SALAMIS (Ancient city) ATTIKI
The old city of Salamis, the residence of the Telamonian Ajax, stood upon the southern side of the island towards Aegina (Strab. ix. p. 393), and is identified by Leake with the remains of some Hellenic walls upon the south-western coast near a small port, where is the only rivulet in the island, perhaps answering to the Bocarus or Bocalias of Strabo (ix. p. 394; Leake, Demi, p. 169). The Bocarus is also mentioned by Lycophron (451). In another passage, Strabo (ix. p. 424) indeed speaks of a river Cephissus in Salamis; but as it occurs only in an enumeration of various rivers of this name, and immediately follows the Athlenian Cephissus without any mention being made of the Eleusinian Cephissus, we ought probably to read with Leake en Eleusini instead of en Salamini.
When Salamis became an Athenian demus, a new city was built at the head of a bay upon the eastern side of the island, and opposite the Attic coast. In the time of Pausanias this city also had fallen into decay. There remained, however, a ruined agora and a temple of. Ajax, containing a statue of the hero in ebony; also a temple of Artemis, the trophy erected in honour of the victory gained over the Persians, and a temple of Cychreus. (Paus. i. 35. § 3, 36. § 1.) Pausanias has not mentioned the [p. 878] statue of Solon, which was erected in the agora, with one hand covered by his mantle. (Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 420; Aeschin. in Tim. p. 52.) There are still some remains of the city close to the village of Ambelakia. A portion of the walls may still be traced; and many ancient fragments are found in the walls and churches both of Ambelakia and of the neighbouring village of Kuluri, from the latter of which the modern name of the island is derived. The narrow rocky promontory now called Cape of St. Barbara, which forms the SE. entrance to the bay of Ambelakia, was the Sileniae (Sileniai) of Aeschylus, afterwards called Tropaea (Tropaia), on account of the trophy erected there in memory of the victory. (Asch. Pers. 300, with Schol.) At the extremity of this promontory lay the small island of Psytalleia (Psuttaleia), now called Lipsokutali, about a mile long, and from 200 to 300 yards wide. It was here that a picked body of Persian troops was cut to pieces by Aristeides during the battle of Salamis.(Herod. viii. 95; Aesch. Pers. 447, seq.; Plut. Arist. 9; Paus. i. 36. § 2, iv. 36. § 3; Strab. ix. p. 393; Plin. iv. 12. s. 20; Steph. B. s. v.)
This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Classical Salamis, occupied by Athenian settlers, was "on a peninsula-like
place" (Strab. 9.1.9, C.393), that is, on the promontory between Kamatero
and Ambelaki Bay, facing Attica, where travelers 150 years ago saw remains of
fortifications, public buildings, and roads. A decree of the thiasotai of Artemis
was found on the acropolis and her precinct extended to the N shore by Kamatero
(Hdt. 8.77). A trophy in the town was probably on the tip of the promontory (Paus.
1.36.1). Its harbor was in Ambelaki Bay and the agora was probably on the level
ground at the head of the bay, where walls are still visible. A Precinct of Ajax
was in this vicinity (Paus. 1.35.3). Lines of walls which are discernible under
the water show that here as elsewhere the level of the sea has risen since antiquity,
probably by some 150 cm. Early travelers reported a fortification wall extending
from E of the harbor to the base of Cape Varvara, the ancient Cape Kynosoura.
From there the wall followed the ridge of the cape as far as a mound, itself fortified,
known as the Magoula. On the S side of the cape near its base there are remains
of a tower, 5th or 4th c. B.C. in date. Two-thirds of the way down the cape the
foundations of what was probably a marble trophy were noted by early travelers.
Another trophy was set up on an island called Psyttalia (Plut. Arist. 9). The
three trophies indicate the scene of the Battle of Salamis in 480 B.C. when the
Persians were decisively defeated. The trophies at Salamis and on Cape Kynosoura
suggest that the battle was fought inside the channel. The island Psyttalia has
been identified with Haghios Georghios in mid-channel (Hammond, Broadhead) or
with Lipsokoutali outside the channel towards Peiraeus (Pritchett, Wallace).
In the vicinity of the Naval Arsenal early travelers noted the foundations of temples, and the remains of terracing which are probably ancient. Some have proposed to locate the Temple of Athena Skiras there, but a position farther N on Cape Arapis is more probable (Hdt. 8.94.2). There are some small forts on the coast, undoubtedly built as strongpoints against raiders from the sea; there are similar forts in Attica. One is on the promontory facing Megara; it may be identified with the Boudoron of Thucydides (2.94.3 and 3.51.2; W. McLeod). Another is on the S coast near Peristeria Bay, facing Aegina (Milchhofer).
N.G.L. Hammond, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 17 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
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