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Listed 16 sub titles with search on: Information about the place  for wider area of: "SITIA Town LASSITHI" .

Information about the place (16)

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  The Minoan site of Hamezi is 10km west of Sitia. The archaeological site is southwest of the village.

Exo Mouliana

  The village of Exo Mouliana is 13km west of Sitia on the Sitia - Agios Nikolaos road. The fourteenth century Byzantine church of Afentis Christos (Metamorphosis) is here.

Epano Episkopi

  The village of Epano Episkopi is 12km south of Sitia, on the Sitia - Piskokefalo - Epano Episkopi road. In Epano Episkopi is the Byzantine church of Panagia, Agios Georgios, and Agios Ioannis.


  Piskokefalo is 4km south from Sitia. The wider area includes the villages of Kato Episkopi and Zou, in which there are Byzantine churches and minor Minoan sites. Before the village, on the west side of the road, there is a Minoan villa.


  In Sitia there was a Neolithic and a Minoan site. In the location Petras, near the town, excavations that started in 1985 under the Greek archaeologist, Tsipopoulou, have so far revealed a major Minoan settlement with Palatial-style buildings, fortification walls, and many artefacts including a Linear A tablet. The site was destroyed by an earthquake, abandoned in the New Palace Period, and reoccupied later.
In Greek times, Itia was the harbour of Praisos. References to the city in the third century B.C. refer to its citizens as Setians. When Praisos was destroyed by Ierapytna, Itia became the capital of the Praisian state.
There were fortifying walls around the city of Sitia from the Byzantine period. These fortifications were restored by the Genoese and by the Venetians but were never very strong. In 1539, the pirate Barbarosa conquered the city and levelled the forts and the town. When the Turks invaded the island the Venetians destroyed the fort so that it would not fall into the hands of Turks. The ruins of a Venetian castle are still visible today. A tower of three storeys has survived. North of the fort there is a little chapel built from the ruins of a Venetian monastery destroyed by the Turks.

This extract is cited Mar 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


ETIS (Ancient city) SITIA
  Eteia (Eteia), a town of Crete. Pliny (iv. 20) places a town of this name (some of the MSS. and the old text have Elea or Eleae), between Phalasarna and Cisamus.


PRESSOS (Ancient city) SITIA
  Prasus (Praisos; in the MSS. of Strabo Prasos, but in inscriptions Praisos, Bockh, Inscr. vol. ii. p. 1102: Eth. Praisios, more rarely Praisieus, Steph. B. s. v.). A town in Crete, belonging to the Eteocretes, and containing the temple of the Dictaean Zeus, for Mt. Dicte was in the territory of Praesus. (Strab. x. pp. 475, 478.) There is a difficulty in the passage of Strabo, describing the position of this town. He first says that Praesus bordered upon the territory of Leben, and was distant 70 stadia from the sea, and 180 from Gortyn; and he next speaks of Praesus as lying between the promontories Samonium and Chersonesus, at the distance of 60 stadia from the sea. It is evident that these are two different places, as a town, whose territory was contiguous to that of Leben, must have been situated in the southern part of the island; while the other town, between the promontories of Samonium and Chersonesus, must have been at the eastern end. The latter is the town of the Eteocretes, possessing the temple of the Dictaean Zeus, and the Praesus usually known in history : the former is supposed by Mr. Pashley (Crete, vol. i. p. 289, seq.) to be a false reading for Priansus, a town mentioned in coins and inscriptions, which he accordingly places on the southern coast between Bienna and Leben. In this he is followed by Kiepert. But Bockh thinks (Inscr. vol. ii. p. 405) that Pransos, or Priansos was the primitive form of the name, from which Praisos, or Priaisos (a form in Steph. B. s. v.), and subsequently Prasos, were derived, just as in the Aeolic dialect pansa became paisa, and in the Attic dialect pasa. Kramer (ad Strab. l. c.) adopts the opinion of Bockh. Upon the whole we must leave uncertain what town was intended by Strabo in the former of the above-mentioned passages. The territory of Praesus extended across the island to either sea. (Scylax, p. 18, Huds.) It is said to have been the only place in Crete, with the exception of Polichna, that did not take part in the expedition against Camicus in Sicily, in order to avenge the death of Minos (Herod. vii. 170). It was destroyed by the inhabitants of Hierapytna. (Strab. x. p. 479.) Agathocles, the Babylonian, related that the Praesii were accustomed to sacrifice swine before marriage. (Athen. ix. p. 376.) The ruins of Praesus are still called Praesus. (Pashley, Crete, vol. i. p. 290, seq.; Hock, Kreta, vol. i. p. 413, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



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Perseus Project

PRESSOS (Ancient city) SITIA
  The name Eteokretes--"true" or "native" Cretans--shows that they were commonly recognized as the original population of the island, like the Sicani and Siculi in Sicily. In historical times they are found in the eastern end of Crete, near Mount Dicte, the seat of the primitive worship of the Dictaean Zeus. Their city was Praesus (Prasos in Strabo, x. 4. 6, but Praisos on the inscriptions). From an inscription discovered at Praesus some years ago it appears that they retained their ancient non-Hellenic language down to a comparatively late period.

(...)Minos, it is said, went to Sicania, which is now called Sicily, in search for Daedalus, and perished there by a violent death. Presently all the Cretans except the men of Polichne and Praesus were bidden by a god to go with a great host to Sicania (Herodotus 7.170.1)
Commentary: Praisos. High on the central plateau near the east end of Crete. Two 'Eteocretan' inscriptions have been found there in recent excavations. That these two cities (Praisos and Polichne) took no part in the expedition is no historical tradition, though it may have been derived, like the notice of the newer colonists, from Praesus, but merely an inference from the fact that their inhabitants belonged to the pre-Hellenic 'Minoan' race (Hom. Od. xix. 176; Strabo 475, 478), and therefore presumably had not been affected by the migration preceding or following the death of Minos. The words stoloi megaloi imply a large migration which left Crete empty; this hypothesis explained the disappearance of the 'Minoan' people, and the existence as early as Homer of Achaeans, Pelasgians, and Dorians in Crete.

Praisos, Praesus, Prasos, Prasus

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


ETIS (Ancient city) SITIA
  City on the N coast of E Crete. The ancient site is probably under the modern town, which goes back certainly to the Venetian period. Another site nearby has been suggested (Petras), but the only good harbor, then as now, is on the W side of the bay, sheltered from the N wind.
  Little is known of its history. One of the Seven Sages, Myson, was born at Eteia or Etis, probably to be identified with Seteia. No coins are known, and it may never have been a fully independent city in antiquity, but a dependency of inland Praisos, serving as its port on the N coast: an early 3d c. inscription of Praisos refers to the Setaetai making overseas voyages on behalf of Praisos. When that city was destroyed (145-140) the Praisians may have continued to hold Seteia; later it was a bishop's see.
  Objects belonging to the EM, MM, and LM, Archaic, Classical, Roman and Byzantine periods have been found at the modern town site, but few remains of buildings: only some Roman walls at the river mouth on the S side, and a Classical wall on the SW side. Part of the ancient site may now be submerged, owing to local subsidence. On the coast at Petras, 3 km E-SE of the town, are remains of a major Minoan site, with EM, MM, and LM finds but hardly a trace of post-Minoan settlement, so that it is unlikely to be Seteia. On the E side of a headland just E of Petras, called Karavopetra or Trypeti, is a rock cutting--a "shipshed" for a guardship, probably for protection against piracy.

D. J. Blackman, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

Praisos, Praesus

PRESSOS (Ancient city) SITIA
  Hellenistic city a little over 10 km S of Sitia. The two hills occupied by the Hellenistic city have yielded no traces of earlier occupation, although S of the city a third hill was the site of a sanctuary from the 8th to the 5th c. B.C., and S of this sanctuary two Late Bronze Age tholoi have been discovered. The Late Bronze Age settlement may have been another km to the S, where remains of well-built houses have been observed.
  The Hellenistic city was founded in the 4th c. and destroyed about the middle of the 2d c. B.C. by Hierapetra. The Hellenistic city was situated on two hills and a low saddle between them, the whole area being flanked on E and W by streams and their respective valleys. Traces of the defense wall have been recognized, mainly on the E and S sides, and they, together with the general spread of debris, suggest that the walled city occupied an area of more than 10 hectares. Within this area, the higher of the two hills seems to have been fortified as a citadel and to have formed the center of the city as a whole. On the peak of this hill, remains of a major temple have been recognized.
  On the slopes of both hills terrace walls can be traced, and on the S side of the lower hill rectangular cuttings in the rock are thought to represent the remains of houses cut back into the slope here. Narrow, stepped streets ran up the slopes and were flanked by built houses, only one of which was ever extensively excavated. This proved to be a fine house of ashlar, with six or seven downstairs rooms and traces of stairs leading to an upper floor. The whole building had a tiled roof, and was occupied from the 3d c. until the mid 2d B.C. The saddle between the two hills is thought to have been the site of the agora, and from it were recovered several architectural fragments, including part of a Doric frieze and a fragment from an Ionic capital. A paved road led from this area up toward the summit of the lower hill.
  The third hill, beyond the city walls to the S, was found to have first been used as a sanctuary in the Geometric period. To it belonged a thick deposit of soil containing many votive terracottas and miniature bronze pieces of armor. At the close of the 5th c. the whole hill summit was enclosed by a temenos wall, except where the hillside was particularly steep. An entrance in the SE corner of this wall led into an enclosure where there was an altar, a long building probably used as a repository for gifts, and probably a temple. No trace of the temple was found on the summit, but a leveled rectangular area of rock, 13 x 9 m, probably indicates its situation. From the fields immediately below the cliff traces of ashlar blocks and columns may well belong to this temple, presumably completely destroyed in the mid 2d c. B.C.
  The city was supplied with water from a source more than 3 km to the S, where a small temple stood above the spring. Cemeteries were situated on the E, S, and probably W of the city, while some 400 m NW of the lower hill quarries used during the building of the city are still visible.

K. Branigan, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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