed to the revenue. Independently of its importance as a military position, the Ptolemies had a personal interest in securing it as a place of refuge for themselves or their treasures, in case of invasion or internal revolutions. Under the Lagid dynasty, the government of the island was committed to some one belonging to the highest class of the Alexandrian court, called the kinsmen of the king. This viceroy had full powers, as it would appear from the inscriptions in which he is entitled strategos kai nauarchos kai archiereus ho kata ten neson. Ptolemy Philadelphus founded the Cyprian cities which bore the name of his wife, Arsinoe. On the decline and fall of Aegypt, Cyprus with Cyrenaica was the only foreign possession remaining to the crown. Polycrates, an Argive, about B.C. 217, was governor of Cyprus, and secured, by his faithfulness and integrity, the island for Ptolemy Epiphanes, the infant son and successor of Philopator. On the division of the monarchy between the brothers Ptolemy Philometor and Euergetes, Euergetes,in contravention of the arrangement was anxious to take Cyprus to his share. In B.C. 154, Euergetes went to Rome, to seek assistance from the senate. Five legates, but no Roman army, were despatched to aid him; but Philometor, anticipating him, had already occupied Cyprus with a large force, so that when his brother landed at the head of his mercenary troops, he was soon defeated and shut up in Lapethus, where he was compelled to surrender, on condition that he should content himself with the kingdom of Cyrene. The Romans did not again interfere to disturb the arrangement thus concluded. During the dissensions of the brothers, Demetrius Soter, king of Syria, had endeavoured to make himself master of Cyprus, but unsuccessfully. On the accession of Ptolemy Lathyrus to the throne of Aegypt, his younger brother, Ptolemy Alexander, went to Cyprus. Afterwards, when by the intrigues of Cleopatra, the queen.mother, Alexander became king of Aegypt, Lathyrus retired to Cyprus, and held it as an independent kingdom for the 18 years during which Cleopatra and Alexander reigned in Aegypt, B.C. 107-89. When Lathyrus was recalled by the Alexandrians to Aegypt, Alexander, his brother, in the hope of becoming master of Cyprus, invaded the island; but was defeated in a naval action by Chaereas, and fell in the battle. While Ptolemy Auletes occupied the throne of Aegypt, another Ptolemy, a younger brother, was king of Cyprus. This prince had obtained from the Roman people the complimentary title of their friend. (Cic. pro Sest. 26; Schol. Bob. p. 301, ed. Orell.) On the pretence that he had abetted the pirates (Schol. Bob. l. c.), he was commanded to descend from the throne. In B.C. 58, Clodius, who had a personal enmity against the king (Appian. B.C. ii. 23; Dion Cass. xxxviii. 30), proposed to deprive him of his kingdom, and confiscate his large treasures to the service of the state. A rogation was brought forward by the tribune, that Cato should be appointed to carry into execution this act of frightful injustice. Cato accepted this disgraceful commission; but half ashamed of the transaction, despatched a friend from Rhodes to deliver the decree, and to hold out to the injured king the promise of an honourable compensation in the priesthood of the Paphian Aphrodite. Ptolemy preferred to submit to a voluntary death. (Plut. Cat. Min. 34, 39.) Cyprus became a Roman province, and the fatal treasures amassed by the king, were poured into the coffers of the state. (Pat. Vell. ii. 45.) The island was annexed to Cilicia (Cic. ad Fam. i. 7; ad Att. vi. 2), but had a quaestor of its own (ad Fam. xiii. 48), and its own courts for the administration of justice (ad Att. v. 21). In B.C. 47, it was given by Caesar to Arsinoe and Ptolemy, the sister and brother of Cleopatra. (Dion Cass. xlii. 95.) M. Antonius afterwards presented it to the children of Cleopatra. (Dion Cass. xlix. 32, 41; comp. Strab. p. 685.) After the battle of Actium, at the division of the provinces between the emperor and the senate, B.C. 27, it was made an imperial province. (Dion Cass. liii. 12.) In B.C. 22, it was given up to the senate (Dion Cass. liv. 4), and was from that time governed by proprietors, with the title of Proconsul, with a legatus and a quaestor. (Marquardt, Becker's Rom. Alt. vol. iii. pt. 1. p. 172; Orell. Inscr. 3102.) The proconsul resided at Paphos. (Act. Apost. xiii. 6, 7.) From the narrative in the Acts of the Apostles (xiii. 4-12), it would seem that a considerable part of the population was of Jewish extraction; and in the fatal insurrection during the reign of Hadrian, they are said to have massacred 240,000 of the Grecian inhabitants, and obtained temporary possession of the island. (Milman, Hist. of Jews, vol. ii. p. 112.) Under the Byzantine emperors it was governed by a Consularis, and the capital was transferred from Paphos to Salamis or Constantia (Hierocl.). In A.D. 648, Moawiyah, the general of Othman, invaded the island, which capitulated, the Saracen general agreeing to share the revenues with the Greek emperor, In A.D. 803-806, it fell into the hands of Harun el Rashid, but was afterwards restored to the empire by the conquests of Nicephorus II. Isaac Angelus lost the island where Alexis Commenus had made himself independent; but was deprived of his conquest by Richard Coeur de Lion, A.D. 1191, who ceded it to the Templars, but afterwards resumed the sovereignty, and in A.D. 1192, gave it to King Guido of Jerusalem. Cyprus was never again united to the Byzantine empire.
  Cyprus, lying in that sea which was the extreme nurse of the Grecian race, never developed the nobler features of Hellenic culture and civilization. The oriental character entirely predominated; the worship had but little connection with the graceful anthropomorphism of Hellas, but was rather a deification of the generative powers of nature as common to the Phoenicians, mixed up with orgiastic rites from Phrygia. The goddess, who was evidently the same as the Semitic Astarte, was worshipped under the form of a rude conical stone. (Tac. Hist. ii. 3.) The exuberance of nature served to stifle every higher feeling in sensual enjoyment. (Comp. Athen. vi. p. 257, xii. p. 516.) A description of the constitution was given in the lost work of Aristotle on the Polities, and Theophrastus had composed a treatise upon the same subject. (Suid. s. v. Tiara.) That such men should have thought it worth their while to investigate this matter shows that it possessed considerable interest; as far as the scanty notices that have come down go, it appears to have been governed by petty princes of an oriental character. (Comp. Herod. vii. 90.) For coins of Cyprus, see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 84; H. P. Borrell, Notice surquelq. Med. gr. des Rois de Chypre. Paris, 1836; Meursius, Creta, Cyprus, &c., Amst. 1675; D'Anville, Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscr. vol. xxxii. p. 548; Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i.; Von Hammer, Topogr. Ansicht. aus der Levante: Turner's Levant: vol. ii. pp. 40, 528; Engel, Kypros; Ross, Reisen nach Kos, Halikarnassos, Rhodos, und der Inseln Cypern, Halle, 1852; Luynes, Numismatique et Inscriptions Cypriotes, Paris, 1852.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Golgi

GOLGOI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Golgi (Golgoi: Eth. Golgios, Golgia, Gol<*>eis, Steph. B.), a town of Cyprus, famous for the worship of Aphrodite (Theocr. xv. 100; Lycophr. 589; Catull. xxxvi. 15, Nupt. Pel. et Thet. 96), which, according to legend, had existed here even before its introduction at Paphos by Agapenor. (Pausan viii. 5. § 2.) The town is mentioned by Pliny (v. 35); but its position is not known. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 145, vol. ii. p. 81.)

Idalia

IDALION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Idalia, Idalium (Idalion: Eth. Idaleus, Steph. B.; Plin. v. 31), a town in Cyprus, adjoining to which was a forest sacred to Aphrodite; the poets who connect this place with her worship, give no indications of the precise locality. (Theocr. Id. xv. 100; Virg. Aen. i. 681, 692, x. 51; Catull. Pel. et Thet. 96; Propert. ii. 13; Lucan viii.17.) Engel (Kypros, vol. i. p. 153) identifies it with Dalin, described by Mariti (Viaggi, vol. i. p. 204), situated to the south of Leucosia, at the foot of Mount Olympus.

Carpasia

KARPASIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Carpasia (Karpasia, Strab., Ptol., Diod., Steph. B.; Karpaseia, Stadiasm.; karpasion, Hierocl.; Plin. v. 31. s. 35; Karpasos, Const. Porph.: Eth. Karpaseotes, Karpaseus, Steph. B.: Carpas), a town and port of Cyprus, to the NE. of the island, facing the promontory of Sarpedon on the Cilician coast. (Strab. xiv. p. 682; Ptol. v. 14. § 4; Scylax.) According to legend, it was founded by Pygmalion. (Steph. B. s. v.) It was taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes, together with a neighbouring place called Urania. (Diod. xx. 48.) Pococke (Trav. vol. ii. p. 219) speaks of remains at Carpas, especially of a wall nearly half a mile in circumference, with a pier running into the sea. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 83, 174; Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscrip. vol. xxxii. p. 543; Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 163.)

Ceryneia

KERYNIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Ceryneia (Keruneia, Scyl.; Kerunia, Keronia, Keraunia, Ptol. v. 14. § 4; Diod. xiv. 59; Koroneia, Korone, Steph.B.; Kurenia, Hierocl.; Kureneia, Const. Porph.; Kinureia, Nonnus; Corineum, Plin.; Cerinea, Peut. Tab.: Eth. Kerunites, Keronites), a town and port on the N. coast of Cyprus 8 M.P. from Lapethus (Peut. Tab.). The harbour, bad and small as it is, must upon so iron a bound coast as that of the E. part of the N. side of Cyprus, have always insured to the position a certain degree of importance. Though little is known of it in antiquity it became famous in the middle ages. (Wilken, die Kreuzz, vol. vi. p. 542.) It is now called by the Italians Cerine, and by the Turks Ghirne. On the W. side of the town are some catacombs, the only remains of ancient Cerynia. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 118; Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 116; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 80.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KITION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Citium (Kition, Ketion, Kution: Eth. Kitieis, Kittiaioi, Kittaioi, Citieus, Citiensis), a town situated on the S. coast of Cyprus. In the Peutinger Tables it is called Cito, and is placed 24 M. P to the E. of Amathus. Diodorus (xx. 49) is in error when he states its distance from Salamis as 200 stadia, for it is more remote. The ruins of ancient Citium are found between Larnika and the port now called Salines: to the E. there was a large basin now almost filled up, and defended by a fort the foundations of which remain; this is probably the kleistos limen of Strabo (xiv. p. 682). The walls were strong, and in the foundations Phoenician inscriptions upon them have been discovered. A number of ancient tombs are still to be seen in and about Larnika, as well as the remains of an ancient theatre. (Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 51 Pococke, Trav. vol. ii. p. 213; Muller, Archaol. § 255.) The salt lakes of which Pliny (xxxi. 7 s. 39; Antig. Caryst. Hist. Mirab. c. 173) speaks, are still worked. The date of this, probably the most ancient city in the island, is not known, but there can be no doubt that it was originally Phoenician, and connected with the Chittim of the Scriptures. (Gen. x. 4; comp. Joseph. Antiq. i. 6 § 1; Cic. de Fin. iv. 20; Diog. Laert. Zen. 8, Winer, Bibl. Realworterbuch, s. v. Chittim.) From this and other places in the island the Greeks partially embraced and diffused the cruel and voluptuous rites of the Phoenician worship. It was besieged by Cimon at the close of the Persian war (Thuc. i. 12), and surrendered to him (Diod. xii. 3); he was afterwards taken ill and died on board his ship in the harbour (Plut. Cim. 18). It was a place of no great importance (polichnion, Suid.), and we have no evidence that it coined money; though it could boast of the philosophers Zeno, Persaeus, and Philolaus, and the physicians Apollodorus and Apollonius. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 12, 100.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KOURION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Curium (Kourion, Ptol. v. 14. § 2; Steph. B.; Hierocl.; Curias, Plin. v. 13: Eth. Kourieus: Piscopia), a city of Cyprus, situated to the W. of the river Lycus, 16 M. P. from Amathus. (Peut. Tab.) It was said to have been founded by the Argives. (Herod. v. 113; Strab. xiv. p. 683.) Stesenor, its sovereign, betrayed the cause of his country during the war against the Persians. (Herod. l. c.) Near the town was a Cape (Phrourion, Ptol. v. 14. § 2: Capo Bianco), from which sacrilegious offenders who had dared to touch the altar of Apollo were thrown into the sea. (Strab. l. c.) The ruins of a town supposed to represent this have been found, near Piscopia, one of the most fertile spots in the island. (Pococke, Trav. vol. ii. p. 329; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 118.)

Lapathus

LAMPOUSA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Lapathus, Lapethus (Lapathos, Strab. xiv. p. 682; Lapethos, Ptol. v. 14. § 4; Plin. v. 31; Lepethis, Scyl. p.41; ,Lapithos Hierocl.: Eth. Lapetheus, Lapethios: Lapitho, Lapta), a town of Cyprus, the foundation of which was assigned to the Phoenicians (Steph. B. s. v.), and which, according to Nonnus (Dionys. xiii. 447), owed its name to the legendary Lapathus, a follower of Dionysus. Strabo says that it received a Spartan colony, headed by Praxander. He adds, that it was situated opposite to the town of Nagidus, in Cilicia, and possessed a harbour and docks. It was situated in the N. of the island, on a river of the same name, with a district called Lapethia. (Lapethia, Ptol. v. 14. § 5). In the war between Ptolemy and Antigonus, Lapathus, with its king Praxippus, sided with the latter. (Diod. xix. 59.) The name of this place was synonymous with stupidity. (Suid. s. v. Lapathioi.) Pococke (Trav. in the East, vol. ii. pt. l. p. 223) saw at Lapitho several walls that were cut out of the rock, and one entire room, over the sea: there were also remains of some towers and walls. (Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 125; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 37, 78, 174, 224, 364, 507.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Limenia

LIMENIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
A town of Cyprus, which Strabo (x. p. 683) places S. of Soli. It appears from some ecclesiastical documents cited by Wesseling (ap. Hierocl.) to have been 4 M. P. from Soli. Now Limna.

Macaria

MAKARIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS

Leucosia

NICOSIA (Town) CYPRUS
Leucosia (Leukosia, Leukousia), a city of Cyprus, which is mentioned only by Hierocles and the ecclesiastical historian Sozomen (H. E. i. 3, 10). The name is preserved in the modern Lefkosia or Nikosia, the capital of the island. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 150; Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 89; Pococke, Trav. in the East, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 221.)

PAPHOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Paphus (Ptol. viii. 20. § 3, &c.: Eth. and Adj. Paphios, Paphius, and Paphiacus), the name of two towns seated on the SW. extremity of the coast of Cyprus, viz., Old Paphos (Paphos palaia, Ptol. v. 14. § 1; or, in one word, Palaipaphos, Strab. xiv. p. 683; Palaepaphos, Plin. v. 31. s. 35) and New Paphos (Paphos Nea, Ptol. l. c.; Nea Paphos, Plin. l. c.). The name of Paphos, without any adjunct, is used by poets and by writers of prose to denote both Old and New Paphos, but with this distinction, that in prose writers it commonly means New Paphos, whilst in the poets, on the contrary, - for whom the name of Palaepaphos would have - been unwieldy, - it generally signifies Old Paphos, the more peculiar seat of the worship of Aphrodite. In inscriptions, also, both towns are called Paphos. This indiscriminate use is sometimes productive of ambiguity, especially in the Latin prose authors.
  Old Paphos, now Kukla or Konuklia (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 125), was said to have been founded by Cinyras, the father of Adonis (Apollod. iii. 14); though according to another legend preserved by Strabo (xi. p. 505),- whose text, however, varies, - it was founded by the Amazons. It was seated on an eminence ( celsa Paphos, Virg. Aen. x. 51), at the distance of about 10 stadia, or 1 mile, from the sea, on which, however, it had a roadstead. it was not far distant from the promontory of Zephyrium (Strab. xiv. p. 683) and the mouth of the little river Bocarus. (Hesych. s. v. Bokaros.) The fable ran that Venus had landed there when she rose from out the sea. (Tac. Hist. ii. 3; Mela, ii. 7; Lucan viii.456.) According to Pausanias (i. 14), her worship was introduced at Paphos from Assyria; but it is much more probable that it was of Phoenician origin. It had been very anciently established, and before the time of Homer, as the grove and altar of Aphrodite at Paphos are mentioned in the Odyssey (viii. 362). Here the worship of the goddess centred, not for Cyprus alone, but for the whole earth. The Cinyradae, or descendants of Cinyras, - Greek by name, but of Phoenician origin, - were the chief priests. Their power and authority were very great; but it may be inferred from certain inscriptions that they were controlled by a senate and an assembly of the people. There was also an oracle here. (Engel, i.p. 483.) Few cities have ever been so much sung and glorified by the poets. (Cf. Aesch. Suppl. 525; Virg. Aen. i. 415; Hor. Od. i. 19, 30, iii. 26; Stat. Silv. i. 2. 101; Aristoph. Lysis. 833, &c. &c.) The remains of the vast temple of Aphrodite are still discernible, its circumference being marked by huge foundation walls. After its overthrow by an earthquake, it was rebuilt by Vespasian, on whose coins it is represented, as well as on earlier and later ones, and especially in, the most perfect style on those of Septimius Severus. (Engel, vol. i. p. 130.) From these representations, and from the existing remains, Hetsch, an architect of Copenhagen, has attempted to restore the building. (Muller's Archaol. § 239, p. 261; Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 86.)
  New Paphos, now Baffa, was seated on the sea, near the western extremity of the island, and possessed a good harbour. It lay about 60 stadia, or between 7 and 8 miles NW. of the ancient city. (Strab. xiv. p. 683.) It was said to have been founded by Agapenor, chief of the Arcadians at the siege of Troy (Horn. II. ii. 609), who, after the the capture of that town, was driven by the storm, which separated the Grecian fleet, on the coast of Cyprus. (Paus. viii. 5. § 3.) We find Agapenor mentioned as king of the Paphians in a Greek distich preserved in the Analecta (i. p. 181, Brunk); and Herodotus (vii. 90) alludes to an Arcadian colony in Cyprus. Like its ancient namesake, Nea Paphos was also distinguished for the worship of Venus, and contained several magnificent temples dedicated to that-goddess. Yet in this respect the old city seems to have always retained the preeminence; and Strabo tells us, in the passage before cited, that the road leading to it from Nea Paphos was annually crowded with male and female votaries resorting to the more ancient shrine, and coming not only from the latter place itself, but also from the other towns of Cyprus. When Seneca says (N. Q. vi. 26, Ep. 91) that Paphos was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, it is difficult to say to which of the towns he refers. Dion Cassius (liv. 23) relates that it was restored by Augustus, and called Augusta in his honour ; but though this name has been preserved in inscriptions, it never supplanted the ancient one in popular use. Paphos is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles (xiii. 6) as having been visited by St. Paul, when it appears to have been the residence of the Roman governor. Tacitus (Hist. ii. 2, 3) records a visit of the youthful Titus to Paphos before he acceded to the empire, who inquired with much curiosity into its history and antiquities. (Cf. Suet. Tit. c. 5.) Under this name the historian doubtless included the ancient as well as the more modern city: and among other traits of the worship of the temple he records, with something like surprise, that the only image of the goddess was a pyramidal stone,--a relic, doubtless of Phoenician origin. There are still considerable, ruins of New Paphos a mile or two from the sea; among which are particularly remarkable the remains of three temples which had been erected on artificial eminences. (Engel, Kypros, 2 vols. Berlin, 1841.)

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Salamis

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Salamin, Salamias, Malala, Eth. Salaminios. A city on the E. coast of Cyprus, 18 M. P. from Tremithus, and 24 M. P. from Chytri. (Peut. Tab.) Legend assigned its foundation to the Aeacid Teucer, whose fortunes formed the subject of a tragedy by Sophocles, called Teukros, and of one with a similar title by Pacuvius. (Cic. de Orat. i. 58, ii. 46.) The people of Salamis showed the tomb of the archer Teucer (Aristot. Anthologia, i. 8, 112), and the reigning princes at the time of the Ionic revolt were Greeks of the Teucrid Gens, although one of them bore the Phoenician name of Siromus (Hiram). (Herod. v. 104.) In the 6th century B.C. Salamis was already an important town, and in alliance with the Battiad princes of Cyrene, though the king Evelthon refused to assist in reinstating Arcesilaus III. upon the throne. (Herod. iv. 162.) The descendant of this Evelthon -the despot Gorgus- was unwilling to join in the Ionic revolt, but his brother Onesilus shut him out of the gates, and taking the command of the united forces of Salamis and the other cities, flew to arms. The battle which crushed the independence of Cyprus was fought under the walls of Salamis, which was compelled to submit to its former lord, Gorgus. (Herod. v. 103, 104, 108, 110.) Afterwards it was besieged by Anaxicrates, the successor of Cimon, but when the convention was made with the Persians the Athenians did not press the siege. (Diod. xii. 13.) After the peace of Antalcidas the Persians had to struggle for ten years with all their forces against the indefatigable and gentle Evagoras. Isocrates composed a panegyric of this prince addressed to his son Nicocles, which, with every allowance for its partiality, gives an interesting picture of the struggle which the Hellenic Evagoras waged against the Phoenician and Oriental influence under which Salamis and Cyprus had languished. (Comp. Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. x. c. lxxvi.) Evagoras with his son Pnytagoras was assassinated by a eunuch, slave of Nicocreon (Aristot. Pol. v. 8. § 10; Diodor. xv. 47; Theopomp. Fr. iii. ed. Didot), and was succeeded by another son of the name of Nicocles. The Graeco-Aegyptian fleet under Menelaus and his brother Ptolemy Soter was utterly defeated off the harbour of Salamis in a seafight, the greatest in all antiquity, by Demetrius Poliorcetes, B.C. 306. (Diodor. xx. 45-53.) The famous courtezan Lamia formed a part of the booty of Demetrius, over whom she soon obtained unbounded influence. Finally, Salamis came into the hands of Ptolemy. (Plut. Demetr. 35; Polyaen. Strateg. 5.) Under the Roman Empire the Jews were numerous in Salamis (Acts, xiii. 6), where they had more than one synagogue. The farming of the copper mines of the island to Herod (Joseph, Antiq. xv. 14. § 5) may have swelled the numbers who were attracted by the advantages of its harbour and trade, especially its manufactures of embroidered stuffs. (Athen. ii. p. 48.) In the memorable revolt of the Jews in the reign of Trajan this populous city became a desert. (Milman, Hist. of the Jews, vol. iii. pp. 111, 112.) Its demolition was completed by an earthquake; but it was rebuilt by a Christian emperor, from whom it was named CONSTANTIA It was then the metropolitan see of the island. Epiphanius, the chronicler of the heretical sects, was bishop of Constantia in A.D. 367. In thle reign of Heraclius the new town was destroyed by the Saracens.
  The ground lies low in the neighbourhood of Salamis, and the town was situated on a bight of the coast to the N. of the river Pediaeus. This low land is the largest plain--SALAMINIA--in Cyprus, stretching inward between the two mountain ranges to the very heart of the country where the modern Turkish capital--Nicosia--is situated. In the Life and Epistles of St. Paul, by Coneybeare and Howson (vol. i. p. 169), will be found a plan of the harbour and ruins of Salamis, from the survey made by Captain Graves. For coins of Salamis, see Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 87.

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Aepeia (Soli)

SOLOI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
A town in Cyprus, situated on a mountain, the ruler of which is said to have removed to the plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to have named the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There is still a place, called Epe, upon the mountain above the ruins of Soli. (Plut. Sol. 26; Steph. B. s. v.; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 75.)

Soli

  Soli or Soloe (Soloi, Ptol. v. 14. § 4), an important seaport town in the W. part of the N. coast of Cyprus, situated on a small river. (Strab. xiv. p. 683.) According to Plutarch (Sol. 26) it was founded by a native prince at the suggestion of Solon and named in honour of that legislator. The sojourn of Solon in Cyprus is mentioned by Herodotus (v. 113). Other accounts, however, make it an Athenian settlement, founded under the auspices of Phalerus and Acamas (Strab. l. c.), or of Demophon, the son of Theseus (Plut. l. c). We learn from Strabo (l. c.) that it had a temple of Aphrodite and one of Isis; and from Galen (de Simp. Med. ix. 3, 8) that there were mines in its neighbourhood. The inhabitants were called Solii (Solioi), to distinguish them from the citizens of Soli in Cilicia, who were called Soleis (Diog. Laert. V. Solon, 4). According to Pococke (ii. p. 323), the valley which surrounded the city is still called Solea; and the ruins of the town itself may be traced in the village of A Aligora. (Comp. Aesch. Pers. 889; Scyl. p. 41; Stadiasm. M. Magni, § 295, seq.; Const. Porphyr. de Them. i. p. 39, Lips.; Hierocl. p. 707, &c.).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Tamassus

TAMASSOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Tamassus (Tamassos, Ptol. v. 14. § 6; called also Tamaseus by Pliny, v. 31. s. 35, Tamasos by Constantine Porphyr. de Them. i. p. 39, and Tamesa by Statius, Achill. i. 413; cf. coins in Eckhel, i. 3. p. 88), a town in the interior of the island of Cyprus, 29 miles SW. of Soloe, and on the road from that place to Tremithus. It lay in a fruitful neighbourhood (Ovid, M. x. 644), and in the vicinity of some extensive copper mines, which yielded a kind of rust used in medicine (Strab. xiv. p. 864). It is very probably the Temese of Homer (Od. i. 184; Nitzch, ad loc; cf. Mannert, vi. 1. p. 452), in which case it would appear to have been the principal market for the copper trade of the island in those early times. Hence some derive its name from the Phoenician word themaes, signifying smelting.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Tremithus

TREMITHOUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Tremithus (Tremithous, Steph. B. s. v.; Tremethous, Ptol. v. 14. § 6; Trimuthos, Constant. de Them. i. 15, p. 39, ed. Bonn; Treuithounton, Hierocl. p. 707: Eth. Toeuithousios, Toeuithopolites), a town in the interior of Cyprus, was the seat of a bishopic and a place of some importance in the Byzantine times. According to the Peutinger Table it was 18 miles from Salamis, 24 from Citium, and 24 from Tamassus. Stephanus B. calls it a village of Cyprus, and derives its name from the turpentine trees (terebinthoi) which grew in its neighbourhood. (Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 148.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Acamas

AKAMAS (Cape) CYPRUS
A promontory of Cyprus, northwest of Paphos. It is surmounted by two sugar-loaf summits, and the remarkable appearance which it thus presents to navigators as they approach the island on this side, caused them to give the name of Acamantis to the whole island.

Amathus

AMATHUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
A town on the southern coast of Cyprus, with a celebrated temple of Aphrodite, who was hence called Amathusia. There were copper-mines in the neighbourhood of the town.

Cyprus

CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE
   A large island of the Mediterranean, south of Cilicia and west of Syria, identical, at least in part, with the Hebrew Kittim, which seems to be its oldest known name; but it appears to be sometimes included in the name Caphtor, a title that properly belongs to Crete with other islands and coast lands settled by the Caphtorim. Other ancient names of Cyprus, most of them poetical, are Aeria, Aerosa, Acamantis, Amathusia, Aphrodisia, Aphelia, Collinia, Cerastis, Cryptos, Meinis, Ophiusa, Macaria, Paphos, Sphekeia. The derivation of the name is uncertain, but the principal authorities, ancient and modern, refer it to the Hebrew kopher or gopher, the name of a tree; sometimes, without adequate reason, connecting it with cupressus. Another derivation is from cuprum, "copper," formerly found in the island; but the chalkos kuprios or aes cyprium probably took its name from the island, not the island from the metal.
     Cyprus is reckoned by Strabo (or Timaeus, whom he follows) to be the third in extent of the Mediterranean isles. Its shape was aptly compared by the ancients to the outspread skin of an ox, or to the fleece of a sheep. Its extreme length, from Cape Acamas (now Cape Arnaouti or Epiphanio) on the west to the promontory Dinaretum (now St. Andrea) on the east, is about 140 miles; its greatest breadth, from Crommyon (now Cormaciti) on the north to Cape Curias (now Cape Gatto), on the south, about 60; its width varying greatly, the long strip that ends at Dinaretum being very narrow and scarcely more than 10 miles across at any point. Off Dinaretum are several small islands called Kleides (Keys). The coast is provided with numerous bays; but the harbors are now mere roadsteads, though the remains of ancient artificial harbor moles are to be seen at several places (as New Paphos, Soli, etc.).
    From Crommyon to Dinaretum, along and quite near the coast, extends a mountainous chain, of which the highest peaks are Buffavento (3240 ft.), Pentedactylon (2480 ft.), and Elias (2810 ft.). The principal ranges, however, are in the west and southwest, the highest point being Mount Olympus (Trodos or Troodos, 6590 ft.), nearly midway between Curium on the south coast and Soli on the north, from the top of which a view of the whole island can be obtained. Next in height is Mount Adelphi (Maschera, 5380 ft.), a few miles to the east; still farther east, a hill (4370 ft.) whose ancient name is unknown; and still farther east again, Mount Santa Croce (Stavros, 2300 ft.). The chain extends nearly to Famagousta (Ammochostos, Constantia-Salamis), with frequent spurs to the shore; and spurs also extend from Olympus radially to the north, west, and south. Between the two ranges is a vast plain, now called the Messouria, whose principal river is the Pidias (Pidaeas), emptying into the sea near Salamis. The Messouria to-day is one vast grain-field, interspersed with insignificant villages. The island formerly abounded in trees and timber, of which it is now mostly denuded, though the kharub, olive, fig, orange, date-palm, lemon, nectarines, apricots, etc., and others suited to the climate flourish. Wild grape-vines still grow to an immense size. Wine, of various sorts, is abundant; the best and most famous being the Commanderia wine, so named from its original producers, the Knights of St. John, at Colossi. Formerly Cyprus yielded to no region in fertility, producing an abundance of grain, wine, oil, and fruits. At the proper season the hills and uncultivated plains are carpeted with anemones, ranunculuses, crocuses, hyacinths, squills, and a great variety of other flowers, especially those with bulbous roots. One ancient epithet of Cyprus is euodes. But agriculture, along with irrigation and drainage, is much neglected. Salt lakes, or “Salines,” exist near Larnaca, the ancient Citium, furnishing now, as in the times of Pliny, vast supplies of salt for home consumption and exportation, the salt coating the surface as the summer heat evaporates the water. The climate is still that of the ancient nimio calore.
    Although the names of special historians have come down to us, we possess no ancient special treatise or history of the island, but are dependent for information anciently current upon the frequent mention in the Greek and Roman classics, with brief notices in the later historians. These are best collected in Engel's monograph Kypros.
    The earliest inhabitants have generally been supposed to be Phoenicians, and it is true that the Phoenician language retained its hold in certain parts of Cyprus as late as anywhere, contemporarily, of course, with the Greek, the Lycian (locally), and later with the Latin. The Cypriotes, however, spoke a language peculiar to themselves, as was long ago evident from the scattered glosses preserved by the grammarians and lexicographers, and as has lately been further and most conclusively shown by the recent discovery and decipherment of inscriptions in the peculiar Cypriote character. This language was essentially Greek; and the Greek of Cyprus to-day embraces many peculiarities of its own. The legendary hero of Cyprus was Cinyras, who is said to have come to the island at the time of the beginning of the Trojan War. Without going into the matter of the legend, it may be said that Greek inscriptions of the "Cinyradae" (the priestly caste of Old Paphos, etc.) have been found in the island within the last twenty years. The chief religion of the island was notoriously the worship of Venus; but with few exceptions (as e. g. Zeus Labranios, introduced near Amathus from Caria) the religion and deities were introduced from Phoenicia, and thus indirectly from the farther East--with, however, some Greek modification. Aphrodite, Apollo, Hercules, and other deities usually called Greek or Roman were thus introduced, the Greek and Phoenician names of some of them appearing now and then on the same bilingual inscription. Aphrodite had her epithet of "Paphian" not only at Paphos, where her rites included all the extravagancies of Mylitta at Babylon, but at the other seats of her worship--Golgos, Dali, Cerynia, etc. Apollo Hylates, who had a temple at Curium, is called by that name and also by his Phoenician name of Resheph Mical on a bilingual inscription found at Dali. A temple to Eshmunmelqarth (=Aesculapius-Hercules), a Phoenician deity much like the Greek Palaemon and the Roman Portumnus, near the Salines at Larnaca, has furnished a number of Phoenician inscriptions of the fourth century b.c.; while a temple to Artemis Paralia, close at hand, has furnished a few Greek inscriptions and an immense number of valuable terra-cotta remains.
    Aside from the mythical reign of Cinyras over the whole island, the territory, so far as we know, was broken up into a number of kingdoms, whose detailed history has well-nigh perished. A dynasty of Phoenician kings ruled over Citium, Idalium, and Tamassus in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. Salamis, said to have been founded by Teucer, and by him named after his native city, had its own Greek kings at the same period. Paphos had its dynasty of the Cinyradae, who seem also to have extended their power over Amathus and certain other parts. Soli and Cythrea traced their origin to the Athenians; Lapethus and Cerynia to a Lacedaemonian colony under Praxander and an Achaean one under Cepheus; Curium to the Argives. A town Asine, whose site is not known, is said to have been colonized by the Dryopians; Neo-Paphos by Agapenor. The promontory Acamas is said to have its name from the hero of the Trojan War. Old Paphos, Amathus, and Citium were founded by the Ph?nicians; and of these, Citium (with Dali and Tamassus) seems to have retained its Ph?nician character with less modification than the others. Carpassia seems also to have had a Ph?nician origin. Articles of Phoenician manufacture--bronze, gold, silver, pottery, etc.--have been found in abundance all over the island.
    Aside from these scattered data, we know that Thothmes III. of Egypt (cir. B.C. 1500) conquered Cyprus; Belus of Tyre was at one time its master; ten kingdoms, including Soli, Chytri, Curium, Lapethus, Cerynia, Neo Paphos, Marium, Idalium, Citium, and Amathus, sent their submission to the Assyrian Esarhaddon (cir. B.C. 890); Sargon put the island to tribute (cir. B.C. 707); Apries (Pharaoh Hophra) of Egypt defeated some Cyprian monarchs near Citium, and returned home laden with their spoils; Amasis of Egypt overran the island and put it to tribute, but the Cyprian rulers joined Cambyses the Persian against the son of Amasis. The king of Amathus revolted from the Persians in the time of Darius, and the longest record extant in the Cypriote character commemorates one of the side issues of this struggle. In B.C. 477, the Athenians and Lacedaemonians conquered part of Cyprus from the Persians; and a war resulted in which the Greeks, with the Tyrians and Egyptians as allies, were on one side, and the Persians on the other. The power of Alexander the Great was both felt and helped in Cyprus, after which, under the Ptolemies, followed wars and doubtful sovereignty, till Demetrius Poliorcetes conquered the island (cir. B.C. 306). About B.C. 296, Ptolemy Soter took the island, after which it remained under Egypt till conquered by the Romans.
    Literature and the arts flourished in Cyprus even from a very early period, as witness the "Cypria Carmina," by some attributed to Homer. Citium was the birthplace of Zeno. It is foreign to the present article to trace the history of the island during the Roman rule, the Arabs, the dukedoms of the Crusades, Richard of England, the Lusignans, the Turks, and the recent occupation by the English. Its geographical position made it the field for the exhibition of the arts, deeds, and cults of various nations; and its remains, as brought to light in the explorations of the last twenty-five Vase, with Ph?nician Inscription Burnt on the Clay. [p. 458] years, have given a deeper insight into the ancient life and occupations and attainments of its successive peoples and masters than it had been thought possible hitherto to attain, and necessitated the rewriting of the principal chapters in the history of ancient art. From the time of Pococke, who, nearly three centuries ago, made his famous discoveries of Ph?nician inscriptions (chiefly about Citium), down to the English occupation, scattered and partial explorations have been made. The discovery, in the first half of this century, of inscriptions in a character hitherto unknown, and their decipherment, from 1873 onward, has furnished most valuable clues to the history of religions in Cyprus and the transference of deities thither from the East, besides many minor historical matters and a vast addition to the knowledge of Greek dialects. The characters are syllabic, with peculiar laws of writing, and the language Greek. Some hundreds of these inscriptions are now known (the most of them found by Di Cesnola)--some bilingual (Phoenician and Cypriote) and some digraphic (Greek and Cypriote). The decipherment is a brilliant record--George Smith, of England, discovering the key in a bilingual inscription now in the British Museum; R. H. Lang simultaneously and independently proving the incorrectness of certain previous attempts by others; after which Samuel Birch made additional progress; and complete inscriptions were first read simultaneously and independently by Justus Siegismund and W. Deecke of Strassburg, M. Schmidt of Jena, and I. H. Hall of New York, since which time many writers have contributed lexicographic and dialectic additions.
    The discoveries by exploration and excavation have been chiefly made (though the work of others is not inconsiderable) by L. P. di Cesnola, while U. S. Consul at Cyprus, from 1866 to 1877. His work covered nearly all parts of the island, discovering the sites of many ancient cities, and ruins of others whose ancient identity is not yet known, besides many temples, necropoles, ancient aqueducts, and other remains, including over 200 inscriptions, in Assyrian, Cypriote, Phoenician, Greek, and Latin. The greatest number (many thousands) and most important of the objects discovered are deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, though many found their way to European museums and private collections. The Cyprian Sarcophagus--Roman Period. statuary, pottery, terra-cottas, glass, gold, silver, and gems are a unique and unrivalled collection, and their value for the study of Phoenician and Greek archaeology, art, and history appears in their unceasing use in the learned publications of all countries. Since the occupation of Cyprus by the English, others have excavated and explored, but by no means on the same scale, the principal works accomplished being the further excavation of the site of the greater temple of Venus at Old Paphos, and some large operations near Salamis.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Golgi

GOLGOI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
(Golgoi). A town in Cyprus, of uncertain site, a Sicyonian colony, and one of the chief seats of the worship of Aphrodite.

Idalium

IDALION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
(Idalion). A town in Cyprus, sacred to Aphrodite, who hence bore the surname Idalia.

Citium

KITION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
A town in Cyprus, 200 stadia from Salamis, near the mouth of the Tetius; here Cimon, the celebrated Athenian, died, and Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school, was born. It is now Larnaca.

Curium

KOURION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
   Kourion. A city of Cyprus, on the southern coast, or rather, according to the ancients, at the commencement of the western shore, at a small distance from which, to the southeast, there is a cape which bears the name of Curias. Curium is said to have been founded by an Argive colony, and it was one of the nine royal cities of Cyprus.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Lapethus

LAMPOUSA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
A town on the northern coast of Cyprus on a river of the same name.

Paphus

PAPHOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
   (Paphos). The name of two towns on the west coast of Cyprus, called "Old Paphos" (Palaipaphos) and "New Paphos" (Paphos Nea), the former near the promontory of Zephyrium, ten stadia from the coast; the latter more inland, sixty stadia from the former. Old Paphos was the chief seat of the worship of Aphrodite, who is said to have landed at this place after her birth among the waves, and who is hence frequently called the Paphian goddess (Paphia). Here she had a celebrated temple, the high-priest of which exercised a kind of religious superintendence over the whole island. The priests were supposed to be descendants of Cinyras. The image of the goddess was a conical stone, which was anointed with oil at the time of worship, and this, with other testimony derived from excavations made since 1887 by English explorers, makes it evident that the cult of the Paphian Aphrodite was Semitic rather than Hellenic. The very temple, with its large open courts and small chambers, had the characteristics of a Phoenician structure. New Paphos, on the other hand, was of Greek foundation, and the traditions ascribed it to Agapenor.
    In the reign of Augustus Old Paphos was destroyed by an earthquake, and when rebuilt by order of the emperor received the name of Augusta.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Tamassus

TAMASSOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
(Tamassos) or Tamasus (Tamasos), probably the same as the Homeric Temese. A town in the middle of Cyprus, northwest of Olympus, and twenty-nine miles southeast of Soloe.

Infoplease

Links

Cyprus

  Large island in eastern Mediterranean, off the coast of Syria. By its location, Cyprus was at the crossroad of many civilizations from the Middle East, Egypt and Greece, though its situation as an island and the richness of its soil (especially rich copper mines that were at the root of its prosperity and induced trade relations with most of the Middle East) allowed it to keep its specificity over the centuries.
  Cyprus had been populated since a very remote past. Around 1450 B. C., Greeks of the Mycenaean civilization established trade posts in the island. Yet, the kings that were reigning over Cyprus stayed in power and managed to keep their autonomy and neutrality in the power struggles that opposed the Hittites kings from Anatolia and the pharaohs of Egypt during the XIVth and XIIIth centuries B.C . Centuries later, toward the end of the IXth century and during the VIIIth century B. C., Phoenician merchants established trade posts on the southern shore of the island, in cities like Citium.
  Yet, most of the island stayed under the control of kings of Salamis, vassals of the Assyrian Empire. With the fall of Nineveh (612), the Assyrian dominion over the island was replaced by that of Egypt, followed by that of Persia in the time of Cyrus the Great and his successors.
  Greek mythology of classical times links Cyprus to Teucrus, son of Telamon, the king of Salamis and father of the Great Ajax, one of the most prominent Greek heroes during the Trojan war. When he came back to Salamis after the war, where his elder brother Ajax had been killed, his father Telamon exiled him for not having protected or avenged his brother. Teucrus fled to Syria, where the king of the place settled him in Cyprus that he had just conquered. There, Teucrus founded a city that he called Salamis as well.
  Back in the historical times, Cyprus, under the leadership of Onesilus, brother of the king of Salamis, took part in 498 in an uprising against Darius, the Persian King, along with Ionian cities led by Aristagoras, ruler of Miletus. But the attempt failed, the combined Ionian fleet and Cypriot army were defeated on sea and land by Darius' troops and his Phoenician navy near Salamis of Cyprus, and Onesilus was killed.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.


PAPHOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS

Local government Web-Sites

Union of Cyprus Municipalities

CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE

Municipality of Deryneia

DERYNIA (Municipality) CYPRUS

Municipality of Limassol

LIMASSOL (Municipality) CYPRUS

Municipality of Nicosia

NICOSIA (Municipality) CYPRUS

Municipality of Paralimni

PARALIMNI (Town) CYPRUS

Non commercial Web-Sites

Lobby for Cyprus

CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE
Lobby for Cyprus is a non party political, non sectarian organisation based in the UK with the aim of reuniting Cyprus. Lobby was formed in 1993 and since its inception has campaigned vigorously against the brutal invasion, occupation, ethnic cleansing and destruction of the Hellenic heritage of 37% of the Republic of Cyprus by Turkey.

Perseus Project

Salamis in Cyprus

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS

Perseus Project index

Idalion

IDALION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Total results on 7/5/2001: 15

Carpasia

KARPASIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Total results on 9/5/2001: 3

Kition

KITION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Total results on 10/5/2001: 27

Kourion, Curium

KOURION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Total results on 11/5/2001: 21 for Kourion, 17 for Curium.

Present location

Agios Epifanios or Arnaoutis

AKAMAS (Cape) CYPRUS

Famagusta

ARSINOI (Ancient city) FAMAGUSTA

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Amathus

AMATHUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS

Cyprus

CYPRUS (Country) EUROPE
Cyprus, an island in the Eastern Mediterranean, at the entrance of the Gulf of Alexandretta. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians and Greeks, and was famous for its temples of Aphrodite. Though long autonomous, in the sixth century B.C. dominion over it was disputed by the Egyptians and the Persians, the latter ruling it till the invasion of Alexander the Great. From the Ptolemies of Egypt it passed to the Romans (59 B.C.). Despite Moslem invasions from the seventh to the tenth century, it remained a part of the Eastern Empire until the end of the twelfth. ln 1191 it was conquered by Richard the Lion-Hearted, who gave it to Guy de Lusignan, King of Jerusalem; in 1373 it fell to the Genoese, in 1489 to the Venetians. Finally, in 1571, it became Moslem territory under Sultan Selim II. In 1878 it was occupied by England and is now administered by an English high commissioner, assisted by a board of four English members (Statesman's Year Book, London, 1908). The island is hilly, with few rivers, and the climate is hot. Its once famous cities have perished; the chief towns are now Larnaca (the best port), Nicosia, and Limasol. Its area is 153,584 square miles. The population in 1901 was 237,000 (51,000 Mussulmans, 1100 Maronites, 850 Latins, 300 Armenians, a few Protestants and Jews, and the rest Greeks). It produces dates, carobs, oranges and other fruits, oil, wine, and corn. It has also sponge fisheries. Gypsum is mined there and copper mines were worked in ancient times. Christianity was successfully preached in Cyprus by St. Paul, St. Barnabas (a native of the island), and St. John Mark. At Paphos the magician Elymas was blinded and the Proconsul Sergius Paulus was converted (Acts, xi, xiii, xv). The Byzantine "Synaxaria" mention many saints, bishops, and martyrs of this early period, e.g. St. Lazarus, St. Heraclides, St. Nicanor (one of the first seven deacons), and others. In the fourth century we find two illustrious names, that of St. Spiridion, the shepherd Bishop of Trimithus, present at the Council of Nicaea in 325 with two other Cypriot bishops, whose relics were removed to Corfu in 1460, and that of St. Epiphanius (d. 403), Bishop of Salamis, the zealous adversary of all heresies and author of many valuable theological works. The Bishop of Salamis (later Constantia) was then metropolitan of the whole island, but was himself subject to the Patriarch of Antioch. During the Arian quarrels and the Eustathian schism, the Cypriote Church began to claim its independence. Pope Innocent I stood out for the rights of the Antiochene patriarch, Alexander I. However, it was not long before the Council of Ephesus (431) in its seventh session acknowledged the ecclesiastical independence of Cyprus: the cause was gained by the metropolitan, Rheginus, who was present at Ephesus with three of his suffragans. In 488 Peter the Dyer (Petrus Fullo), the famous Monophysite patriarch, made an effort to recover the ancient Antiochene jurisdiction over the island. During the conflict, however, the Cypriote metropolitan, Anthimus, claimed to have learned by a revelation that the site of the sepulchre of St. Barnabas was quite near his own city of Salamis; he found there the body of the Apostle with a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel, brought the relics to Constantinople, and presented them to the Emperor Zeno. Acacius of Constantinople decided in favour of Cyprus against Antioch, since which time the ecclesiastical independence (autocephalia) of the island has no more been called in question, the archbishop, known as exarch, ranking immediately after the five great patriarchs.
  From the fifth to the twelfth century the following Archbishops of Constantia (Salamis) are worthy of note: Acadius, biographer of St. Symeon Stylites the Younger, and an uncompromising opponent of the Ecthesis of Heraclius; Sergius, who condemned this document in a council and sent the pertinent decree to Pope Theodore I, but became afterwards infected with the very error he had formerly condemned; George, a defender of the holy images (icons); Constantine, who played a conspicuous part in their defence at the Second Nicene Council (787); Nicholas Muzalon, appointed Patriarch of Constantinople in 1147. Another remarkable prelate is St. Demetrianus, Bishop of Chytraea (ninth and tenth century). After the conquest of Cyprus by the Arabs, 632-647, the Christian population with its bishops emigrated to the mainland. Justinian II built for them, near the Hellespont, a city which he called Nea Justinianopolis; their archbishop enjoyed there the rights he had in Cyprus, besides exercising jurisdiction over the surrounding country (Quinisext Council, can. xxxix, 692). After the death of Justinian II the Cypriotes returned to their island with their hierarchy. Under Nicephorus Phocas (963-969) Cyprus was freed completely from the Arabs, who had sometimes treated it more kindly than the Byzantine emperors. Christianity, however, gained by the restoration. To this period belongs the foundation of three great monasteries, Our Lady of Pity (Eleusa) of Kykkos, Machaeras, and the Encleistra, the last founded in the twelfth century by the recluse Neophytus, author of several ascetical works. The Frankish rule, though at first accepted rather willingly, was finally the source of profound disturbance. In 1196 King Amaury obtained from Celestine III a Latin hierarchy for his kingdom: a resident archbishop was placed at Nicosia (Leucosia), with three suffragans at Paphos, Limasol (Temessos), and Famagusta (Ammochostos, formerly Arsinoe). Knights Templars, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, Benedictines, Cistercians, Carthusians, Regular Canons, Premonstratensian nuns soon had many flourishing monasteries. Splendid churches were built in the Gothic or ogival style, and many Greek churches were changed into Latin ones. Ecclesiastical revenues were assigned (in part) to the Latin clergy; the Greek clergy and the faithful were subordinated to Latin jurisdiction. In the execution of the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Cardinal Pelagius, legate of Innocent III, showed himself utterly intransigent. Thirteen refractory Greek monks were cruelly put to death. The Greek archbishop, Neophytus, was deposed and exiled, the Greek sees reduced to four, the bishops ordered to reside in small villages and obey the Latin archbishop (1220-1222). Innocent IV and Alexander IV were more favourable to the Greeks (Hergenrother-Kirsch, Kirchengesch., 4th ed., 1904, II, 726), and the Government often defended them against the Latins. The ecclesiastical history of Cyprus during this sad period is one of conflict between the two rival communions, the Greeks being always looked on as more or less schismatic both by the Latins and by the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople. An attempted union of the two Churches in 1405 did not succeed, nor was the Union of Florence (1439) more lasting. In 1489, through the abdication of Queen Caterina Cornaro, the island became subject to Venice, whose rule was even more intolerable to the Greeks, so that, as stated, in 1571 they welcomed the Turkish conquerors as true deliverers.
  Among the more conspicuous Latin Archbishops of Nicosia may be mentioned Eustorge de Montaigu (1217-1250) who died at the siege of Damietta, a stern defender of the rights of his Church and a skilful administrator; he increased the splendour of the church services, established schools, built the archiepiscopal palace and the magnificent cathedral of St. Sophia; Ugo di Fagiano (1251-1261), distinguished for his zeal and piety, but a zealous adversary of the Greeks; Gerard de Langres (1274), deposed by Boniface VIII for siding with Philip the Fair; Giovanni del Conte (1312), renowned for his charity; Cardinal Elie de Nabinals (1332), a great reformer; Andreas of Rhodes (1447), present at the Council of Florence; Filippo Mocenigo (1559), who assisted at the closing sessions of the Council of Trent, helped the Venetians against the Turks, and, after the loss of Cyprus, retired to Italy. The Latin bishops of Cyprus showed themselves generally worthy of their mission, by resisting the encroachments of the kings, sometimes also of the Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem, and even of the pontifical legates. The only reproach they deserve is a want of tact in their behaviour towards the Greeks, and also that their clergy at certain times were guilty of moral laxity. Few saints appear in Latin Cyprus; we hear only of the saintly Franciscan, Ugo di Fagiano, and the Dominican, Pierre de La Palu, Patriarch of Jerusalem and administrator of the See of Limasol. Blessed Pierre Thomas, a Carmelite and papal legate, who strove hard to convert the Greeks, died at the siege of Famagusta in 1366.
  After frightful massacres, the Turks allowed the Greeks to reorganize their Church as they liked: viz, with an archbishop styled "Most Blessed Archbishop of Nea Justiniana [a blunder for Justinianopolis] and all Cyprus", and three bishops at Paphos, Citium, and Karpasia. In the seventeenth century the last-named see was suppressed, and its territory given to the archdiocese; on the other hand the ancient See of Kyrenia was re-established. Cyprus, like the other autocephalous orthodox Churches, has its "Holy Synod", which consists of four bishops and four priests. In the last three centuries there are few events to mention, apart from simoniacal elections and perpetual domestic quarrels. In 1668 Archbishop Nicephorus held a council against the Protestants. In 1821 the four Greek bishops, with many priests, monks, and laymen, were murdered by the Turks. After 1900 strife arose in the ancient Church of St. Barnabas, and it was found impossible to name a successor to the archbishop who died in that year. The Turkish conquest caused the ruin of the Latin Church: two bishops were then killed with many priests and monks, the churches were profaned, and the Latin Catholics left the island. However, as early as 1572, Franciscans could again reside at Larnaca; after a century they had gathered about 2000 Catholics of various rites. Since 1848 Cyprus has been ecclesiastically dependent on the new Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. The Franciscans have stations at Larnaca, Limasol, and Nicosia, with schools and five churches; Sisters of St. Joseph of the Apparition conduct schools in these three towns, and have a hospital and an orphanage at Larnaca.
  The Maronites were very numerous during the period of Latin rule, but owing to persecutions of Greeks or Turks have mostly all departed or apostatized. The latter are called Linobambaci; some of them returned to Catholicism. Cyprus, with a part of Lebanon, still forms a Maronite diocese, with 30,000 faithful. They have in the island a few churches and four monasteries, but lack good schools. Among the resident Armenians there is only an insignificant number (12) of Catholics; the rest obey the Gregorian Patriarch of Jerusalem and have two priests and a monastery. Other Christians of Eastern Rites, who lived in Cyprus during the Middle Ages, subject to their own bishops, have now completely disappeared.

S. Petrides, ed.
Transcribed by: Diane E. Dubrule
This text is cited June 2004 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


Famagusta

FAMAGUSTA (Municipality) FAMAGUSTA

Nicosia

NICOSIA (Town) CYPRUS
Nicosia. Titular archdiocese in the Province of Cyprus. It is now agreed (Oberhummer' "Aus Cypern" in "Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde", 1890, 212-14), that Ledra, Leucotheon, Leucopolis, Leucosia, and Nicosia are the same city, at least the same episcopal see. Ledra is first mentioned by Sozomen (H. E., I, 11) in connexion with its bishop, St. Triphyllius, who lived under Constantine and whom St. Jerome (De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis), pronounced the most eloquent of his time. Mention is made also of one of his disciples, St. Diomedes, venerated on 28 October. Under the name of Leucosia the city appears for the first time in the sixth century, in the "Synecdemus" of Hierocles (ed. Burckhardt, 707-8). It was certainly subsequent to the eighth century that Leucosia or Nicosia replaced Constantia as the metropolis of Cyprus, for at the (Ecumenical Council of 787 one Constantine signed as Bishop of Constantia; in any case at the conquest of the island in 1191 by Richard Coeur de Lion Nicosia was the capital. At that time Cyprus was sold to the Templars who established themselves in the castle of Nicosia, but not being able to overcome the hostility of the people of the city, massacred the majority of the inhabitants and sold Cyprus to Guy de Lusignan, who founded a dynasty there, of which there were fifteen titulars, and did much towards the prosperity of the capital. Nicosia was then made a Latin metropolitan see with three suffragans, Paphos, Limassol, and Famagusta. The Greeks who had previously had as many as fourteen titulars were obliged to be content with four bishops bearing the same titles as the Latins but residing in different towns. The list of thirty-one Latin archbishops from 1196 to 1502 may be seen in Eubel, "Hierarchia catholica medii aevi", I, 382; II, 224. Quarrels between Greeks and Latins were frequent and prolonged, especially at Nicosia, where the two councils of 1313-60 ended in bloodshed; but in spite of everything the island prospered. There were many beautiful churches in the possession of the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians, Carmelites, Benedictines, and Carthusians. Other churches belonged to the Greeks, Armenians, Jacobites, Maronites, Nestorians etc. In 1489 Cyprus fell under the dominion of Venice and on 9 November, 1570, Nicosia fell into the power of the Turks, who committed atrocious cruelties. Nor was this the last time, for on 9 July, 1821, during the revolt of the Greeks in the Ottoman Empire, they strangled many of the people of Nicosia, among them the four Greek bishops of the island. Since 4 June, 1878, Cyprus has been under the dominion of England. Previously Nicosia was the residence of the Mutessarif of the sandjak which depended on the vilayet of the Archipelago. Since the Turkish occupation of 1571 Nicosia has been the permanent residence of the Greek archbishop who governs the autonomous church of Cyprus. The city has 13,000 inhabitants. The Franciscans administer the Catholic mission which is dependent on the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and has a school for boys. The Sisters of St. Joseph have a school for girls.

S. Vailhe, ed.
Transcribed by: Joseph E. O'Connor
This text is cited June 2004 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


Paphos

PAPHOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS

Salamis

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
Salamis, a titular see in Cyprus. Salamis was a maritime town on the eastern coast of Cyprus, situated at the end of a fertile plain between two mountains, near the River Pediaeus. It was already an important centre in the sixth century B.C. Its foundation is attributed to Teucer, son of Telamon, King of the Island of Salamis, opposite Attica; others believe it to be of Phoenician origin and derive its name from the Semitic selom, peace. Its fine harbour, its location, and fortifications made it the chief city of the island. In the sixth century B.C. it had kings, allies of the princes of Cyrene; one of them, Gorgus, refused to join in the Ionian revolt, and was expelled by his brother, who took command of the troops of Salamis and the other cities; the battle was fought before Salamis, which fell again into the power of Gorgus. It was besieged by Anexicrates, the successor of Cimon. After the peace of Antacidas, the Persians had to fight for ten years against the valiant king Evagoras, whose panegyric was composed by Isocatres. It was at Salamis in 306 B.C. that the greatest naval battle of antiquity was fought, Demetrius I, Poliorcetes, defeating the Graeco-Egyptian fleet of Ptolemy I. In 295 B.C. Salamis passed under the sway of the kings of Egypt, and in 58 B.C. under that of Rome, at which time it possessed all the eastern portion of the island. When St. Paul landed at Salamis with Barnabas and John, surnamed Mark, returning from Seleucia, there were several synagogues, and it was there he began the conversion of the island (Acts, xiii, 5). Salamis was destroyed by earthquakes, and was rebuilt by Constantius II (337-61), who called it Constantia. It was destroyed by the Arabs in 647 or 648. Its unimportant ruins are near the village of Hagios Sergios, a little north of Famagusta. After its destruction the inhabitants and clergy betook themselves to Famagusta, which became and for a long time remained the residence of the archbishops. At present they reside at Nicosia. In the article on Cyprus are mentioned the principal bishops of Salamis or Constantia; the list of these prelates is given in Le Quien, "Oriens christianus", II, 1043 seq., and more fully in Hackett, "A History of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus" (London, 1901), 651.

S. Petrides, ed.
Transcribed by: Stan Walker
This text is cited June 2004 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Amathous

AMATHUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the S coast, about 11 km E of Limassol. The ruins cover a large area on top of a hill and on the slopes reaching the sea to the S. The lower city lies between the acropolis and the sea and to the E. Remains of the ancient city wall and of the harbor still survive. The relatively well-preserved wall across the acropolis is of Early Byzantine times. The necropolis extends E, N, and W of the town.
  One of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, its legendary founder was Kinyras, who called the city after his mother Amathous. It was said in antiquity that the people were autochthonous. They used a non-Greek language, as shown by inscriptions in the Cypriot syllabary used down to the 4th c. B.C. According to one version of the Ariadne legend, Theseus abandoned Ariadne at Amathousa, where she died. The Amathousians are said to have called the grove where she was buried the "Wood of Aphrodite Ariadne."
  Nothing is known of the earliest history of the city. At the time of the Ionian Revolt (499-498 B.C.) it sided with the Persians. Onesilos, king of Salamis, who led the revolt, persuaded all the Cypriots except those of Amathous to join him against Persia. Onesilos proceeded to lay siege to Amathous, but forced by other events to abandon the siege, he fell in the battle that ensued on the plain of Salamis.
  King Euagoras I of Salamis (411-374/373 B.C.) reduced Amathous at the time of his attempt to liberate Cyprus from the Persians. Its king Rhoikos had been made a prisoner, but then returned home, his release having been effected by the Athenians, who were Euagoras' allies. King Androkles of Amathous assisted Alexander the Great at the siege of Tyre. The history of the city was written in nine books by Eratosthenes of Kyrene (275-195 B.C.). The kings of Amathous who are known to have issued coins are Zotimos, Lysandros, Epipalos, and possibly Rhoikos. The city continued to flourish throughout the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman periods down to Early Byzantine times, when it became the seat of a bishop, but it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647
  Some stretches of the walls still stand but practically nothing of the city has been uncovered so far. A number of built tombs had been excavated in the 19th c., while more tombs were excavated in 1930. In recent years the ruins of two Early Christian basilican churches were excavated. A built tomb can be seen on the seaward side of the main Nicosia-Limassol road a little W of the ruins of the city. A large dromos, measuring 13 x 7 m, slopes down to the doorway. The interior of the tomb consists of two rectangular chambers; both have corbeled slightly curved saddle roofs with flat top stones. It is dated to the beginning of the Cypro-archaic I period, shortly after 700 B.C.
  The city wall may be traced in practically all its course; the circuit starts at the E end by the sea near the Church of Haghia Varvara, extends N along the edge of the acropolis, and returns along its W edge. Remains of this Classical wall survive at both ends. Of the ancient harbor only a little is now visible, on the SE of the acropolis. Part of it has silted up and only scanty remains of the artificial breakwaters can still be seen above water. The sites of a gymnasium and of a theater are suspected but they have never been investigated. The Temple of Aphrodite (also known as Amathousia) is to be sought on the summit of the acropolis. We also know of the worship in Amathous of Zeus, Hera, Hermes and Adonis, but nothing about the position of their sanctuaries. Cut into the face of a rock on the E side of the acropolis there is a Greek inscription recording the construction by Lucius Vitellius Callinicus at his own expense of the steps leading up to it and of an arch.
  Casual finds in the city site are frequent. A colossal statue in gray limestone, measuring 4.20 m in height and 2 m in width at the shoulders, now in the Istanbul Museum, was found in 1873 by the harbor. This curious colossus has been much discussed and many identifications have been put forward, but most probably it represents Bes. Its date too is disputed but it may well be an archaistic statue of the Roman period. In 1862 a colossal stone vase, now in the Louvre, was found on the summit of the acropolis. It may have stood at the entrance to the Temple of Aphrodite. It has four horizontal arched handles ending with palmettes, within each of which is placed a bull. Many small finds are in the Nicosia and Limassol Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Aphrodision

APHRODISION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast 38 km E of Kerynia. The ruins of a small town identified with Aphrodision lie by the shore at the locality Liastrika, due N of Akanthou village. The ruins cover the fields inland as well as a headland which separates two bays. On the W side of the headland is a perfectly shaped horseshoe bay, which may have served as a harbor.
  Nothing is known of the founding of the town or of its history but it is mentioned by Strabo (14.682) and by Ptolemy (5.14.4). The reading Uppridissa equated with Aphrodision on the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.) is not to be trusted. The worship of Hera in the 2d c. B.C. is attested by a recently discovered inscription. Aphrodision seems to have flourished from Hellenistic to Early Byzantine times, when it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647. The town site is now a field of ruins under cultivation and it is so far unexcavated.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Arsinoe (later Marion)

ARSINOE (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  There were at least three towns so named, all three on the coast. A fourth one in the interior is rather doubtful. One was formerly Marion on the NW coast near Cape Arnauti, another at modern Famagusta on the E coast, and the third somewhere between Old and New Paphos on the SW coast. As to the fourth, it is said to be at Arsos in the Limassol district. Of the four, only the first has been explored.
  The best known Arsinoe is the former Marion (q.v.). After Alexander the Great, Stasioikos II, the last king of Marion, sided with Antigonos against Ptolemy. In 312 B.C. the city was razed by Ptolemy and its inhabitants were transferred to Paphos. On the ruins a new city was founded about 270 B.C. by Ptolemy Philadelphus who renamed it after his wife and sister. We probably know more of this Arsinoe than of its predecessor Marion.
  The ruins of this town are to be found to the N of the modern village of Polis. Part of the site is now a field of ruins under cultivation and part is inhabited, but the town may have extended S under the modern village. The necropolis, also the Classical necropolis of Marion, lies mainly to the S. This Arsinoe is well known to geographers and historians (Strab. 14.683; Ptol. 5.14.4; Plin. HNT 5.130; Steph. Byz.). The Stadiasmus (309) and inscriptions record it. The town flourished during the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman era, and in Early Christian times it became the seat of a bishop. The site has never been excavated. Some soundings made in 1929 were intended to locate the earlier city.
  From an inscription of the 3d c. B.C. we know that there was a Hellenistic gymnasium but its position remains unknown. There was probably a theater but we have no evidence although its position can be conjectured. We learn from Strabo that there was a Sacred Grove to Zeus and from an inscription of the time of Tiberius we are told of the existence of a Temple of Zeus and Aphrodite. The site of a sanctuary is known at the far end of a small ridge at Maratheri, E of the ancient town. This sanctuary may well be that of Zeus and Aphrodite mentioned in the above inscription, which almost certainly came from this site. This cult may be earlier for on some coins of Stasioikos II is shown on the obverse the head of Zeus and on the reverse that of Aphrodite. In fact, casual finds also date this sanctuary from the archaic to the Graeco-Roman period. The site is the most important town in Cyprus of this name and as we know of many Arsinoeia in the island we may presume that there was one here too.
  A number of tombs of the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman era were excavated in the necropolis S of Polis. These tombs contain the familiar Hellenistic and Roman pottery and other furniture and very often are rich in jewelry. However, there is nothing to be seen at present above ground.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Marion

  On the NW coast near the sea. The ruins cover a large area, part of which is now occupied by the village of Polis. Marion was founded on two low plateaus, both commanding a wide view over the narrow plain below and the Bay of Chrysochou beyond. Thus there was an E and a W city, the former being the first to be inhabited. Similarly its vast necropolis extended E and W. Remains of the ancient harbor still survive at Latsi.
  Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was founded at the beginning of the Geometric period. The site of the earliest city should be located on a low hill E of the village of Polis. This is the E city. It is now a field of ruins under cultivation except for part of its S side, which is occupied by the modern gymnasium and Technical School of Polis. Close by is the E necropolis with tombs dating mainly from the Geometric and the archaic period. In late archaic times Marion spread to the W on a low hill called Petrerades, due N of Polis. This is the W city. This site too is now under cultivation or partly inhabited. South of it extends the W necropolis, dating from Classical and Hellenistic times.
  The name Aimar appears in an Egyptian inscription at Medinet Habu of the time of Rameses III (1198-1167 B.C.), if the correlation with Marion were beyond dispute. The earliest known historical event mentioning Marion belongs to the Classical period, when in 449 B.C. the Athenian general Kimon freed the city from the Persians. On coins of the 5th and 4th c. B.C. are given in syllabic script not only the name of the king but also the name Marieus. Skylax the geographer (probably mid 4th c. B.C.) speaks of this city as Marion Hellenis (GGM 103).
  After Alexander the Great, Stasioikos II, the last king of Marion, sided with Antigonos against Ptolemy and in 312 B.C. the city was razed by Ptolemy and the inhabitants transferred to Paphos. About the year 270 B.C. a new town, renamed Arsinoe (q.v.), was founded on the ruins of Marion by Ptolemy Philadelphus. This town flourished once more during the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman periods and in Early Christian times it became the seat of a bishop.
  Marion was one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus and we know the names of most of its kings from the 5th and 4th c. B.C. The city grew in importance at an early date, drawing its wealth from the nearby copper mines at Limne and from an intensive trade with Athens. The necropolis has produced large quantities of imported Attic pottery, an indication that there were close commercial and cultural relations with Athens. These tombs are also rich in gold jewelry. A fine marble kouros, now in the British Museum, also comes from Marion.
  The earliest coins attributed to Marion date to the second quarter of the 5th c. B.C. These were struck by Sasmaos son of Doxandros. Coins were also minted by Stasioikos I (after 449 B.C.), Timocharis (end of the 5th c. B.C.), and Stasioikos II (330?-312 B.C.). Nothing is known of the kings between Timocharis and Stasioikos II.
  Marion produced a large number of syllabic inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 4th c. B.C. They are inscribed on stelai found in tombs so that they are all funerary. None has been found so far on the city site. Alphabetic inscriptions occur also but they are Hellenistic and later.
  Apart from some soundings made in 1929 and in 1960 in the W sector of the city no excavations were ever carried out within the city site. A large number of tombs, however, were excavated in the necropolis but none is now accessible. A general survey of the city site and its immediate surroundings was carried out in 1960 with interesting results. Surface finds dating from the Protogeometric period down to Hellenistic times were found at Peristeries, thus supporting the theory that the site of the earliest Marion should be sought here. The soundings at Petrerades N of Polis simply proved that at least part of the late archaic and Classical city is buried below the remains of Hellenistic Arsinoe.
  The site of a sanctuary is known at the far end of a small ridge at Maratheri between the E and W cities. Casual finds date it from the archaic to Graeco-Roman times. This sanctuary may well be that of Zeus and Aphrodite, known from an inscription of the time of Tiberius which almost certainly came from this site. Strabo (14.683) speaks of a Sacred Grove to Zeus. It is interesting to note that some coins of King Stasioikos II show on the obverse the head of Zeus and on the reverse that of Aphrodite.
  The harbor of Marion-Arsinoe lies ca. 4 km W of Polis and still shelters fishing boats. A massive breakwater still survives for a considerable length; it must have been much longer in antiquity, since a large part of the harbor has silted up. It was from this harbor that the trade with the West passed, especially the exportation of copper.
  The finds are in the Nicosia and Paphos Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited July 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Golgoi

GOLGOI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Inland ca. 1.6 km NE of the village of Athienou and 17 km N-NW of Kition. The ruins cover a sizable area on a hill sloping gently N to S in the direction of the village. Remains of the ancient city wall can still be traced in almost all its course. According to Sakellarios, who was the first to identify this site, the perimeter of the circuit was 7 stadia. The necropolis lies to the S within the village and to the SE. Two important temples excavated in the 19th c. lie outside the walls by the Church of Haghios Photios about 3 km SE of the village. The area of the city itself is now a field of ruins under cultivation.
  The traditional founder of the town was Golgos from Sikyon in the Peloponnese. This connection is further illustrated by an archaic limestone block found here, now in the Metropolitan Museum, New York. Carved in relief on this block is a Chimaera, the symbol of Sikyon which appears on its coins. Golgoi must have succeeded the nearby Late Bronze Age settlement at Bamboulari tis Koukouninas, due N of Athienou. Nothing is known of the history of Golgoi although it is mentioned by several ancient authors. Inscriptions attest an Aphrodite Golgia whose worship was, according to Pausanias, earlier than the cult of Aphrodite at Paphos. And although we know nothing about the existence of a kingdom of this name some coins have been attributed to it. On the evidence of recent excavations near the E gate the city seems to have flourished to the end of the 4th c. B.C. but another sector of the town must have been inhabited down to Early Christian times.
  Excavations on the site were started for the first time in 1969 and were confined to the E sector by the E Gate, where a number of private houses and workshops dating mainly from the 4th c. B.C., came to light; the lowest strata, however, produced sherds of the archaic and Early Classical periods. Part of the city wall is preserved to a height of 2.50 m; its lower course consists of rubble with mudbricks above. The E Gate with steps leading up into the town has also been cleared.
  From a tomb comes a late archaic stone sarcophagus with low relief decoration, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. One of the long sides shows a hunting scene; the other, a banquet scene of four couches on which recline one older and three younger men.
  One of the short sides shows Perseus carrying off the head of Medusa followed by his dog; the other, a fourhorse chariot with a beardless driver conveying an elderly man, who probably represents the occupant of the sarcophagus. The cover is in the form of a gable with four crouching lions at the ends.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Idalion

IDALION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Inland by the river Yialias 22 km NW of Kition. The ruins of the ancient city extend to the S of the modern village of Dali. The city consisted of three parts: two acropoleis and the lower town. The acropoleis occupied two hills, Moutti tou Gavrili to the E and Ambelleri to the W. These acropoleis bounded the city to the S and the lower town extended on their N slopes and on the flat land right up to the S outskirts of the modern village, which lies near the river. The city wall can still be traced along the N ridge of the E acropolis and past the Church of Haghios Georgios, where it disappears in the plain. It can also be traced along the ridge of the W acropolis, where it was partly excavated, and then disappears in the plain below. The necropolis extends E and W. Tombs of the Late Bronze Age and of Geometric times lie in the E necropolis; those of the archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Graeco-Roman, in the W one.
  Idalion, one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, was, according to tradition, founded by Chalcanor. Excavations have shown that the city was inhabited towards the end of the Late Bronze Age, when the W acropolis became a fortified stronghold with a cult place. This later became the place of the Temenos of Athena, whom the Phoenicians identified with their own Anat. On a terrace below the top of the W acropolis are remains of the royal palace, uncovered by trial excavations. The summit of the E acropolis was occupied by a Temenos of Aphrodite and in the narrow valley between the two acropoleis was the Temenos of Apollo, whom the Phoenicians identified with their Reshef. The Sanctuaries of Aphrodite and of Apollo, summarily excavated at the end of the 19th century, yielded a series of sculptures of stone and terracotta dating from the archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods. The W acropolis was excavated in 1928.
  Little is known of the history of Idalion but the name appears on the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.) and the sequence of its kings from the beginning to the middle of the 5th c. B.C. is fairly well fixed. The city fell in the siege by the Persians and the Kitians and thereafter was governed by Kition, which was itself ruled by a Phoenician dynasty. The presence of Phoenicians at Idalion after its fall is witnessed by inscriptions. The city continued to flourish throughout the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times and, unlike other cities of Cyprus, seems to have had in the 5th c. B.C. a constitution with some democratic element. Before falling to the Kitians it issued its own coins, the first of which date from shortly before 500 B.C. These coins show on the obverse a sphinx and on the reverse a lotus flower.
  Very little survives in the way of monuments, the principal one being the remains of the Temple of Athena on the summit of the W acropolis. Of the Sanctuaries of Aphrodite and of Apollo nothing is to be seen. In the necropolis a number of tombs were excavated but only one tomb can now be viewed within the W necropous.
  The Temple of Athena was enclosed by the fortification wall, which at the same time served as a peribolos wall of the temenos. The first temenos belongs to Late Cypro-Geometric times but several additions and rebuildings were made during the Cypro-archaic period until it was finally abandoned at the beginning of the Cypro-Classical period. Originally it consisted of a chapel and an altar, the first being a room of the liwan type. Along the SW fortification a hall was built later which was entered through a gateway opening in the wall and communicated with the outer temenos. Simultaneously a wall was built to screen the area of the chapel, which thus became the inner temenos, in the N part of which another altar was built like the one in the cult chapel. In its final phase it underwent only minor alterations. Many ex-votos were discovered in these successive sanctuaries.
  An archaic tomb in the W necropolis lies close to the road to Dali from Nisou. A long, narrow stepped dromos cut into the rock leads to the chamber, which is built with well-dressed stones and has a saddle-shaped roof. The tomb, although looted in the past, yielded a number of vases and metallic objects.
  Casual finds turn up frequently but the most important is an inscribed bronze tablet, now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, which was reported to have been found accidentally in 1850 or before in the Sanctuary of Athena on the W acropolis. Other finds are in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Karpasia

KARPASIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast of the Karpass peninsula ca. 3 km from the village of Rizokarpasso. The ruins of the town, nearly 3 sq km in area, are now largely covered with sand dunes; the rest is under cultivation. The town extended mainly along the shore but also inland as far as the foot of the high plateau. The town had a harbor; its ancient moles are still visible. Traces of a city wall, which begins and ends at the base of the two moles, can be followed for its whole course. This wall, however, built to protect only a small part of the town on the N side, should date from Early Byzantine times. Nothing is known so far of a bigger circuit. The necropolis extends W at the locality Tsambres.
  Karpasia was founded, according to tradition, by Pygmalion. Present archaeological evidence precludes an earlier date than the 7th c. B.C. for its founding. Little is known of its history. The first mention of it dates from 399 B.C., when a man from there led the mutiny of Conon's Cypriot mercenaries at Kaunos. It is mentioned in the list of the theodorokoi at Delphi, and appears on inscriptions of the 2d c. B.C. Among early writers the town is frequently mentioned (Skyl. GGM 1.103; Diod. 20.47.2; Strab. 14.682; Steph. Byz.; Plin. HN 6.30; Ptol. 5.14.4; and in the Stadiasmus). Karpasia is better known in history as the place where Demetrios Poliorketes, coming from Cilicia, landed his forces in 306 B.C. He stormed Karpasia and Ourania and, leaving his ships under sufficient guard, marched on Salamis. The town flourished in Classical, Hellenistic, Graeco-Roman, and Early Christian times, when it became the seat of a bishop. It was finally abandoned in Early Byzantine times after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  There is no evidence so far for the worship of any deities in Karpasia, but there can be no doubt that sanctuaries existed. The remains of marble columns, now covered by sand, to the S of the town may well belong to a temple. Further evidence comes from casual finds of sculptures, among others a sandstone head of Tyche of the Late Classical period. From an inscription found in recent years we know that there was a gymnasium to be located at a short distance to the SW of the Church of Haghios Philon. Apart from minor excavations carried out in the 1930s around this church, when remains dating from Early Christian times were uncovered, the town site is unexcavated. The principal monuments now visible, apart from the church and the excavated remains of an Early Christian palace attached to it, are the harbor and some important rock-cut tombs in the W necropolis.
  The two moles in the harbor are the most considerable works of their kind in Cyprus. That of the E side can be followed for about 100 m from its base on the shore; it is made for the most part of large well-dressed rectangular blocks of stone rivetted to each other by clamps of lead. The outer end had been reinforced in later times with more blocks including fragments of columns of marble and basalt. These walls rest on natural rock. The width of the mole was about 3 m; its original height cannot be determined. It projects W from the shore towards the point of the other mole which runs due N. This latter mole, built in a similar manner, extends from the shore to a large rock in the sea known as Kastros. This W arm is longer than the E one, measuring ca. 120 m including the rock. The town was supplied with water from springs W of Rizokarpasso. Remains of the aqueduct still survive in many parts.
  The W necropolis occupies a large area extending from the cliffs at Tsambres to the plain below as far as the shore. In the cliff of Tsambres itself there is a series of fine rock-cut tombs with unusual features. The chambers of the tombs are of the usual type but their facades seem to be unique in Cyprus. The face of the rock is carefully scarped and on the right or left of the tomb doors plain stelai are cut in relief, either simply or in groups of two or three. Sometimes they are of the conventional shape with pediment or they are anthropoid. These stelai were not inscribed but were probably painted. The tombs may be dated to the Late Classical or Early Hellenistic period.
  Finds from the excavation of the necropolis are in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia, but certain tomb groups have been allocated to the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, to the Museum of Classical Archaeology in Cambridge, and to the Institute of Archaeology in London.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Keryneia

KERYNIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast 23 km E of Cape Kormakiti. The ruins cover a large area now occupied by the modern town. The town site is situated on the shore, but its limits are difficult to define. The town had a harbor, used to this day by small craft, whose ancient breakwaters are still visible behind Kyrenia Castle. The necropolis extends W along the shore.
  One of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, Keryneia was traditionally founded by Kephios from Achaia in the Peloponnese. Evidence for the arrival of the Mycenaeans in the area occurs at the villages of Kazaphani and of Karmi, both very near the site. Archaeological evidence for the town itself, however, does not at present support a date earlier than the Geometric period for its founding. In Early Christian times it became the seat of a bishop. The ancient town flourished down to Early Byzantine times when it was sacked during the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  Very little is known of the history. Kelena, identified with it, appears in a list of names in the temple at Medinet Habu in Egypt of the time of Rameses III (12th c. B.C.) but this reading is not to be trusted. The name of the Classical town is mentioned for the first time by Skylax in the mid 4th c. B.C., by Diodoros, and later by Ptolemy, Pliny, and Pompeius Melas, but strangely enough it is omitted by Strabo. It is also mentioned in the list of the theodorokoi at Delphi (early 2d c. B.C.) and at Kafizin the ethnic occurs in the time of Ptolemy III, Euergetes I (second half of the 3d c. B.C.).
  It is conjectured that Themison, the Cypriot king to whom Aristotle dedicated his "Protreptikos," was a king of Keryneia, who must have reigned during the second half of the 4th c. B.C. Its last "dynast," possibly Themison, suspected of being on the side of Antigonos, was arrested in 312 B.C. by Ptolemy. From inscriptions we learn of the worship of Aphrodite and of Apollo but nothing is known of the position of the sanctuaries.
  From inscriptions also we learn that there was a gymnasium, but again its site remains unidentified. And from an inscription of the time of the emperor Claudius we are informed that water was carried to the town by an aqueduct from a source at Limnal. No coins have been attributed to Keryneia. The town site itself is still unexcavated but many casual finds have been recorded.
  Practically nothing survives in the way of monuments except for some rock-cut tombs in the W part of the town, looted long ago. In a sanctuary in the upper part of the town many statuettes of terracotta and of limestone were found, dating from the archaic to the Hellenistic period. In the same area some other buildings also came to light but nothing is visible today. More recently a number of fragmentary limestone statues and of terracotta figurines were accidentally found in a bothros within the town. They date from Classical and Hellenistic times and obviously belong to a nearby sanctuary. Recent rescue excavations have also brought to light a number of tombs dating mainly from the Classical and Hellenistic periods.
  The finds are in the Keryneia and Nicosia Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Kition

KITION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  The ruins cover a large area now occupied by the modern town. The city site, on the S coast, is situated on a hill sloping gently S. The acropolis is NE of the city, but unfortunately very little of it survives. The port lay on the E side below the acropolis. At this end the sea penetrated inland and reached the foot of the acropolis and then turned a little to the S. This inlet formed a natural harbor, the enclosed harbor of Strabo. All this is now silted up and the present coast line is ca. one-half km away. Traces of the city wall and of the moat, which followed the edge of the plateau, are still visible, particularly on the W side. A vast necropolis extends N, W, and S. The tombs date from the Early Bronze Age to Graeco-Roman times.
  The city was founded, according to archaeological evidence, in the Late Bronze Age but the site was already occupied in the Early Bronze Age. Recent excavations have shown that the founders were Mycenaeans coming from the Peloponnese. The Phoenicians arrived at Kition at the end of the 9th c. B.C. at first as traders during their expansion to the W, and later as settlers; yet the vast population of the city must have remained Greek, as the archaeological evidence testifies. Later, however, with the help of the Persians, the Phoenicians established a dynasty which ruled the city in the 5th and 4th c. B.C.
  There is no positive evidence as to the earlier kings of Kition but a memorial stele of Sargon II, erected here in 709 B.C., mentions that the Cypriot kings submitted to the Assyrian king and paid him tribute. The inscription mentions seven kings of Ya, a district of Yatnana, which seems to be the cuneiform rendering of "the isles of the Danai," i.e. the land of Greeks. Therefore the king of Kition, where the stele was found, must have been at that time a Greek. Unfortunately the names of the kings are not mentioned. The Greek rulers must have remained in power down to the very end of the 6th c. B.C. for at the time of the Ionian Revolt (499-498 B.C.) Kition joined the revolt against Persia.
  The failure of the revolt and the support which the Persians gave the Phoenicians, especially after the battles of Marathon and Salamis, soon brought them to power. In the year 479 a Phoenician dynasty had been established, which ruled Kition until it fell to Ptolemy I Soter in 312 B.C. The Phoenician dynasty, however, was broken for a short period in 388-387 B.C. by the installation at Kition of King Demonikos at the time when most of Cyprus was liberated by King Euagoras I of Salamis with the help of the Athenian general Chabrias.
  Kition was the birthplace of Zeno, the Stoic philosopher and of the physician Artemidoros. From a metrical epitaph of the 2d c. A.D. we learn that Kilikas, a native of Kition, was a teacher of the Homeric poems. According to other epigraphical evidence quinquennial games were held at Kition in Graeco-Roman times.
  Systematic excavations were conducted in 1894, when a number of tombs and a sanctuary were investigated. Later, in 1913, the Bamboula hill, i.e., the acropolis, was explored. In 1930, on the same acropolis, the Temple of Herakles-Melkart was excavated. And since 1959 excavations in the N extremity of the town have been carried out. Most of the ruins, however, remain unexcavated and the task of exploring them is a very difficult one because the modern town is built over them.
  The principal monuments uncovered to the present time include, in addition to those mentioned above, part of the fortifications of the Mycenaean city and a large Phoenician temple in the N part of the city. The city wall of the Classical period can be traced for most of its course, particularly on the W side, and the site is known of the ancient harbor, now silted up. The site of the Hellenistic gymnasium and that of the Temple of Artemis Paralia is also known, while the site of a theater may be conjectured. A Temple of Aphrodite-Astarte may have stood on the acropolis side by side with that of Herakles-Melkart. And from inscriptions we know of the worship of Zeus-Keraunios, Asklepios and Hygeia, Aphrodite, Esmun-Adonis, Baal Senator, and Esmun Melkart, the last by the Salt Lake.
  Substantial remains of the city wall of Mycenaean Kition, later of Classical Kition as well, can be seen on the N extremity of the ancient town. Houses of the Geometric period were built in this part of the city above the Mycenaean remains and follow the architecture of the previous period, for in most cases the older foundations were reused. The Temple to Astarte was built towards the end of the 9th c. on the foundations of an earlier Mycenaean temple which had fallen into disuse ca. 1000 B.C. when this part of the Mycenaean town was abandoned. It is an imposing rectangular building measuring 35 x 22 m. The walls were constructed of large ashlar blocks, some of them measuring as much as 3.50 m in width and 1.50 m in height. Two parallel rows of columns, six in each row, supported the roof of the temple. The adyton stood at the W side and in front there is a large courtyard with two entrances. Four rows of wooden columns, of which only the stone bases survive, supported the roof of the porticos on each side of the courtyard. The temple suffered many changes--four successive floors were recognized--during the five centuries of its life until its final destruction in the year 312 B.C., when Ptolemy I Soter put to death Pumiathon, the last Phoenician king of Kition, and burned the Phoenician temples of the town.
  A bath establishment of the Hellenistic period was recently uncovered at Chrysopolitissa. It consisted of two tholoi within which were a series of cemented basins around the hall. One of the rooms was circular with a column in its center; the other was rectangular. Nearby was found a mosaic floor of the Graeco-Roman period, composed of geometric and floral patterns in black and white.
  Four built tombs (archaic) can be seen in the W necropolis of Kition. The tomb of Haghia Phaneromeni contains two chambers, one behind the other. The outer chamber is rectangular in shape; the interior, square with one corner rounded. The roofs of both the chambers are vaulted, and are formed by huge blocks hollowed out and covering the whole width of the chambers. The so-called Cobham's tomb contained three chambers entered by a dromos leading down to them. The first chamber had a very fine coffered ceiling, the second and third were provided with barrel roofs with real vaults. The third room was quite small, more or less a recessed space to contain the sarcophagus. The walls between the chambers were provided with moldings in the shape of pilaster capitals on both sides of the doorways. Close by is the Evangelis Tomb, which was damaged in late times. It may originally have had a similar plan to the Phaneromeni Tomb, with a dromos leading down to a large rectangular chamber with a second one behind. Both chambers had corbel vaults and were constructed of large, well-dressed blocks.
  The finds are in the Nicosia and Larnaca Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Kourion

KOURION (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the SW coast, about 16 km W of Limassol. The ruins cover a large area on a bluff overlooking the sea to the S. Kourion was surrounded by a city wall but of this very little survives; the rocky scarp on the E and S sides has been vertically cut. There was probably no proper harbor but the remains of a jetty, about 80 m long, are still visible at low tide to the W of the town and Strabo mentions the existence of an anchorage. The necropolis extends E and S.
  One of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, Kourion was founded by the Argives (Hdt. 5.113; Strab. 14.683). The connection between Kourion and Argos is further illustrated by the worship at Kourion of a god called Perseutas. Excavations have yielded evidence of an Achaian settlement in the 14th c. B.C. at the Bamboula ridge at the nearby village of Episkopi. A tomb within the necropolis of Kourion yielded material of the 11th c. B.C. including the well-known royal gold and enamel scepter which is now in the Cyprus Museum. The name of Kir appears in an Egyptian inscription at Medinet Habu of the time of Rameses III (1198-1167 B.C.), if the correlation with Kourion were beyond dispute. The name is also mentioned on the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.), where the reading Damasu king of Kuri has been interpreted as Damasos king of Kounon.
  During the revolt of Onesilos against the Persians at the time of the Ionian Revolt King Stasanor of Kourion, commanding a large force, fought at first on the Greek side but at the battle in the plain of Salamis (498 B.C.) he went over to the Persians and his betrayal won them the day. Nothing is known of the other kings of Kourion until Pasikrates, probably its last king, who sailed in the Cypriot fleet, which went to the aid of Alexander the Great at the siege of Tyre in 332 B.C.
  The city flourished in Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times. It was badly hit by the severe earthquakes of A.D. 332 and 342, which also hit Salamis and Paphos, but it was soon rebuilt. Before this time Christianity was well established at Kourion and one of its bishops, Philoneides, had suffered martyrdom under Diocletian (A.D. 284-305). Zeno, a later bishop, was instrumental in securing at the Council of Ephesos (A.D. 431) a favorable decision on the claims of the church of Cyprus to independence. As a bishopric the city flourished once more until it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  Kourion was the birthplace of the poet Kleon, who wrote Argonautica, from which Apollonios Rhodios, in his epic of the same theme, was accused of copying; it was also the birthplace of Hermeias, a lyric poet.
  The principal monuments uncovered to date include the House of Achilles, the House of the Gladiators and the House of Eustolios, all paved with mosaics of the 4th and 5th c. A.D., a theater, an Early Christian basilican church, and, near the city, the stadium and the Temple of Apollo Hylates.
  The existence at Kourion of a gymnasium is attested by inscriptions but its location is not known at present. The worship of Hera, Dionysos, Aphrodite, and the hero Perseutas has also been attested by epigraphical evidence but again nothing is known of the site of the sanctuaries. The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, also attested by inscriptions, has been located on the E side of the Stadium.
  The remains of the House of Achilles lie on the N part of the city close to the main Limassol-Paphos road. The house consists of an open courtyard with rooms on either side and a colonnaded portico on the N. In the portico, whose floor is paved with mosaics, a large panel depicts in lively manner Achilles disguised as a maiden at the court of King Lykomedes of the island of Skyros unwittingly revealing his identity to Odysseus on the sounding of a false alarm. In another room a panel shows Ganymede being carried by the Eagle to Mt. Olympos.
  The House of the Gladiators, farther S, consists of a complex of rooms and corridors with an inner court, probably an atrium. Some of its rooms were paved with mosaics, including figure representations. In one of these rooms are two panels depicting gladiatorial scenes. The first panel shows two gladiators fully armed with helmets, shields, and swords facing each other and ready to strike. Above them are indicated their names or nicknames, MARGAREITES and ELLENIKOS. The second panel shows again two gladiators facing each other but with an unarmed figure between them. The left-hand figure is called LUTRAS, the central one DAREIOS; of the right-hand figure only the initialE survives.
  At the SE end of the bluff are the remains of a large house paved with mosaics, commanding a splendid view over the fields and the sea beyond. It is known as the House of Eustolios and includes a bathing establishment. In one of the porticos an inscription gives the name of Eustolios, the builder of the baths, and refers to Phoebus Apollo as the former patron of Kourion; another inscription specifically mentions Christ, an interesting commentary on the gradual transition from paganism to Christianity. The bathing establishment lies on higher ground to the N. Its central room has its floor paved with mosaics divided into four panels, one of which depicts Ktisis in a medallion.
  To the W of the House of Eustolios lies the theater built on a slope overlooking the sea to the S. The theater consists of the cavea, a semicircular orchestra, and the stage-building. A vaulted corridor around the back of the theater provided access through five gangways to the diazoma. Access was also effected from the parodoi lower down. The orchestra is paved with lime cement. Of the stage-building only the foundations survive. The theater as it stands today dates from Graeco-Roman times, but the original one, smaller and on a Greek model, was built in the 2d c. B.C. The orchestra at this period was a full circle and the cavea encompassed an arc of more than 180 degrees. The theater provided accommodation for ca. 3,500 spectators; it has been recently reconstructed up to the diazoma.
  The stadium lies to the W of the city on the way to the Temple of Apollo. The outline of its U-shaped plan is well preserved. Its total length is 233 m and its width 36 m. Its total capacity was ca. 7,000 spectators. The stadium was built in the 2d c. A.D. during the Antonine period and remained in use until about A.D. 400.
  The Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates, about 3 km W of the city, displays a large group of buildings. The precinct is entered by two gates, the Kourion Gate and the Paphos Gate. The remains of the long Doric portico extend the whole way between the two gates. South of this portico is the S Building consisting of five rooms entered from the portico and separated from each other by corridors. Each room had a raised dais on three sides, divided from a central paved area by Doric columns. The inscription set in the front wall over one of the doors tells us that two of the rooms were erected by the emperor Trajan in A.D. 101. A room of similar design is the NW Building, reached by a broad flight of steps. The function of these rooms is not certain but they may have been used to display votives or to accommodate visitors.
  The main sanctuary lies to the N of the precinct. From the Doric portico a paved street leads straight to the Temple of Apollo. The temple stands on a high stylobate reached from the Sacred Way by a flight of steps occupying the whole width of the temple. It consisted of a portico with four columns and of two rooms, the pronaos and the opisthodomos. At the E of the precinct lie the baths. At the SE, by the Kourion Gate, lies the palaestra, which is composed of a central peristyle rectangular court surrounded by rooms.
  The worship of Apollo at this site began as early as the 8th c. B.C. There are still a few remains of the archaic period but most of the ruins seen now date from the Graeco-Roman period or ca. A.D. 100, having been restored after the disastrous earthquakes of A.D. 76-77. These new buildings were themselves destroyed during the severe earthquakes of A.D. 332 and 342, when the sanctuary seems to have been definitely abandoned.
  Finds are in the site museum at Episkopi village and in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Lapethos (Lampousa)

LAMPOUSA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast, E of the Monastery of Acheiropoietos and 10 km W of Keryneia. The ruins cover a large area along the seashore. Substantial remains of a harbor with its breakwaters still survive and the city wall can be traced for most of its course. The necropolis extends E.
  The site extends mainly along the shore for a considerable distance, but also inland. Part of it may lie under the cultivated land. The rest of the site is now a field of ruins overgrown with scrub. A rocky hill near the center of the city may have been its acropolis. The site has been badly damaged by looters in search of stone and treasure. Lampousa is well known for its Early Byzantine silver treasure, most of which is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
  It appears that there was originally a rocky ridge running E-W a little farther back from the sea. It began at the rock-cut chapel, probably a tomb, at Acheiropoietos on the W, included the acropolis about halfway, and extended E to the Troulli hill. In this mass of rock there were tombs dating probably from the 6th and 5th c. B.C., an indication that the earlier city was still nearer the coast and that when it expanded in later Classical and Hellenistic times this part was also inhabited so that most of the tombs were then quarried and destroyed.
  Lapethos, one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, was, according to tradition, founded by Praxandros from Lakonia in the Peloponnese. Excavations on the acropolis have shown that the city was inhabited during the Late Bronze Age, which accords well with its traditional origin. A Late Bronze Age settlement has also been located higher up within the modern village of Lapethos while Early Geometric tombs surround the village.
  Little is known of the history. The name appears for the first time in 312 B.C. when its king Praxippos, who was suspected of being on the side of Antigonos, was arrested by Ptolemy. From coins, however, we know the names of some of its kings of the 5th and 4th c. B.C., and the name is mentioned by Skylax the geographer (mid 4th c. B.C.). After that it is frequently mentioned by other ancient authors. Lapethos seems to have flourished mainly from archaic down to Early Byzantine times, when it became a bishopric. The city was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  To Lapethos are attributed coins of the mid 5th c. B.C. with Phoenician legends and heads of Athena. Some of them name a king Sidqmelek, thus indicating a temporary Phoenician rule. Earlier coins show Athena and Aphrodite. To the later king Praxippos are attributed coins with the head of Apollo on the obverse and a krater on the reverse. The temporary Phoenician rule, however, does not prove the existence of Phoenician settlers in Lapethos.
  From inscriptions we learn that there was a gymnasium, and it is possible that there was a theater, but nothing is known of the location of either. It seems strange that no evidence has been forthcoming so far of the existence at Lapethos of sanctuaries nor do we know anything of the worship there of any deity. Lapethos is one of the Cypriot cities mentioned in the list of the theodorokoi from Delphi (early 2d c. B.C.). According to epigraphical evidence quinquennial games were held at Lapethos. These were known as the Aktaion games, held in celebration of the victory at Aktion.
  Very little survives in the way of monuments and only minor excavations were carried out on the city site. Part of the acropolis was investigated in 1913; and in 1915 a small excavation was carried out at Troulli hill; the results in both cases, however, were disappointing.
  The upper part of the acropolis was of solid rock deeply dissected by house basements with rock-cut doors and staircases; there were chamber tombs on the E face and deep quarries on the N.
  The results of the excavations at Troulli hill were much the same. Again chambers had been cut in the solid rock and rubble walls. One such chamber had a long and thick wall resting on solid rock. Opposite this wall, the rock, 11 m high, had its side cut straight so as to form the other parallel wall of a long and narrow chamber, 4 m wide, with the door at the broader side opening to a small antechamber.
  Probably the best preserved remains are those of the harbor, where both the ancient breakwaters still survive for a considerable distance. The W arm measures about 155 m; the N one is shorter, measuring about 40 m. In this way was created a small but safe harbor protected from the N winds. This is undoubtedly the anchorage for small craft mentioned by Strabo. The breakwaters were recently reinforced with new blocks of stone in order to make a safer fishing shelter.
  To the E of the city lie a group of ancient fish tanks right on the rocky coast, all cut in the solid rock. They communicate directly with the sea or with one another by canals. The largest one 30 x 13.25 m and ca. 1 m deep, is fairly well preserved. It communicates directly with the sea by three side oblique canals and by a front (sea side) system of openings and sluices of complicated mechanism.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Leukolla

LEUKOLLA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  The sea battle of 306 B.C., in which Demetrios Poliorketes defeated Ptolemy, is said to have been fought off Leukolla, tentatively identified with a site at Protaras on the coast S of Famagusta. A small but safe bay, known in the time of Sakellarios as Konnos, may be the harbor of Leukolla mentioned by Strabo, who places it between Arsinoe (Ammochostos) and Cape Pedalion (14.682).
  The ruins of a small town above this bay may belong to the place mentioned by Athenaios from whom we learn that the trireme of Antigonos with which the generals of Ptolemy were defeated at Laukolla was dedicated to Apollo in that town. It is characteristic that among the ruins noted above was found a Hellenistic inscription dedicated to Apollo. An excavation in 1877 uncovered a building, obviously a sanctuary, which produced some fragments of sculpture in stone.
  The site is unexplored.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ledrai

LIDRA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  Remains of this ancient town extend S of the Venetian walls of Nicosia as far as Haghioi, Omologitai. The necropolis extends W and S. In the light of recent discoveries, the earlier identification of Ledrai with Leondari Vouno, some 6 km SW of Nicosia, should now be dismissed.
  Practically nothing is known of the origin of this town except that it succeeded a Late Bronze Age settlement which has been discovered on the S boundary of Nicosia and especially on either side of the Venetian fortifications. Here were found quantities of Mycenaean pottery. The necropolis of this period was at Haghia Paraskevi, which also yielded Mycenaean material. From present-day archaeological evidence it is clear that Ledrai itself was in existence from the Geometric period down to Early Christian times, when it became a bishopric. The area, however, has been inhabited since Neolithic times and owed its prosperity to the river Pediaios and to the fertile land of the surrounding plain.
  Very little is known of the history. On the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.) we find the name Unasagusu, king of Ledir, identified as Onasagoras (?), king of Ledrai. The recent study of graffiti in the Temple of Achoris at Karnak has revealed the presence in Egypt, at the beginning of the 4th c. B.C., of several Cypriotes from Ledrai. The ethnic Ledrios appears also on a sherd from Kafizin, a hill near Nicosia, of the end of the 3d c. B.C. We hear no more about the site until A.D. 52, when St. Mark took refuge there on his way from Salamis to Limenia. The next reference is in the 4th c. when Triphyllios was its bishop.
  From inscriptions we learn of the worship of Aphrodite at Ledrai but nothing is known of the site of the sanctuary. A sanctuary, possibly dedicated to Apollo, has been located at the locality Haghios Georgios on a hill at the back of the modern Civil Servants Club. The town site is unexplored but many casual finds have been recorded.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Neapolis

LIMASSOL (Town) CYPRUS
  On the S coast in Greek Lemesos. Remains of a sizable town, whose limits are difficult to define, are largely covered by the modern town. The necropolis lies E and N.
  Practically nothing is known of the founding of this town except that it must have succeeded a Late Bronze Age settlement located N of Limassol. On present-day evidence the town was in existence from Geometric to Roman times but the area had been inhabited since the Early Bronze Age and after the Roman period. Nothing is known of its early history and by the time this place is known by a name we are already in post-Roman times. By the 5th c. A.D. it was a town of some importance with an established episcopal see. It was then known by several names such as Neapolis, Theodosias, or Theodosiana. By the following century this had become Nemesos. The name Neapolis, however, might be earlier (Bios Auxibiou 13). The Life informs us that Tychicos I was consecrated to the see of Neapolis in the time of St. Paul.
  The name appears in an inscription of the second half of the 3d c. B.C. This inscription, which was acquired in the village of Gypsos in the hinterland of Salamis, honors Nikandros, commandant of Neapolis, but as no other town of that name can be found within Cyprus it may well refer to the predecessor of Limassol.
  It has also been suggested that this Neapolis might be identified with Kartihadast but since this name applies rather to Kition this view must be dismissed. Moreover nothing Phoenician has been found so far in Limassol.
  The town site is unexplored but many casual finds have been recorded.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Limenia

LIMENIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the NW coast. The remains of a town to be identified with this site cover a small coastal plain which lies some distance W of Vouni Palace. The town is mentioned by Strabo who, however, places it inland. It is also mentioned as the town of embarkation of St. Mark when he left the island. It is also recorded in the Acta Auxibii, where it is given both as Limne and Limnites, thus indicating that this town possessed a harbor. It was in this small town that Auxibios landed on his arrival in Cyprus. Here he was ordained bishop of Soloi by St. Mark, when they met ca. A.D. 52.
  A number of antiquities of various kinds turn up occasionally dating mainly from the Graeco-Roman period, while very close to the shore a sanctuary was excavated in 1889. It yielded various sculptures in bronze, limestone, and terracotta dating from the archaic to the Hellenistic period.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Makaria

MAKARIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast. The ruins of a small town identified by Hogarth with this site cover the Moulos headland, E of Keryneia. The necropolis lies S. The small bay to the E may have served as an anchorage.
  Nothing is known of the founding of the town but it was occupied for the first time during the Late Bronze Age. Among surface finds of this period are fragments of Minoan and Mycenaean pottery. It is mentioned by Ptolemy the geographer but otherwise nothing else is known of its history. It seems to have flourished from Hellenistic to Early Christian times when it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647. The town site is now under cultivation and is thus far unexcavated.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Morphou

MORPHOU (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the NW coast, 6-7 km from the sea. Remains of an extensive settlement can be seen on both sides of the main Morphou-Myrtou road due N of the village of Morphou. On the evidence of surface finds the settlement can be dated from the archaic period down to Early Byzantine times. A necropolis with tombs ranging in date from the Geometric to the Hellenistic period extends W from Ambelia. The sites of both the settlement and the necropolis are now planted with orange trees.
  Nothing is known of the founding of this important settlement or of its ancient name. It succeeded the nearby Late Bronze Age settlement at Toumba tou Skourou. Rescue excavations, carried out in recent years, have brought to light the remains of a Hellenistic sanctuary probably dedicated to Aphrodite. It may be noted that at Sparta Aphrodite bore the epithet Morpho and that the Lakonians, the traditional founders of Lapethos (q.v.), may also have settled in the area of Morphou.
  From the necropolis at Ambelia come a funerary inscription of the 4th c. B.C. in the Cypriot syllabary and some pottery of the Geometric to the Hellenistic periods. An alphabetic inscription of the 3d c. B.C. honoring a Ptolemaic official and his family is also reported to have been found at Morphou. And on a marble sarcophagus of the early 3d c. A.D., now in the Church of Haghios Mamas at Morphou, is an epigram of Artemidoros in hexameter.
  The finds are in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Neapolis

NEAPOLIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the S coast in Greek Lemesos. Remains of a sizable town, whose limits are difficult to define, are largely covered by the modern town. The necropolis lies E and N.
  Practically nothing is known of the founding of this town except that it must have succeeded a Late Bronze Age settlement located N of Limassol. On present-day evidence the town was in existence from Geometric to Roman times but the area had been inhabited since the Early Bronze Age and after the Roman period. Nothing is known of its early history and by the time this place is known by a name we are already in post-Roman times. By the 5th c. A.D. it was a town of some importance with an established episcopal see. It was then known by several names such as Neapolis, Theodosias, or Theodosiana. By the following century this had become Nemesos. The name Neapolis, however, might be earlier (Bios Auxibiou 13). The Life informs us that Tychicos I was consecrated to the see of Neapolis in the time of St. Paul.
  The name appears in an inscription of the second half of the 3d c. B.C. This inscription, which was acquired in the village of Gypsos in the hinterland of Salamis, honors Nikandros, commandant of Neapolis, but as no other town of that name can be found within Cyprus it may well refer to the predecessor of Limassol.
  It has also been suggested that this Neapolis might be identified with Kartihadast but since this name applies rather to Kition this view must be dismissed. Moreover nothing Phoenician has been found so far in Limassol.
  The town site is unexplored but many casual finds have been recorded.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Olympos

OLYMPOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the E point of the island about 6 km from the Monastery of Apostolos Andreas. Far out in the sea are the Kleides islands (Hdt. 5.108.2; Strab. 14.682; Ptol. 5.14.7). At the foot of a rising mass of rock remains of a small town extend for some distance inland; farther W is the necropolis.
  The name Kleides was also applied to the cape itself by such writers as Agathemenos and Hesychios. To Ptolemy it was also known as Oura Boos (bull's tail). In the Stadiasmus (GGM 2.476) it is simply called Akra. The name of the town has not been identified yet but on the evidence of Strabo, who calls the hillock Olympos, this name may also apply to the town itself.
  The foundations of a building measuring about 35 x 17 m are still visible on the summit of the rock. These remains may belong to the Temple of Aphrodite Akraia, which women were not allowed to enter (Strab. 14.682; Stad. GGM 1.307, 315).
  Of the lower town only scanty remains of a few houses are still visible above ground. Farther inland the site is overgrown with thick scrub. Several rock-cut tombs looted long ago, are still visible along the shore to the W of the town. Along the N shore Hogarth saw ancient wheel-marks and two underground pools, to which access was obtained by flights of steps.
  On present-day archaeological evidence this town has been in existence from Classical to Graeco-Roman times. The S slope of the hillock, however, was occupied by a very small community in Neolithic times, as shown by recent excavations. The Classical town is still unexcavated.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ourania

OURANIA (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  The ruins of a small coastal town about 8 km due NE of the village of Rizokarpasso in the Karpass peninsula, have been identified with those of Ourania. The ruins cover a sizable area back from the coast on the last slopes of the ridge and on the plain below. The acropolis bounded the town to the S. The town possessed a harbor, W of which the necropolis lies near the shore. Three Byzantine churches are the only prominent monuments still standing.
  Nothing is known of the origins of Ourania. Geometric and archaic tombs known in the neighborhood of the Classical site may belong to it. However, archaeological evidence is at present against a date earlier than the Classical period for its founding. The town flourished down to Early Byzantine times, when it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  Very little is known of the history, and but for a doubtful reference in Nonnos (13.452), our only authority for its existence is Diodoros (20.47.2), who relates its capture by Demetrios Poliorketes. Demetrios, coming from Cilicia, landed his forces in 306 B.C. at Karpasia and, having stormed both Ourania and Karpasia, marched on Salamis.
  The principal monuments now visible are, apart from the churches, the acropolis and the harbor. The ruins of the lower town are now under cultivation with great quantities of stones, fragments of columns, and other remains scattered about or piled up. To the E may be seen a large quarry, now called Phylakes. A number of tombs, dating from Classical to Hellenistic times, were excavated in 1938 in the necropolis but these are for the most part filled in.
  To the S of the ruined town rises the acropolis, a rock projecting sheer on three sides from the hills into the plain. On its summit can still be seen the foundations of a building, possibly a sanctuary or a fortress. The entire ground plan of the building has been preserved because the lower portion of its rooms was excavated in the living rock to a depth varying from .61 to 1.21 m. Enough of the walls remain intact to determine the position of the doorways and the character of the approaches. The outer walls are generally .61 to .91 m thick and the party walls vary from .31 to .46 m. The building was approached from the SE by a wide passage, on the left of which are two rooms; a flight of four steps and a gate, whose sockets remain, lead into an inner room, which again opens into a third room, the largest of the three.
  Less than a km below the town lies a little horseshoe bay which served as a harbor. The entrance is narrow but the space within could afford room for many small craft. On the beach still stand four stone mooring-posts, ca. .91 m high. The remains of the masonry of the quay may be traced for some distance.
  The finds from the excavations of the necropolis are in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia but certain tomb groups have been allocated to the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, to the Museum of Classical Archaeology in Cambridge, to the Institute of Archaeology in London, and to the Nicholson Museum in Sydney.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Paphos (Palaipaphos)

PAPHOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  In W Cyprus, ca. 1.5 km from the sea, some 16 km SE of Nea Paphos. The ruins cover a large area, part of which is now occupied by the modern village of Kouklia. A vast necropolis extends NE, E, and S of the city. Palaipaphos or simply Paphos was the capital of the kingdom of Paphos and the celebrated center of the cult of Aphrodite.
  The traditional founder of Paphos was Agapenor, king of Tegea in Arkadia in the Peloponnese, who founded the Temple of Aphrodite in that city.
  According to another legend, the cult of Aphrodite was established earlier by Kinyras, the proverbial king of Paphos or of all Cyprus, who, as the Iliad tells us, sent to Agamemnon a notable cuirass when he heard of the expedition against Troy. The priest-kings of Paphos traced their origin to Kinyras, and a dynasty called the Kinyradai ruled Paphos down to Ptolemaic times.
  The Temple of Aphrodite was the most notable sacred edifice in Cyprus and the most famous Temple of Aphrodite in the ancient world. There, according to tradition, Aphrodite first set foot upon the shore after having been born of the foam of the sea. The Holy Grove and Altar of Aphrodite in Paphos are mentioned by Homer; since then many historians and geographers of antiquity have described and mentioned this Shrine of the Goddess of Beauty and Love, often called Paphia. The very Tomb of Aphrodite was shown in Paphos.
  Strabo and Pausanias confuse Old and New Paphos and refer to Nea Paphos as the city founded by Agapenor. Archaeological evidence, however, is against this view for, whereas the presence of the Mycenaeans in Old Paphos is well attested, the founding of New Paphos cannot be earlier than the 4th c. B.C.
  Recent excavations have shown that heavy fighting took place at the NE defenses of the city at the time of the Ionian Revolt (499-498 B.C.). Nikokles, son of Timarchos, the last king of Paphos, was also the founder of New Paphos. He remained faithful to Ptolemy and when in 312 B.C. Marion was razed, its inhabitants were transferred to Paphos, most likely New Paphos. Old Paphos, however, still flourished in Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times and retained its status as the principal center of the cult of Aphrodite. In fact, Strabo tells us that at the annual festival of Aphrodite men and women, from other cities as well as from Paphos walked from New to Old Paphos, a distance of 60 stadia.
  Very little is known of the earlier history of Palaipaphos. The name appears on the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.) where Ituander, king of Pappa, is interpreted as Eteandros king of Paphos. Two gold bracelets of the late 6th or early 5th c. B.C. which are said to have been found at Kourion bear in Cypriot script the name Eteandros, king of Paphos. The sequence of its kings from the beginning of the 5th c. B.C. is fairly well fixed from coins and from inscriptions.
  The principal monuments uncovered up to the present day include part of the fortifications of the city excavated in recent years and the Temple of Aphrodite, which was excavated towards the end of the 19th c. Most of the ruins of this large city, however, remain unexcavated. The existence of a gymnasium and of a theater is attested by inscriptions but their sites remain unidentified. The oracle is known both from an inscription and from literary sources.
  Of particular importance are the NE fortifications of the city. The sector uncovered thus far is at the Marcello hill, due NE of the village of Kouklia. A wall running for ca. 90 m in a SE-NW direction was cleared. At the SE end a rectangular tower projecting from the outward face of the wall was uncovered. At the NW end are two bastions with a gate in between. But most important perhaps of all the fortifications is the siege mound between the gate and the tower. The city defenses date from Late Geometric or early archaic down to Late Hellenistic times. Of particular interest are the fortifications of the time of the Ionian Revolt (499-498 B.C.) with the construction of siege and countersiege works. The mound was raised by the Persians when besieging the city. The most striking feature of the siege mound is the variety of its contents: stones, earth, ashes, burnt bones, carbonized wood, and numerous architectural, sculptural and epigraphical fragments, many of which were damaged by fire.
  The architectural finds include fragments of Proto-Ionic volute capitals, acroteria, architraves, and various moldings. There are a number of altars, bases, and many votive columns. More remarkable are the great quantities of limestone sculpture, among which are Kouroi clad in the Cypriot "belt" and parts of sphinxes and lions. All the sculptured remains date from the archaic period, mostly of the middle or the later part of the 6th c. B.C. To the same context belong over 190 syllabic inscriptions, many of them obviously dedications. The large amount of sculptural and architectural debris proves that there existed an important archaic sanctuary in the vicinity outside the walls and that this shrine was used by the Persians as a quarry for building the ramp in a hurry. The siege mound also contained a large number of rough, round-shaped stones, probably used as ballistic missiles. Besides the materials described the mound contained great quantities of weapons: javelin points, spearheads and arrowheads both of iron and bronze, and an exceptionally well-preserved late archaic bronze helmet of the Greek type with engraved ornaments, resembling the so-called Miltiades helmet from Olympia.
  On the other hand, a series of underground sally ports were made by the besieged for mining the mound. Severe fighting took place during the construction of the ramp, to judge from the quantity of missiles found, and the defenders were able to mine the ramp by setting fire to the support of the tunnels, thereby causing it to collapse.
  The set-back NE gate has an outer (N) cross-bastion and an inner (S) cross-bastion on the opposite side. The presence of many spearheads and arrowheads and the extensive damage to the gate also indicate heavy fighting at the time of the Ionian Revolt. In the 4th c. B.C. a series of guard rooms were built on the N side of the gate.
  The temple of Aphrodite lies on a hill at the SW sector of Palaipaphos. Unfortunately very little of this temple survives and most of its ruins date from Graeco-Roman times (excavated in 1887).
  The plan as uncovered to date may be divided into two sections: the S wing, of which very imperfect remains exist; and the great rectangular enclosure to the N; its sides are ca. 9 m long, within which area are included the S stoa, several chambers of various sizes, the N stoa, a large open court, and the central hall.
  The great rectangular enclosure seems originally to have consisted of a range of buildings extending along the whole of the E side with a great open court to the W of it, which was flanked on the N by a wide stoa extending along its whole width and probably originally by a similar stoa extending along the S front. Whether this court ever had a W wall it is impossible to say without further investigation.
  When in Roman times the temple was restored after its destruction by earthquakes on two separate occasions all traces of the S stoa were destroyed and a new one of large proportions was built. The central hall dates also from Roman times but the chambers running up the E side belong to the pre-Roman period. To the same period may be assigned the walls of the N stoa.
  Very little of the plan of the temple can be worked out from the existing remains and our knowledge of the temple is better derived from coins of the Augustan and later periods.
  A large conical stone, now in the Cyprus Museum, came from the area of the Temple of Aphrodite and may be an aniconic representation of the goddess. It is possible that this stone once stood in the central room of the temple. The central feature of the shrine is shown on representations of the temple on Cypriot coins of the Roman era.
  Many Greek alphabetic inscriptions of the Hellenistic and Roman era were found in the area of the temple. Of these some are dedications to Aphrodite Paphia while others are honorific. An important inscription of the Early Hellenistic period is a dedication of Ptolemy II to his naval architect Pyrgoteles son of Zoes. A house of the atrium type of the 3d-4th c. B.C. to the W of the Temple of Aphrodite was excavated in 1950 and 1951.
  The finds are in the Cyprus Museum, the Paphos District Museum, and the site museum at Kouklia.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Paphos (Nea Paphos)

  On the W coast. The ruins cover an extensive area, about 100 ha, part of which is now occupied by the modern village of Kato Paphos. Vast necropoleis extend N and E. Nea Paphos, or simply Paphos, was the capital of Cyprus during the latter part of the Hellenistic period and throughout the Roman era. Nea Paphos should not be confused with Palaipaphos (q.v.), which lies some 16 km to the SE, which as the earlier of the two cities was the seat of the kingdom of Paphos and the center of the celebrated cult of Aphrodite. Nea Paphos is definitely a later city founded sometime in the 4th c. B.C. Apart from the contemporary cemeteries, a large necropolis of the Geometric, archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, and Graeco-Roman times exists further inland within the limits of the modern town of Paphos, but the city to which this necropolis belongs remains unidentified.
  The historical sources for Nea Paphos are late and their evidence is confusing for it is not always clear to which of the two cities they refer, though generally speaking Paphos, at least in the earlier authors, denotes Palaipaphos. The use of Paphos, to designate Nea Paphos becomes current during the 2d c. B.C.
  Nea Paphos was probably founded in the latter part of the 4th c. B.C. by Nikokles, the last king of the Paphian kingdom, to serve as his economic and political capital. The destruction of the city of Marion in 312 B.C. by Ptolemy Soter and the transfer of its population to Paphos may refer to this new city. Nikokles was awarded the people of Marion for his fidelity to Ptolemy and it is not unreasonable to suggest that the inhabitants of Marion were sent to people a newly founded city. Nea Paphos gradually grew in importance and by the beginning of the 2d c. B.C. had taken the place of Salamis as capital of Cyprus.
  Nea Paphos had in Ptolemaic times a shipbuilding industry. Ptolemy II Philadelphos (284-246/245) had two large ships built there by the naval architect Pyrgoteles son of Zoes, to whom a statue was erected in the Temple of Aphrodite at Palaipaphos.
  Under the Ptolemies, Nea Paphos (hereafter Paphos) enjoyed certain forms of liberty, as for example, a boule and demos and a grammateus. The importance of Paphos is shown by the fact that this city along with Salamis and Kition preserved the right to issue coins. In fact, the Paphian mint was the most important, and was the only one still issuing coins in Roman times. Recent excavations brought to light a hoard consisting of 2484 silver Ptolemaic tetradrachmas, the majority of which were minted in Paphos. The others were minted in Salamis and Kition. Molds were found also for casting flans as well as bronze flans for making coins, again of the Ptolemaic period.
  Paphos, which had been increasing in importance under the Ptolemies and had become the capital of Cyprus, retained this position throughout the Roman period until the 4th c. A.D. when it reverted to Salamis. The earliest written record of the city as capital of Cyprus occurs in the Acts of the Apostles (13:5-13), which describes the visit of St. Paul, John, Mark the Evangelist, and St. Barnabas to Paphos (A.D. 45), the seat of the proconsul Sergius Paulus, whom they converted to Christianity.
  The cities of Roman Cyprus were governed by a demos and boule and there is nothing to indicate that the Romans ever founded a colonia or municipium in the island. A joint organization termed the Koinon Kuprion (Federation of Cypriots), which was functioning under the Ptolemies, continued during the Roman period.
  At some time in the 4th c. A.D. Paphos yielded to Salamis its place as the metropolis of Cyprus, possibly because of the severe earthquakes of 332 and 342, in which both cities were badly shaken. Paphos was eventually rebuilt but it never regained its lost glory. The city became in Early Christian times the seat of a bishop and within reduced limits it continued to be a city of some importance. It survived the Arab raids.
  The principal monuments uncovered to date include the House of Dionysos with floor mosaics, a large public building also with floor mosaics, an odeon, two Early Christian basilicas, and the Early Byzantine Castle. The city wall can still be traced for most of its course and the breakwaters of the ancient harbor are still there. Moreover we know the site of the gymnasium, of a Hellenistic theater, of a garrison camp, of the Temple of Apollo Hylates, and of other monuments. From inscriptions we are also informed of the worship here of Aphrodite, Zeus, Apollo, Artemis, and Leto. Most of the ruins of this city, however, remain unexcavated.
  The House of Dionysos (ca. A.D. 3d c.) is of impressive dimensions; it occupies an area of ca. 2000 sq. m, of which about one-quarter is paved with mosaics. It is an atrium-type house with an impluvium in the center. The floor of the rectangular portico thus formed around the impluvium was paved with mosaics. The rooms all around the atrium were similarly paved. To the E lie the bedrooms and the bathrooms and a small peristyle vivarium. To the W are the kitchens and the workshops. The main entrance is at the SW, leading up from the S street. Remains of painted stucco indicate that the walls of the house were also decorated with polychrome geometric or floral patterns.
  The pavement mosaics are composed of magnificent polychrome designs of great artistic value and beauty. On three sides of the atrium there are a series of hunting scenes. On the fourth (W) portico are four panels of figures from Greek mythology: Pyramos and Thisbe; Dionysos, Akme, Ikarios and the First Wine Drinkers; Poseidon and Amymone; and Apollo pursuing Daphne. The most important room is probably the tablinum. In its center a large rectangular panel depicts a vintage scene. Along its E, narrow end is another mythological scene representing the Triumph of Dionysos. This panel is flanked by the Dioskouroi. Other figure representations exist in other rooms: Hippolytos and Phaidra, Ganymede and the Eagle, the Peacock, the Four Seasons, and Narcissus. Moreover, many other rooms are paved with a geometric decoration only but again of a great variety of color and pattern.
  What appears to be a public building of Late Roman times, due S of the House of Dionysos, has been under excavation since 1965. This edifice has an inner peristyle court, 56 x 43 m, surrounded by long porticos with rows of rooms adjacent to them. So far only parts of the N, the W, and the S wings have been excavated. The porticos and most of the rooms were paved with mosaics, but they are, with few exceptions, badly damaged. At the E end of the S corridor is an apsidal room, which was probably the corner chamber of the E wing. It contains within a medallion a mosaic pavement depicting Theseus slaying the Minotaur, Ariadne and personifications of Crete, and the Labyrinth. In one of the S rooms another relatively well-preserved mosaic floor depicts the Three Fates, Peleus, Thetis, and Achilles.
  An odeion was recently excavated on the E slope of a low hill where the modern lighthouse stands, believed to be the acropolis. The odeion, which was entirely built, suffered much damage at the hands of quarrymen but 12 rows of seats were identified.
  The parodoi were also badly looted but the remains of their foundations indicate that spectators entered the orchestra by a G-shaped parodos similar to those of the theater at Soloi. The stage-building, constructed of large well-dressed stones, extended beyond the parodoi. Only its floor survives. The diameter of the semicircular orchestra measures ca. 12 m. The lower course of the outside analemma is well preserved; the diameter of the cavea is ca. 47.7 m. The Paphos odeion, the first of its kind known in the island, dates from the beginning of the 1st c. A.D. It has been partly restored.
  On the S slope of the Fabrica hill in the E sector of the city can be seen the remains of another theater, still unexcavated, looking S and commanding a wide and beautiful view over the city below and the sea beyond. The upper part of the cavea is cut in the solid rock, where many rows of seats are still visible. Inscriptions date the theater to the 3d c. B.C.
  The city wall may be traced in practically all its course but the better preserved part lies to the NW. At this point the circuit follows the edge of the artificially scarped cliffs. Here too lies the NW gate, the foundations of which are cut in the rock. The approach from the sea was by a bridge, also rock-cut, which slopes gently outside the gate to a length of some 36 m. The gate itself was flanked by towers. There still exist some sally ports. A NE gate is also visible and there were probably a N and an E one. Apparently there were towers at regular intervals all along the circuit. This city wall may have been originally built by King Nikokles, the founder of Nea Paphos.
  The ancient harbor, still used by small craft, was mainly artificial with its two breakwaters projecting into the sea for a considerable distance. The surviving length of the E arm is 350 m, that of the W one is 170 m.
  A complex of underground chambers to the N of the city may be part of the camp of a garrison. The complex consists of a long vaulted passage with chambers opening along the E side and at the far end to the N. Two of these chambers resemble those of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates (see below) and it is possible that they served as a sanctuary but only as part of a larger compound of buildings and it appears that the whole was surrounded by a wall. The date to be assigned to them should be the end of the 4th c. B.C.
  The Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates lies to the E outside the limits of the ancient city. Cut in the solid rock it is composed of two underground chambers entered by a flight of steps. The front chamber is rectangular; the back one, circular with a dome-shaped roof. Two rock-cut inscriptions in the Cypro-syllabic script, cut above the entrance of the cave, inform us that it was dedicated to Apollo Hylates. These inscriptions are dated to the end of the 4th c. B.C., hence the sanctuary should be contemporary with the foundation of Nea Paphos.
  The Tombs of the Kings lie in the N necropolis about 1.5 km from the city. They consist of an open peristyle court in the center with burial chambers all around, and are entirely cut in the solid rock below ground level and are entered by a flight of steps, also rock-cut. The peristyle is of the Doric order; each side of the court is decorated as a temple facade with Doric columns and an entablature of triglyphs and metopes. These tombs, which do not follow in the traditional tomb architecture of Cyprus, may have their prototypes in Alexandria. They date from Hellenistic times and were probably used for the burial of the Ptolemaic rulers of the island.
  From the city site come a number of marble sculptures and inscriptions of the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman period.
  The finds are in the Nicosia and Paphos Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Pergamon

PERGAMON (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the N coast. The ruins of a small town identified by Hogarth with Pergamon extend around the Church of Panaghia Pergaminiotissa, due NE of Akanthou village, some 500 m from the sea. A low, rocky hill to the N may have been the acropolis.
  Nothing is known of the founding or history of this small town, which seems to have flourished in Graeco-Roman and in Early Byzantine times. The town site is now a field of ruins partly under cultivation and partly overgrown with scrub. The acropolis has been quarried but on its summit a single pillar of rock is still standing while on its gentle slope two depressions have been cut, connected with each other by a flight of four steps.
  The site is unexcavated.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 272 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Salamis

SALAMIS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the E coast of the island, ca. 6.5 km N of Famagusta. The ruins occupy an extensive area, ca. 150 ha, along the shore and for a considerable depth now covered by sand dunes and a forest. The harbor lies to the S near the mouth of the river Pedhiaios. Traces of the city wall of the archaic period have recently been discovered to the S. The vast necropolis lies in the plain W of the city and extends towards the villages of Enkomi, Haghios Serghios, and the Monastery of St. Barnabas.
  The traditional founder was Teukros, son of Telamon, king of the Greek island of Salamis and one of the heroes of the Trojan War. He was also the founder of the Temple of Zeus Salaminios and the ancestor of its dynasty of priest-kings. A sepulchral epigram to him exists among those on the Homeric heroes. The dynasty of Teukridai ruled for a long time and even the kings of later times claimed descent from Teukros. This dynasty of priest-kings lasted down to the time of Augustus.
  Salamis must have succeeded the Mycenaean city of Enkomi, ca. 2 km further inland, sometime in the 11th c. B.C. probably when the harbor of the latter was silted up. This earlier theory has now been corroborated by the recent discovery within Salamis itself of a Protogeometric tomb, and of 11th c. sherds found at the S sector of the city.
  Salamis was the most important city in Cyprus and King Euelthon (560-525 B.C.) claimed to be ruler of the whole island. He was the first king of Cyprus to issue coins, and his silver staters of Persic standard show on the obverse a lying ram with the reverse at first smooth and then with an ankh. His name appears on the obverse in syllabic script.
  His grandson Gorgos was reigning at the time of the Ionian Revolt (499-498 B.C.) but refused to rise against the Persians, so he was overthrown by his younger brother Onesilos, who succeeded in liberating most of the island for a while. Onesilos, however, fell in the battle that ensued on the plain of Salamis, and the Cypriots, after a year of freedom, were "again enslaved to Persia" (Hdt. 5.104, 108-15).
  The most important of all the kings of Salamis, however, was Euagoras I (411-374-373 B.C.) for whom Isocrates wrote an oration (Evagoras). In an attempt to liberate Cyprus from the Persians Euagoras met with little resistance. He was a close ally of Athens and received much military help but in spite of all his initial successes he was forced to submit to the Great King although he did retain his throne as king of Salamis. Euagoras remained throughout his reign a friend of Athens and under his philhellenic policy Greek philosophers, artists, and musicians enjoyed the patronage of his court.
  As a result of the Wars of the Successors Salamis was in 306 B.C. the scene of heavy fighting, both on land and sea, between Demetrios Poliorketes and Ptolemy I Soter for the possession of the city. It finally fell to Ptolemy, who soon took possession of the whole island. The city continued to flourish in Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times and was embellished with important public buildings. During the Ptolemaic rule Salamis ceded its place to Paphos as the leading city of the island sometime in the 2d c. B.C. but in the 4th c. A.D. Salamis, now called Constantia, had once more superseded Paphos as the metropolis of Cyprus. The city became in Early Christian times the seat of a bishop and continued to flourish down to Early Byzantine times when it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of 647 A.D.
  The principal monuments uncovered towards the end of the 19th c., and again recently, include the gymnasium, the baths, the theater, the reservoir, the agora, the Temple of Zeus Olympios, part of the city wall, two Early Christian basilican churches and the Royal Tombs. Most of the ruins of this large city, however, remain unexcavated.
  The Graeco-Roman gymnasium, originally built in Hellenistic times, was probably destroyed in the 4th c. A.D. earthquakes, after which it was restored as public baths. The central court, the palaistra, measuring 50 x 38 m and paved with opus sectile, is surrounded on all four sides by monolithic marble columns crowned by Corinthian capitals of various types which were salvaged from other derelict buildings when the gymnasium became the baths. The present columns originally carried arches of stone to support the roof which covered the portico. When first excavated this gymnasium was thought to be a marble forum.
  The entrance to the gymnasium was through the S portico. On the step between the entrance columns is an inscription of the Hellenistic gymnasium. In the central part of the W wing, behind the portico, is a semicircular platform the floor of which lies about one m above the level of the floor of the portico. At the S end of this wing lie the gymnasium's latrines, a semicircular structure with a roof supported on columns; it had facilities for about 44 persons.
  The E portico is larger and furnished with fluted columns higher than those along the other three sides of the court. At the N end of this portico, steps lead up into the N annex with a rectangular pool which replaced an earlier circular one. The sculptures now grouped there come from other parts of the gymnasium. In the middle of the E portico was found the marble altar of the gymnasiarch Diagoras, son of Teukros, in the 2d c. A.D. style. The large group of buildings to the E belongs to the period of the baths. There are still, in a relatively good state of preservation, hypocausts, sudatoria, caldaria, praefurnia, and large halls with niches decorated with mosaics, among others one depicting the river Eurotas and another Apollo slaying the children of Niobe.
  The theater was built early in the Imperial period, probably during the reign of Augustus, but was repaired and remodeled during the 1st and 2d c. A.D. It has a semicircular orchestra measuring about 27 m in diameter; its cavea, measuring 104 m in diameter, consisted originally of over 50 rows of seats with a capacity of about 15,000 spectators. Of the stage-building little survives and the cavea has been restored in its greater part.
  The stage-building consists of two parallel walls measuring ca. 40 m in length. The span between them, ca. 5 m, was covered with wooden planks at a height of ca. 2 m above the level of the orchestra. Rectangular colonettes offered additional supports to this wooden platform on which the actors performed. This was the proscenium, the facade of which was decorated with frescoes, traces of which survive in one of its niches. The back wall of the proscenium is a massive structure which supported the scenae frons; this was richly decorated with columns, statues, and honorific inscriptions. The theater, ca. 100 m to the S of the gymnasium, was connected with the latter by a colonnaded paved street.
  Towards the S of the city is a group of buildings composed of the main reservoir, the agora and the Temple of Zeus Olympios. The reservoir adjoining the agora to the N consists of a large rectangle which had a vaulted roof supported on 39 piers in three rows. This is assigned to the reign of Septimius Severus and it appears that it was supplied with water from the spring at Kythrea some 56 km away. Traces of the aqueduct can still be seen in the plain between the village of Haghios Serghios and Salamis. Repairs to this aqueduct were made as late as the Early Byzantine period.
  The Graeco-Roman agora between the reservoir and the Temple of Zeus Olympios measures 217 x 60 m. Considerable remains survive of the stone colonnades extending on either side of the central open space. The stone drums stood ca. 8.20 m high at intervals of 4.60 m and carried Corinthian capitals. Behind the two long porticos were rows of shops. On the S side of the agora lies the Temple of Zeus Olympios, originally built in Hellenistic times. The temple stands on a high stylobate and has a square cella at the rear. Fallen column-drums and Corinthian capitals of a considerable size suggest an impressive building.
  Trial trenches at the S sector of Salamis near the harbor brought to light the existence of a complete system of defenses consisting of many parallel walls. The lower course of the walls was of stone, while the upper part was built of mudbricks. The city defenses at this point run E-W along the edge of the plateau, which overlooks the harbor. This circuit has been provisionally dated to the end of the Geometric and to the archaic period.
  Substantial remains of the breakwaters of the harbor near the mouth of the river Pediaios still survive; however, most of the harbor itself has silted up.
  Tombs dating from Late Geometric to Graeco-Roman times are known in the vast necropolis W of Salamis, but the most important of these are the archaic Royal Tombs, a number of which were excavated in recent years (1956 onwards). Unfortunately only the dromoi were found intact, the burial chambers having been looted long ago. The characteristic features of these tombs are their large dromoi, and their Homeric burial customs. One of these tombs, Tomb 50, is the so-called Prison or Tomb of Haghia Haikaterini. The sloping dromos, measuring 28 x 13 m, had its sides revetted with well-dressed stones. The skeletons of two yoked horses, their iron bits still in their mouths, and several vases were found in the dromos. The tomb in its original form dates from the 7th c. B.C.
  Tomb 79 lies to the S of the Tomb of Haghia Haikaterini, and is beyond doubt the wealthiest tomb found thus far at Salamis. The chamber was built, like that of the tomb of Haghia Haikaterini, of two very large blocks of stone, rectangular in shape and with a gable roof. In front of the chamber there was a kind of propylaeum. This tomb dates from the end of the 8th c. B.C. but was reused in the 7th c. and still later during the Graeco-Roman period, so that the chamber was found looted of its earlier contents. The dromos, however, remained intact and its excavation proved most rewarding. The 8th c. burial was associated with the sacrifice of horses, and a chariot and a hearse were found in the dromos. In addition to the pottery the tomb furniture included three ivory chairs, of which only one was in fairly good condition, ivory plaques with relief decoration, a large bronze cauldron standing on an iron tripod decorated around the rim with griffin heads, bird-men, and sphinxes; also various bronze horse-bits, such as frontlets, blinkers, and breastplates, all decorated with figure representations. The 7th c. burial was also associated with chariot and horse burials.
  A number of rock-cut tombs were recently excavated due S of the Royal Tombs. These tombs were enclosed by a peribolos wall. Of particular interest is the discovery of pyres in the dromos on which clay figurines and fruit were offered in honor of the dead. This custom was known in ancient Greek religion as pankarpia or panspermia. Several infant burials made in jars were brought to light. The jars are as a rule of Rhodian import but two came from Attica. The furniture of the tombs includes a number of beautiful vases of the 7th c. B.C. decorated with lotus flowers, alabaster vases, bronze mirrors, gold jewelry, seals, and scarabs.
  Half-way between the Salamis forest and the Monastery of St. Barnabas, in the middle of the plain, lies a large tumulus of soil, Tomb 3. Above the tumulus traces of a beehive construction have been found, probably a reminiscence of the Mycenaean tholos tomb. The dromos measures 29 x 6 m. Remains of two chariots have been found in it. The four horses which drew the chariots were sacrificed with all their trappings. Various weapons were found including an iron sword, .92 m in length. The border of the broad tang was of silver soldered on the iron by means of copper. This tomb dates from ca. 600 B.C.
  Another tumulus, Tomb 77, is to be seen close to the outskirts of the village of Enkomi. This one, however, dates from the end of the Classical period. Under the tumulus was an exedra of rectangular shape, built of mudbricks and measuring 17 x 11.50 m. Almost at the center of the exedra was found a large pyre in which were, among other objects, a number of fragments of life-size statues made of unbaked clay but hardened by fire. Among the five heads found, two seem to be portraits. Their style dates them to the end of the 4th c. B.C. These heads are acrolithic and there is evidence that they were mounted on wooden posts at the time of the funerary ceremony. No traces of burial have been found and the conclusion has been reached that this was a cenotaph, probably of Nikokreon, the last king of Salamis, who committed suicide with the members of his family in 311 B.C. and was buried under the ruins of the burnt palace because he would not submit to Ptolemy.
  From the Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman necropolis come a number of funerary inscriptions. The finds are in the Nicosia and Famagusta Museums.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Soloi

SOLOI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  On the NW coast in the area of Morphou Bay. The ruins cover a large area, part of which is now occupied by the modern village. The city extended on the summit of a hill, a little back from the coast and over its N slope overlooking the bay; it also extended over a narrow strip of flat land below as far as the harbor. The city consisted of two parts, the acropolis and the lower city.
  The city wall can still be traced along the S ridge of the acropolis. To the E it follows the edge of the hill down to a point ca. 100 m E of the theater, where it disappears in the plain. In all likelihood it reached the coast and was continued by the E breakwater of the harbor, the end of which is still visible above the water. The W part of the city wall runs from the acropolis in a NW direction and disappears in the village near the modern main road. Near the middle of the last portion of the wall traces of the W gate have been located. This wall must have also reached the coast, where it was continued by the W breakwater, the end of which is again visible above the water. These two extremities formed the entrance to the harbor, now entirely silted up. A similar arrangement of walls and breakwaters is to be seen at Nea Paphos (q.v.). This then was the winter harbor of Skylax (GGM 1.103), also mentioned by Strabo (14.683). The necropolis extends E and S, with the earliest tombs found in the E necropolis.
  Soloi, one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus, was, according to tradition, founded by Akamas and Phaleros. According to another version, a city called Aipeia (supposed to have been the predecessor of Soloi) was founded by Demophon, brother of Akamas. The name is connected with the visit of the Athenian lawgiver Solon to Cyprus and to Philokypros of Aipeia. Solon advised the king to remove the city of Aipeia from its inconvenient position in rough country to the plain by the sea. Philokypros took the advice and founded a new city, which he called Soloi in honor of his friend.
  Owing to the existence of copper mines, the richest in the island, the area was inhabited at an early date and the presence of Late Bronze Age settlements in the vicinity is well attested. On archaeological evidence available today, the city site has been occupied since Geometric times and like some other cities in the island such as Salamis, Soloi may have succeeded a Late Bronze Age town in the neighborhood. It owed its prosperity to the nearby copper mines, and flourished down to Early Byzantine times, when it was gradually abandoned after the first Arab raids of A.D. 647.
  Little is known of its earliest history, though from Classical times onwards the city played an important role in the history of Cyprus and at least in the times of Alexander the Great seems to have been the most important city of the island after Salamis.
  During the rising against the Persians at the time of the Ionian Revolt the king of Soloi, Aristokypros, son of Philokypros, was killed in the battle on the plain of Salamis. Soloi itself successfully resisted the siege of the Persians for five months but was finally captured, when the city walls had been undermined. After this time there are but a few records of the city in literature. From inscriptions, however, we know the names of Kings Stasias and Stasikrates, probably living in the 4th c. B.C.
  The kings of Cyprus assisted Alexander the Great actively during the siege of Tyre and some of them accompanied him on his way to the E. The kings of Salamis and Soloi paid the expenses for the choruses, when celebrating in 331 the capture of Tyre. Nikokreon of Salamis and Pasikrates of Soloi vied with each other as choregoi, the Athenian tragic actor Athenodoros, provided by Pasikrates, being victorious. Nikokles, the son of Pasikrates, was one of the leaders of the Cypriot fleet, which was used by Alexander on his expedition to Indus. And Stasanor, possibly a brother of Pasikrates, also accompanied Alexander. Alexander made Stasanor governor of Areia and Drangiane in 329 and later in 321 he also received Bactria and Sogdiane. Hiero of Soloi, also was sent to circumnavigate the Arabian peninsula and got as far as the mouth of the Persian Gulf. Soloi is the birthplace of the peripatetic historian Klearchos, a pupil of Aristotle.
  The last king of Soloi was called Eunostos, probably the elder son of Pasikrates. All the kingdoms of Cyprus were abolished by Ptolemy I Soter with the exception of Soloi, which seems to have been in an exceptional position. How long Pasikrates continued to reign after we last hear of him in 321, when he sided with Ptolemy, we do not know; Eunostos, however, was his successor.
  During the Ptolemaic period little is known of Soloi though contacts with Alexandria must have been maintained. The city continued to flourish in Graeco-Roman times and soon became the seat of a bishop. According to the Acta Auxibii (8-9), the saint was baptized and ordained bishop by John Mark the Evangelist and sent to Soloi, where he lived for fifty years (A.D. 52-102/3).
  The principal monuments uncovered so far include the theater, an archaic Greek temple on the acropolis, both excavated in 1929, and part of the lower city and an Early Christian basilican church in 1965 onwards.
  Of the temples at Cholades excavated by the former expedition nothing is visible, the site having been filled up subsequently. The temples date from Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times and the gods worshiped there have been identified with Aphrodite, Kybele, Isis, Serapis, the Dioskouroi, Canopos, Eros, Priapos, and possibly Mithras. Strabo mentions a Temple of Aphrodite and Isis and from the Acta Auxibii we learn of the Temple of Zeus near the W gate. A city of the importance of Soloi could not have been without a gymnasium, but of it nothing is known. Trial trenches on the S side of the acropolis have shown that the royal palace should be located here.
  Excavations in the lower city revealed several buildings dating from archaic to Graeco-Roman times. The structures in the late Graeco-Roman period were erected on workshops of the early Graeco-Roman period. Among the workshops were identified a glass factory and a dyer's factory. In the lower layers were remains of Hellenistic buildings and among the Classical levels a public building built of well-dressed stones. Below the levels of the Classical period, represented by an accumulation of debris corresponding to the Persian wars, were found the remains of the archaic city.
  Probably the most important discovery to date is that of a large street paved with stone slabs. The part revealed measures 4.95 m in width. On the S side was a portico with columns of which the bases are preserved in situ. This was certainly the main E-W street in Graeco-Roman times--it probably dates from the 3d c. A.D.--and may have been a colonnaded street.
  The theater lies on the N slope of the lower hill, E of the acropolis, overlooking the sea to the N. It consists of the cavea, which had been cut in the rock, of a semicircular orchestra, and of the stage-building. A diazoma encircled the cavea two-thirds of the way up. The semicircular cavea had a diameter of 52 m. The floor of the orchestra was plastered with lime-cement on a substructure of rubble; it had a diameter of 17 m. The stage-building is rectangular, 36.15 m x 13.20 m; but of this structure only the platform on which it was built is preserved. The theater could hold about 3500 spectators. It has recently been reconstructed to its diazoma.
  The recent excavation of tombs in the E necropolis yielded some very interesting results. One of the tombs dates from the Cypro-Geometric period, a fact which adds about two centuries to the material hitherto known from the area. But the most important discovery was that in the dromos of one of the archaic tombs: in front of the burial chamber of the rock-cut tomb were found the remains of a horse and of a smaller animal, probably a sheep, sacrificed in honor of the dead. Similar customs of sacrifice and burial of animals are known at Salamis, Tamassos, and Palaipaphos, but in Soloi they were recorded for the first time.
  The finds are in the Cyprus Museum, Nicosia.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Tamassos

TAMASSOS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  In the copper mining area SW of Nicosia. The ruins of a large town lying on the left bank of the river Pediaios extend on the top and over the N slopes of a hill overlooking the rich Pediaios valley below. The site is now partly occupied by the village of Politiko. The town consisted of two parts, the acropolis and the lower town. The acropolis is believed to lie on top of the hill to the S of the town, where now stands the village elementary school. Remains of the city wall can still be traced for part of its course. The necropolis extends N and W.
  Tamassos, one of the ancient kingdoms of Cyprus was probably the Homeric Temese. Nothing is known of its origin but it certainly succeeded a Late Bronze Age settlement in the area, the best known one being on the other side of the river on a height due N of Pera village. A Late Bronze Age necropolis, however, exists at Lambertis, a small hill due SE of the ancient town and E of the Monastery of Haghios Herakleidios. Owing mainly to the existence of copper mines, the area of Tamassos was inhabited even earlier. The city naturally owed its prosperity to these mines, as has been stressed by ancient writers.
  Very little is known of the history. On the prism of Esarhaddon (673-672 B.C.) is mentioned the name Atmesu, king of Tamesu (Admetos, king of Tamassos), were the identification certain. The earliest known historical event goes back to the middle of the 4th c. B.C., when Pasikypros, king of Tamassos, sold his kingdom for 50 talents to Pumiathon, king of Kition, and retired to Amathous, where he spent his old age. Later on we hear again of Tamassos when this city was taken away from Pumiathon by Alexander the Great and presented to Pnytagoras, king of Salamis. Thereafter it is frequently mentioned (Strab. 14.684; Ptol. 5.14.6; Plin. HN 7.195; Steph. Byz.). Tamassos is one of the Cypriot cities mentioned in the list of the theodorokoi from Delphi (early 2d c. B.C.). The city flourished mainly from archaic to Graeco-Roman times; in Early Christian times it became the seat of a bishop.
  The worship of Apollo and of the Mother of the Gods at Tamassos is attested by epigraphic or archaeological evidence. The Sanctuary of Apollo may be located to the NE of the town by the left bank of the river Pediaios. It was near here in 1836 in the bed of the river that a bronze statue of Apollo was found. Its head only has been preserved. Known as the Chatsworth head, it is now in the British Museum. The Sanctuary of the Mother of Gods may be located just inside the N city wall. From inscriptions or from literary sources we learn of the worship of Aphrodite, of Dionysos, of Asklepios, and of Artemis, but nothing is known of their sites.
  There are no coins attributed to Tamassos and nothing is known of the existence of a gymnasium or of a theater though a town of this importance should have had both.
  The town site is practically unexcavated but two imposing royal built tombs, one with two chambers, dating from the archaic period, were excavated in 1889. These tombs had been looted long before their excavation but both are well preserved.
  The first tomb has a stepped dromos, the sides of which are revetted with well-dressed stones. The facade is beautifully molded. On either side of the stomion the walls are decorated with a pilaster surmounted by Proto-Ionic capitals of extremely fine workmanship. The chamber is rectangular; its side walls are built of large ashlar blocks; the roof is saddle-shaped and made of two huge slabs resting on the side walls and leaning against each other. Along the rear wall there is an open sarcophagus.
  The second tomb, near the first, is very much the same construction but it has a more elaborate decoration imitating wood carvings. A stepped dromos leads down to the entrance. The two chambers have molded saddle-shaped roofs imitating wooden logs, which are supported on a molded beam running lengthwise at the top of the roof. Along the rear wall of the back chamber there is a sarcophagus. The first chamber is provided with two square niches in the shape of false doors. On the upper part of these doors a door-lock is sculptured in stone: four vertical projections through which a bar has been pushed horizontally.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Thronoi

THRONI (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  The ruins of a small town, mentioned by Strabo (14.683) and Ptolemy (5.14.1-4), on a headland called Cape Pyla, on the E shore of Larnaca Bay. Strabo's reference, however, does not make it clear whether Thronoi refers to the cape or to the town or to both. It is mentioned in the list of the theodorokoi at Delphi (early 2d c. B.C.), provided the restoration of the name is correct.
  Substantial remains of the town, dating from Hellenistic and Graeco-Roman times, are still visible. Remains of the town wall running for a considerable distance along the inland side of the town, underground chambers cut in the rock, and vestiges of a sanctuary with fragments of stone statues have been reported.
  The site is still unexplored.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Tremithous

TREMITHOUS (Ancient city) CYPRUS
  The site of a small town identified with Tremithous is partly occupied by the modern village in the Mesaoria plain. The necropolis lies to the S. This town seems to have flourished from Hellenistic to Early Byzantine times.
  Nothing is known of its founding. Its later history, however, is fairly well known for it is mentioned by Ptolemy (5.14.6), who counts it as one of the interior towns of Cyprus, and by Stephanus Byzantius. In Early Christian times it became the seat of a bishop. Its first bishop was Spyridon, who was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325 and at that of Sardica in 343-344.
  The worship of Apollo is attested by an inscription. Another inscription records a horoscope of Flavian date. The road system in Roman times connected Tremithous directly with Salamis and Kition.
  Towards the end of the 19th c. an excavation uncovered a number of tombs of the Hellenistic period producing mainly plain pottery. The town site, however, is unexcavated though many finds have been recorded among which are a number of inscribed funerary cippi.

K. Nicolaou, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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