KALYDON (Ancient city) IERA POLIS MESSOLONGIOU
Kaludon: Eth. Kaludonios, Calydonius: Kurt-aga. The most celebrated city of Aetolia, in the heroic age, was founded by Aetolus in the land of the Curetes, and was called Calydon, after the name of his son. Calydon and the neighbouring town of Pleuron are said by Strabo to have been once the ornament (proschema) of Greece, but to have sunk in his time into insignificance. Calydon was situated in a fertile plain near the Evenus, and at the distance of 7 1/2 (Roman) miles from the sea, according to Pliny It is frequently mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of petreessa and aipeine, from which we might conclude that the city was situated on a, rocky height; but Strabo says that these epithets were to be applied to the district and not to the city itself. Homer also celebrates the fertility of the plain of the lovely (eranne) Calydon. In the earliest times the inhabitants of Calydon appear to have been engaged in incessant hostilities with the Curetes, who continued to reside in their ancient capital Pleuron, and who endeavoured to expel the invaders from their country. A vivid account of one of the battles between the Curetes and Calydonians is given in ran episode of the Iliad (ix. 529, seq.). The heroes of Calydon are among the most celebrated of the heroic age. It was the residence of Oeneus, father of Tydeus and Meleager, and grandfather of Diomedes. In the time of Oeneus Artemis sent a monstrous boar to lay waste the fields of Calydon, which was hunted by Meleager and numerous other heroes. The Calydonians took part in the Trojan war under their king Thoas, the son (not the grandson) of Oeneus. (Hom. Il. ii. 638.)
Calydon is not often mentioned in the historical period. In B.C. 391 we find it in the possession of the Achaeans, but we are not told how it came into their hands; we know, however; that Naupactus was given to the Achaeans at the close of the Peloponnesian war, and it was probably the Achaeans settled at Naupactus who gained possession of the town. In the above-mentioned year the Achaeans at Calydon, were so hard pressed by the Acarnanians that they applied to the Lacedaemonians for help; and Agesilaus in consequence was sent with an army into Aetolia. Calydon remained in the hands of the Achaeans till the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the battle of Leuctra (B.C. 371), when Eparninondas restored, the town to the Aetolians. In the civil war between Caesar. and Pompey (B.C. 48) it still appears as a considerable place; but a few years afterwards its inhabitants were removed by Augustus to Nicopolis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium (B.C. 31). It continues however to be mentioned by the later geographers.
Calydon was the head-quarters of the worship of Artemis Laphria, and when, the inhabitants of the town were removed to Nicopolis, Augustus gave to Patrae in Achaia the statue of this goddess which had belonged to Calydon. (Paus. iv. 31. § 7, vii. 18. § 8.) There was also a statue of Dionysus at Patrae which had been removed from Calydon. (Paus. vii. 21.) Near Calydon there was a temple of Apollo Laphrius (Strabo); and in the neighbourhood of the city there was also a lake celebrated for its fish.
In the Roman poets we find Calydonis, a woman of Calydon, i. e. Deianira, daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon (Ov. Met. ix. 112); Calydonius hers, i. e Meleager; Calydonius amnis, i. e. the Achelous, separating Acarnania and Aetolia, because Calydon was the chief town of Aetolia; Calydonia regna, i. e. Apulia, because Diomedes, the son of Tydeus, and, grandson of Oeneus, king of. Calydon, afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom.
There has been some dispute respecting the site of Calydon. The Peutingerian Table places it east of the Evenus, and 9 miles from this river; but this is clearly a mistake. It is evident from Strabo's account, and from all the legends relating to Calydon, that both this city and Pleuron lay on the western side of the Evenus, between this river and the Achelous. Leake supposes the ruins which he discovered at Kurt-aga, a little to the E. of the Evenus, to be those of Calydon. They are distant a ride of 1 hour and 35 minutes from Mesolonghi, and are situated on one of the last slopes of Mt. Aracynthus at the entrance of the vale of the Evenus, where that river issues from the interior valleys into the maritime plain. They do not stand on any commanding height, as the Homeric epithets above mentioned would lead us to suppose, and it is perhaps for this reason that Strabo, supposes these epithets to apply to the surrounding country. Thee remains of the walls are traceable in their whole circuit of near two miles and a half; and outside the walls Leake discovered some ruins, which may have been the peribolus of the temple of, Artemis Laphria.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
A city of Aetolia, below the river Evenus, and between that stream and the sea. It was famed in Grecian story on account of the boar-hunt in its neighbourhood, the theme of poetry from Homer to Statius. We are told by mythologists that Oeneus, the father of Meleager and Tydeus, reigned at Calydon, while his brother Agrius settled in Pleuron. Frequent wars, however, arose between them on the subject of contiguous lands. Some time after the Peloponnesian War, we find Calydon in the possession of the Achaeans. It is probable that the Calydonians themselves invited over the Achaeans, to defend them against the Acarnanians. Their city was, in consequence, occupied by an Achaean garrison, until Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra, compelled them to evacuate the place. It was still a town of importance during the Social War, and as late as the time of Caesar. Augustus accomplished its downfall by removing the inhabitants to Nicopolis.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
City of Aetolia
on the northern coast of the western part of the gulf
In mythology, Calydon was founded by a king by that name, one of the sons of Aetolus and of Pronoe, the daughter of Phorbas. Calydon had only daughters, one of which, Epicaste, married Agenor, the son of her uncle Pleuron. Thus, Agenor became king of Pleuron and Calydon, as was his son Porthaon after him. In the next generation, Pleuron became the kingdom of Thestius, the son of Ares and of Porthaon's sister Demonice, while Calydon remained the kingdom of Oeneus, Porthaon's son.
Oeneus first married Althaea, the daughter of Thestius, and they had two children, Meleagrus and Deiareina. Once grown up, Meleagrus took the lead in an episode called the hunt of Calydon, which tells the story of the hunt of a monstrous boar sent by Artemis in the country of Calydon after Oeneus had forgotten to name her in a thanksgiving ceremony at the end of the crops. To try and get rid of the beast, Meleagrus called upon heroes from all around Greece to come and help him in the hunt.
After Althaea had died, Oeneus married Periboea, daughter of Hipponous, with whom he had a son, Tydeus. When Tydeus reached adulthood, he killed his brother and had to leave his country. He eventually arrived at the court of Adrastus in Argos at the same time as Polynices, the exiled son of Oedipus deprived of his share of kingship by his brother. Adrastus greeted them both, purified Tydeus of his crime and gave one of his daughters in marriage to each, promissing to help them recapture their throne. This is why Tydeus got involved in the expedition of the seven against Thebes, where he died, and his son Diomedes, who was thus also a grandson of Adrastus by his mother Deipyle, became king of Argos and participated in the victorious expedition of the Epigones against Thebes.
Diomedes was also involved in a fight against the sons of Agrius, a brother of Oeneus, who had helped their father take over the throne of Calydon from an aging Oeneus unable to defend himself. Diomedes killed all but two of them who had fled in Peloponnese, and handed Oeneus' kingdom over to Andraemon, the husband of Oeneus' daughter Gorge.
Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.
Total results on 4/5/2001: 121 for Calydon, 32 for Kalydon, 4 for Calydona.
An ancient city in Aitolia near the N coast of the gulf of Patras,
at the entrance to the gulf of Corinth, on the S ridges of Mt. Arakynthos. It
is mentioned in the Iliad where it is the scene of the struggle between Herakles
and the river god Acheloos, and of the hunt for the Kalydonian boar.
The city lay on a hill with two summits and in the valley below. There are a few remains of the circuit walls dating from the beginning of the 3d c. B.C.; the perimeter was ca. 4 km and there were occasional towers. The acropolis, to the NW, was well fortified and had a double gate flanked by two towers; inside this was a large inner courtyard. The road to Stratos, the ancient capital of Akarnania, left the city through that gate. The W gate was also handsome and well fortified; it was on the axis of the Via Sacra, 400 m long, which led to Laphrion, the sacred precinct situated on a narrow plateau and probably dedicated in the 8th c. B.C. to the worship of Artemis and Apollo.
Various periods of construction in Laphrion are distinguishable. Two Doric temples in antis date from the end of the 7th c. B.C.; Temple A was dedicated to Apollo (or Dionysos?) and Temple B to Artemis. Remains of Temple B include terracotta decorations (sima, antefixes, akroteria, and metopes). Between the first decade and the second half of the 6th c. these two temples were refaced. To that period belongs a series of terracotta metopes from Temple A, painted with mythological figures whose Corinthian origin is confirmed by letters in the Corinthian alphabet incised before the metopes were fired. From Temple B in the same period come antefixes with anthemia, an akroteria with sphinxes, and metopes that depict the Labors of Herakles. About 500 B.C. Temple B was enclosed by a portico. Two other small buildings belong to the 6th c.; one of them, an apsidal structure, yielded numerous votive offerings to Artemis and Dionysos.
At the beginning of the 4th c. B.C. the entire zone was remodeled and buttressed by massive ramparts. A portico was built to the SE, with six columns along the front, and ca. 360 a peripteral Doric temple in poros, with 6 by 13 columns, arose on the site of the Temple of Artemis. It had a marble roof, gutters with spouts representing dogs' heads, and sculptured metopes (only a single undecipherable one remains). In the cella, which probably had 20 channeled Ionic columns, stood the chryselephantine statue of Artemis, the work of Menaechmos and Soidas of Naupaktos (460 B.C.) mentioned by Pausanias (7.18.10). This statue is believed to be represented on some coins of Patras. An altar, an exedra, and an entrance propylon are of the same date as the temple. In the Hellenistic period, N of the sacred precinct, a large square was built; it had a long stoa with two aisles, probably further divided into different lanes and decorated at the ends by two large semicircular niches (3d-2d c. B.C.). To the W of the square stairs led to the valley of the Kallirhoe river.
In the remaining area, limited to the N by the city gate and to the S by a slope, the remains of a series of small archaic thesauroi have yielded abundant terracotta objects and some Hellenistic tombs. The most important of these, in a valley to the SE, is the heroon, also called the Leonteion after its owner, Leon of Kalydon. It is a rectangular building (37.5 x 34.4 m) dating from ca. 100 B.C., with rooms on three sides, and promenades, around a square peristyle (16.78 m on a side). The largest room, to the N, has at least 11 large medallions on the walls, on which are carved the gods and heroes of the legendary history of Kalydon. An arch on the N side of the room leads to a small chamber below which is the hypogeum, with a barrel vault and marble sarcophagi in the form of beds. A second heroon has been discovered in the valley of the Kallirhoe.
The decline of Kalydon began in the Roman era during the struggle between Caesar and Pompey, when the city was occupied by Pompey's followers. In 30 B.C. the inhabitants of Kalydon were transferred to Nikopolis. The major terracotta finds, marvelous documents of archaic Corinthian painting, are in the National Museum at Athens. The stone gate of the crypt of the heroon is also there.
L. Vlad Borrelli, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
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