AKYFAS (Ancient city) PARNASSOS
Pindus (Pindos), one of the towns of the tetrapolis of Doris, situated upon a river of the same name, which flows into the Cephissus near Lilaea. It was also called Akuphas, as we learn from Strabo and from Theopompus (ap. Steph. B. s. v. Akuphas). In one passage Strabo says that Pindus lay above Erineus, and in another he places it in the district of Oetaea; it is, therefore, probable that the town stood in the upper part of the valley, near the sources of the river in the mountain. (Strab. ix. pp. 427, 434; Scymn. Ch. 591; Schol, ad Pind. Pyth. i. 121; Mel. ii. 3 ; Plin. iv. 7. s. 13; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 92.)
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
CHARADRA (Ancient city) PARNASSOS
Eth. Charadraios. A city of Phocis, and one of the Phocian towns destroyed by Xerxes, is described by Pausanias as situated 20 stadia from Lilaea, upon a lofty and precipitous rock. He further states that the inhabitants suffered from a scarcity of water, which they obtained from the torrent Charadrus, a tributary of the Cephissus, distant three stadia from the town. Dodwell and Gell place Charadra at Mariolates, at the foot of Parnassus, but Leake places it at Suvala, for two reasons:--1. Because the distance of 20 stadia is nearly that of Suvala from Paleokastro, the site of Lilaea, whereas Mariolates is more distant; and 2. The torrent at the latter does not join the Cephissus.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
KYTINION (Ancient city) FOKIDA
Cytinium (Kutinion; Kuteinion, Ptol.), one of the four towns of Doris, more frequently mentioned in history than the other towns of the Tetrapolis. This appears to have been owing to its situation, which rendered it a place of great military importance. Its site corresponds to Gravia, which stands exactly at the northern entrance of the pass leading from the valley of Doris to the plain of Amphissa, in the middle of the isthmus included between the Maliac and Crissaean gulfs. The defile is formed by the ravines of two torrents flowing in opposite directions; namely, that of Gravia, which joins the Apostolia, near the union of the latter with the Cephissus, and that of another stream which crosses the plain of Amphissa into the Crissaean bay. The position of the town, thus commanding this defile, illustrates the intended expedition of Demosthenes from Naupactus in B.C. 426. This commander proposed, if he had been successful over the Aetolians, to have marched through the Locri Ozolae, leaving Parnassus on the right, to Cytinium in Doris, and from thence to have descended into Phocis, whose inhabitants were to have joined him in invading Boeotia. (Thuc. iii. 95.) When Eurylochus, the Spartan, shortly after the failure of the expedition of Demosthenes, was about to march from Delphi against Naupactus, he deposited at Cytinium the hostages he had received from the Locrians. (Thuc. iii. 101, 102.) In B.C. 338, Cytinium was seized by Philip, from whence he marched upon Amphissa (Philochor. ap. Dionys. p. 742). (Comp. Scylax, p. 24; Strab. ix. p. 427, x. p. 476; Plin. iv. 7. s. 13; Steph. B. s. v. Kutina; Ptol. iii. 15. § 15; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 92, seq.)
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
VION (Ancient city) FOKIDA
Boium (Boion), a town of Doris, and one of the original towns of the Doric tetrapolis, the ruins of which are placed by Leake near Mariolates. (Thuc. i. 107; Scymn. Ch. 592; Strab. ix. p. 427; Scylax, p. 24; Conon, Narr. 27; Plin. iv. 7. s. 13 ; Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 741; Ptol. iii. 15. § 15 ; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 91, 94.)
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