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Afytos

AFYTOS (Village) HALKIDIKI
Pages of University of Macedonia. (Following URL information in Greek only)

Ancient Settlements of Nikiti

NIKITI (Small town) SITHONIA

Ancient Toroni

TORONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Pages of Macedonia University

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

Aphytis

AFYTIS (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
  Aphutis, also Aphute, Aphutos: Eth. Aphutaios, more early Aphutieus, Aphuteus, Aphutesios: A/thyto. A town on the eastern side of the peninsula Pallene, in Macedonia, a little below Potidaea. (Herod. vii. 123: Thuc. i. 64; Strab.) Xenophon (Hell. v. 3. § 19) says that it possessed a temple of Dionysius, to which the Spartan king Agesipolis desired to be removed before his death; but it was more celebrated for its temple of Ammon, whose head appears on its coins. (Plut. Lys. 20; Pans. iii. 18. § 3; Steph. B. s. v.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Antigoneia

ANTIGONIA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Antigonea, Eth. Antigoneus, Antigonensis. A town of Macedonia in the district Crusis in Chalcidice, placed by Livy between Aeneia and Pallene. (Liv. xliv. 10.) It is called by Ptolemy (iii. 13. § 38) Psaphara (Psaphara) probably in order to distinguish it from Antigoneia in Paeonia.

Apollonia

APOLLONIA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  (Eth. Apolloniates, Apolloniates, Apollinas,--atis, Apolloniensis.Polighero). The chief town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated N. of Olynthus, and a little S. of the Chalcidian mountains. That this Apollonia is a different place from No. 5, appears from Xenophon, who describes the Chalcidian Apollonia as distant 10 or 12 miles from Olynthus. (Xen. Hell. v. 12 § 1, seq.) It was probably this Apollonia Which struck the beautiful Chalcidian coins, bearing on the obverse the head of Apollo, and on the reverse his lyre, with the legend Chalkideon.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Galepsus

GALIPSOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Galephos (Herod. vii. 122). A town on the N. coast of the peninsula of Sithonia, which Colonel Leake takes to have been the same place afterwards called Physcella (Plin. iv. 10; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 1), a distinction which was required, as there was another Galepsus at no great distance.

Gigonis

GIGONOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Gigonis akra (Etym. Mag. s. v. Egonis, Ptol. iii. 13. § 23). A promontory on the coast of the Crossaea, in Macedonia, with a town Gigonus (Gigonos, Steph. B.), to which the Athenian force, which had been employed against Perdiccas, marched in three days from Beraea. (Thuc. i. 61.) It appears, from the order of the names in Herodotus (vii. 123), that it was to the S. of Cape Aeneium, the great Karaburnu; hence its situation was nearly that of Cape Apanomi.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Lecythus

LIKYTHOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Lekuthos. A town in the peninsula of Sithonia in Chalcidice, not far from Torone, with a temple to Athena. The town was attacked by Brasidas, who took it by storm, and consecrated the entire cape to the goddess. Everything was demolished except the temple and the buildings connected with it.

Lipaxus

LIPAXOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town of Crusis, or Crossaea, in Macedonia, mentioned only by Hecataeus (Steph. B. s. v.) and Herodotus (vii. 123).

Lisae

LISAE (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town of Crusis or Crossaea, in Macedonia, mentioned only by Herodotus (vii. 123).

Mende

MENDI (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
  or Mendae (Mendai, Menda, Mendis, Eth. Mendaios). A town of Pallene, situated on the SW. side the cape. It was a colony of Eretria in Euboea, which became subject to Athens with the other cities of Pallene and Chalcidice. On the arrival of Brasidas, Mende revolted from the Athenians (Thuc. iv. 123), but was afterwards retaken by Nicias and Nicostratus (Thuc. iv. 130; Diod. xii. 72). It appears, from the account which Livy gives of the expedition of Attalus and the Romans (B.C. 200), to have been a small maritime place under the dominion of Cassandria. Together with Scione, Mende occupied the broadest part of the peninsula (Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 11), and is probably represented by some Hellenic remains which have been observed on the shore near Kavo-Posidhi, to the E., as well as on the heights above it. The types on its autonomous coins - Silenus riding upon an ass, and a Diota in a square - refer to the famous Mendaean wine, of which the ancients make honourable mention. (Athen. i. pp. 23, 29, iv. p. 129, viii. p. 364, xi. p. 784; Hippocrat. vol. ii. p. 472, ed. Kuhn; Jul. Poll. Onomast. vi. segm. 15.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Mecyberna

MIKYVERNA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Mekuberna: Eth. Mekubernaios. A town which stood at the head of the Toronaic gulf, which was also called Sinus Mecybernaeus. (Plin. iv. 10; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 1.) Mecyberna was the port of Olynthus (Strab. vii. p. 330), and lay between that town and Sermyle. (Herod.vii. 122.) It was taken from the Athenians by the Chalcidic Thracians (Thuc. v. 39), and surrendered to Philip before the siege of Olynthus. (Diod. xvi. 54.) The site must be sought at Molivopyrgo, where some remains of antiquity are said to be preserved. (Leake, North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 155.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Neapolis

NEAPOLIS (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
A town on the isthmus of Pallene, on the E. coast, between Aphytis and Aege. (Herod. vii. 123.) In Leake's map it is represented by the modern Polykhrono.

Olynthus

OLYNTHOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Olunthos, Eth. Olunthios. A town which stood at the head of the Toronaic gulf, between the peninsulas of Pallene and Sithonia, and was surrounded by a fertile plain. Originally a Bottiaean town, at the time of the Persian invasion it had passed into the hands of the Chalcidic Greeks (Herod. vii. 122; Strab. x. p. 447), to whom, under Critobulus of Torone, it was handed over, by the Persian Artabazus, after taking the town, and slaying all the inhabitants (Herod. viii. 127). Afterwards Perdiccas prevailed on many of the Chalcidian settlers to abandon the small towns on the sea-coast, and make Olynthus, which was several stadia from the sea, their central position (Thuc. i. 58). After this period the Bottiaei seem to have been the humble dependents of the Chalcidians, with whom they are found joined on two occasions (Thuc. i. 65, ii. 79). The expedition of Brasidas secured the independence of the Olynthians, which was distinctly recognised by treaty (Thuc. v. 19.) The town, from its maritime situation, became a place of great importance, B.C. 392. Owing to the weakness of Amyntas, the Macedonian king, they were enabled to take into their alliance the smaller towns of maritime Macedonia, and gradually advanced so far as to include the larger cities in this region, including even Pella. The military force of the Olynthian confederacy had now become so powerful from the just and generous principles upon which it was framed, including full liberty of inter-marriage, of commercial dealings, and landed proprietorship, that Acanthus and Apollonia, jealous of Olynthian supremacy, and menaced in their independence, applied to Sparta, then in the height of its power, B.C. 383, to solicit intervention. The Spartan Eudamidas was at once sent against Olynthus, with such force as could be got ready, to check the new power. Teleutias, the brother of Agesilaus, was after-wards sent there with a force of 10,000 men, which the Spartan assembly had previously voted, and was joined by Derdas, prince of Elimeia, with 400 Macedonian horse. But the conquest of Olynthus was no easy enterprise its cavalry was excellent, and enabled them to keep the Spartan infantry at bay. Teleutias, at first successful, becoming over confident, sustained a terrible defeat under the walls of the city. But the Spartans, not disheartened, thought only of repairing their dishonour by fresh exertions. Agesipolis, their king, was placed in command, and ordered to prosecute the war with vigour; the young prince died of a fever, and was succeeded by Polybiades as general, who put an end to the war, B.C. 379. The Olynthians were reduced to such straits, that they were obliged to sue for peace, and, breaking up their own federation, enrolled themselves as sworn members of the Lacedaemonian confederacy under obligations of fealty to Sparta (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 12, 3. § 18; Diodor. xv. 21 - 23; Dem. de Fals. Leg. c. 75. p. 425). The subjugation of Olynthus was disastrous to Greece, by removing the strongest bulwark against Macedonian aggrandisement. Sparta was the first to crush the bright promise of the confederacy; but it was reserved for Athens to deal it the most deadly blow, by the seizure of Pydna, Methone, and Potidaea, with the region about the Thermaic gulf, between B.C. 368 - 363, at the expense of Olynthus. The Olynthians, though humbled, were not subdued; alarmed at Philip's conquest of Amphipolis, B.C. 358, they sent to negotiate with Athens, where, through the intrigues of the Macedonians, they were repulsed. Irritated at their advances being rejected, they closed with Philip, and received at his hands the district of Anthemus, as well as the important Athenian possession of Potidaea. (Dem. Philipp. ii. p. 71. s. 22). Philip was too near and dangerous a neighbour; and, by a change of policy, Olynthus concluded a peace with Athens B.C. 352. After some time, during which there was a feeling of reciprocal mistrust between the Olynthians and Philip, war broke out in the middle of B.C. 350. Overtures for an alliance had been previously made by Athens, with which the Olynthians felt it prudent to close. On the first recognition of Olynthus as an ally, Demosthenes delivered the earliest of his memorable harangues; two other Olynthiac speeches followed. For a period of 80 years Olynthus had been the enemy of Athens, but the eloquence and statesman-like sagacity of Demosthenes induced the people to send succours to their ancient foes: and yet lie was not able to persuade them to assist Olynthus with sufficient vigour. Still the fate of the city was delayed; and the Olynthians, had they been on their guard against treachery within, might perhaps have saved themselves.. The detail of the capture is unknown, but the struggling. city fell, in. B.C. 347, into the hands of Philip, callidus emptor Olynthi (Juv. xiv. 47), through the treachery of Lasthenes and Euthycrates; its doom was that of one taken by storm (Dem. Philipp. iii. pp. 125 - 128, Fals. Leg. p. 426; Diod. xvi..53). All that survived--men, women, and. children--were sold as slaves; the town itself was destroyed. The fall of Olynthus completed the conquest of the Greek cities. from the Thessalian frontier as far as Thrace--in all 30 Chalcidic cities. Demosthenes (Philipp. iii. p. 117; comp. Strab. ii. p. 121; Justin. viii. 3), speaking of them about five years afterwards, says that they were so thoroughly destroyed, that it might be supposed that they had never been inhabited. The site of Olynthus at Aio Mamas is, however, known by its distance of 60 stadia front Potidaea, as well as by some vestiges of the city still existing, and by its lagoon, in which Artabazus slew the inhabitants. The name of this marsh was Bolyca (he Boluke limne, Hegisander, ap. Athen. p. 334). Two rivers, the Amitas and Olynthiacus (Olunthiakos), flowed into this lagoon from Apollonia (Athen. l. c.). Mecyberna was its harbour; and there was a spot near it, called Cantharolethron (Kantharolethron, Strab. vii. p. 330; Plut. de An. Tranq. 475. 45; Arist. Mirab. Ausc. 120; Plin. xi. 34), so called because black beetles could not live there. Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 73) speaks of only one extant coin of Olynthus--the type a head of Heracles, with the lion's skin; but Mr. Millingen has engraved one of those beautiful Chalcidian coins on which the legend OLUNTh surrounds the head of Apollo on the one side, and the word CHALCHIDEON, his lyre, on the reverse.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Pilorus

PILOROS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Piloros, (Herod. vii. 122; Steph. B.). Atown of Sithonia in Macedonia, upon the Singitic gulf, between Sane and Cape Ampelus, which probably occupied Vurvuri, or one of the harbours adjacent to it on the N.

Cassandreia

POTIDEA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Kassandreia, Kasandreia: Eth. Kassandreus: Pinaka. A town situated on the narrow isthmus which connects the peninsula of Pallene with the main land, on which formerly stood the rich and flourishing city of Potidaea. (Strab. vii. p. 330; Plin. iv. 10.)
  Potidaia: Eth. Potidaiates, Potidaieus. A Dorian city originally colonised from Corinth (Thuc. i. 56; Scymn. Ch. v. 628), though at what period is not known; it must have existed before the Persian wars. It surrendered to the Persians on their march into Greece. (Herod. vii. 123.) After the battle of Salamis it closed its gates against Artabazus, who at the head of a large detachment had escorted Xerxes to the Hellespont. On his return this general laid siege to the place of which he would probably have obtained possession through the treachery of one of its citizens, had not the plot been accidentally discovered. An attempt afterwards made against it by the Persians was unsuccessful, from a sudden influx of the sea, while the troops were crossing the bay to attack the town; a great part of the Persian force was destroyed, the remainder made a hasty retreat. (Herod. viii. 127.) There was a contingent of 300 men sent by Potidaea to the united Greek forces at Plataea. (Herod. ix. 28.) Afterwards Potidaea became one of the tributary allies of Athens, but still maintained a certain metropolitan allegiance to Corinth. Certain magistrates under the title of Epidemiurgi were sent there every year from Corinth. (Thuc. i. 56.) In B.C. 432 Potidaea revolted from Athens, and allied itself with Perdiccas and the Corinthians. After a severe action, in which the Athenians were finally victorious, the town was regularly blockaded; it did not capitulate till the end of the second year of the war, after going through such extreme suffering from famine that even some who died were eaten by the survivors. (Thuc. ii. 70.) A body of 1,000 colonists were sent from Athens to occupy Potidaea and the vacant territory. (Diod. xii. 46.) On the occupation of Amphipolis and other Thracian towns by Brasidas, that general attempted to seize upon the garrison of Potidaea, but the attack failed. (Thuc. iv. 135.) In 382, Potidaea was in the occupation of the Olynthians. (Xen. Hell. vii. § 16.) In 364, it was taken by Timotheus the Athenian general. (Diod. xv. 81; comp. Isocr. de Antid. p. 119.) Philip of Macedon seized upon it and gave it up to the Olynthians. (Diod. xvi. 8.) The Greek population was extirpated or sold by him. Cassander founded a new city on the site of Potidaea, and assembled on this spot not only many strangers but also Greeks of the neighbourhood, especially the Olynthians, who were still surviving the destruction of their city. He called it after his own name Cassandreia. (Diod. xix. 52; Liv.xliv. 11.) Cassandreia is the natural port of the fertile peninsula of Pallene (Kassandhra), and soon became great and powerful, surpassing all the Macedonian cities in opulence and splendour. (Diod. l. c.) Arsinoe, widow of Lysimachus, retired to this place with her two sons. (Polyaen. viii. 57.) Ptolemy Ceraunus, her half-brother, succeeded by treachery in wresting the place from her. Like Alexandreia and Antioch, it enjoyed Greek municipal institutions, and was a republic under the Macedonian dominion, though Cassander's will was its law as long as he lived. (Niebuhr, Lectures on Ancient History, vol. iii. pp. 231, 253.) About B.C. 279 it came under the dominion of Apollodorus, one of the most detestable tyrants that ever lived. (Diod. Exc. p. 563.) Philip, the son of Demetrius, made use of Cassandreia as his principal naval arsenal, and at one time caused 100 galleys to be constructed in the docks of that port. (Liv. xxviii. 8.)
  In the war with Perseus his son (B.C. 169), the Roman fleet in conjunction with Eumenes, king of Pergamus, undertook the siege of Cassandreia, but they were compelled to retire (Liv. xliv. 11, 12.) Under Augustus a Roman colony settled at Cassandreia. (Marquardt, in Becker's Handbuch der Rom. Alt. vol. iii. pt. i. p. 118; Eckhel, D. N. vol. ii. p. 70.) This city at length fell before the barbarian Huns, who left hardly any traces of it. (Procop. B.P. ii. 4, de Aedif. iv. 3; comp. Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 152.)
  For coins of Cassandreia, both autonomous and imperial, see Eckhel. The type constantly found is the head of Ammon, in whose worship they seem to have joined with the neighbouring people of Aphytis.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sane

SANI (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
  Eth. Sanios, Senaios, Sanaios. A colony of Andros, situated upon the low, undulating ground, forming the isthmus which connects the peninsula of Acte with Chalcidice, through which the canal of Xerxes passed. Masses of stone and mortar, with here and there a large and squared block, and foundations of Hellenic walls, which are found upon this Provlaka or neck of land, mark the site of ancient Sane, which was within Acte and turned towards the sea of Euboea.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sermyle

SERMYLI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Eth. Sermulioi. A town of Chalcidice, between Galepsus and Mecyberna, which gave its name to the Toronaic gulf, which was also called Sermilicus Sinus (kolpos Sermulikos, Scyl.). The modern Ormylia, between Molyvo and Derna, is identified from its name, which differs little from the ancient form, with the site of Sermyle.

Singus

SINGOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Eth. Singaioi. A town of Sithonia in Macedonia, upon the gulf to which it gave its name, Singiticus Sinus (Singitikos kolpos, Ptol. l. c.: Gulf of Aghion Oros), identified with Sykia, probably a corrupted form of the old name.

Sithonia

SITHONIA (Ancient area) HALKIDIKI
Sithonia (Sithonie, Herod. vii. 123; Steph. B.; Virg. Bucol. x. 66; Hor. Carm. i. 18. 9: Longos), the central of the three prongs which run out into the Aegean from the great peninsula of Chalcidice, forming a prolongation to the peak called Solomon or Kholomon. The Sithonian peninsula, which, though not so hilly as that of Acte, is not so inviting as Pallene, was the first, it appears, to be occupied by the Chalcidic colonists.

Scione

SKIONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Skione, Eth. Skionaios, Skioneus. The chief town on the isthmus of Pallene in Macedonia. Although it called itself Achaean, like many other colonial towns, in default of any acknowledged mother-city, it traced its origin to warriors returning from Troy. Under concert with Brasidas the Scionaeans proclaimed their revolt from Athens, two days after the truce was sworn, March, B.C. 421. Brasidas, by a speech which appealed to Grecian feeling, wound up the citizens to the highest pitch of enthusiasm. The Athenians, furious at the refusal of the Lacedaemonians to give up this prize, which they had gained after the truce, passed a resolution, under the instigation of Cleon to kill all the grown-up male inhabitants of the place, and strictly besieged the town, which Brasidas was unable to relieve, though he had previously conveyed away the women and children to a place of safety. After a long blockade Scione surrendered to the Athenians, who put all the men of military age to death, and sold the women and children to slavery. The site of this ill-fated city must be sought for between the capes Paliuri and Posidhi.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Spartolus

SPARTOLOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town of the Chalcidic peninsula, at no great distance from Olynthus, under the walls of which the Athenian forces were routed, B.C. 249. It belonged to the Bottiaeans, and was perhaps their capital, and was of sufficient importance to be mentioned in the treaty between Sparta and Athens in the tenth year of the Peloponnesian War.

Therambos

THERAMVO (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Thrambus (Therambos, Thrambos, Thrambeis, Thrambousia deiras). A town of the peninsula Pallene, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, is called a promontory by Stephanus B., and is hence supposed by Leake (Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 156) to have occupied a position very near the promontory Canastraeum, the most southerly point of Pallene; but from the order of the names in Scylax we would rather place it at the promontory upon the western side of the peninsula, called Posidium by Thucydides (iv. 129).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Torone

TORONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  Eth. Toronaios. A town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated upon the SW. coast of the peninsula of Sithonia. It was said to have derived its name from Torone, a daughter of Proeteus or Poseidon and Phoenice. (Steph. B. s. v. Torone.) It was a Greek colony, founded by the Chalcidians of Euboea, and appears to have been originally the chief settlement of the Chalcidians in these parts. Hence the gulf lying between the peninsulas of Sithonia and Torone was generally called the Toronaean, now the Gulf of Kassaindhra. (Toronaikos kolpos, Steph. B. s. v. Torone; Ptol. iii. 13. § 13; Toronikos kolpos, Strab. vii. p. 330; Scyimn. Ch. 640; Toronaicum mare, Liv. xliv. 11; Toronaeus sinus, Tac. Ann. v. 10.) Like the other Greek cities in these parts, Torone furnished ships and men to the army of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. (Herod. vii. 122.) After the Persian War Torone came under the dominion of Athens. In B.C. 424 a party in the town opened the gates to Brasidas, but it was retaken by Cleon two years afterwards. (Thuc. iv. 110, seq., v. 2.) At a later time it seems to have been subject to Olynthus, since it was recovered by the Athenian general Timotheus. (Diodor. xv. 81.) It was annexed by Philip, along with the other Chalcidian cities, to the Macedonian empire. (Diodor. xvi. 53.) In the war against Perseus, B.C. 169, it was attacked by a Roman fleet, but without success. (Liv. xliv. 12.) Theophrastus related that the Egyptian bean grew in a marsh near Torone (ap. Athen. iii. p. 72, d.); and Archestratus mentions a particular kind of fish, for which Torone was celebrated (ap. Athen. vii. p. 310, c.). The harbour of Torone was called Cophos (Kophos), or deaf, because being separated from the sea by two narrow passages, the noise of the waves was never heard there: hence the proverb kophoteros tou Toronaiou limenos. (Strab. vii. p. 330; Mela, ii. 3; Zenob. Prov. Graec. cent. iv. pr. 68.) This port is apparently the same as the one called by Thucydides (v. 2) the harbour of the Colophonians, which he describes as only a little way from the city of the Toronaeans. Leake conjectures that we ought perhaps to read Kophon instead of Kolophonion. It is still called Kufo, and Torone likewise retains its ancient name. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 119, 155, 455.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

Aphytis

AFYTIS (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
A town in Macedonia containing a celebrated temple and oratory of Zeus Ammon.

Galepsus

GALIPSOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town in Macedonia, on the Toronaic Gulf.

Gigonus

GIGONOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
(Gigonos). A town and promontory of Macedonia on the Thermaic Gulf.

Mendae, Mende

MENDI (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
Mendae. A town on the west coast of the Macedonian peninsula Pallene and on the Thermaic Gulf, a colony of the Eretrians, and celebrated for its wine

Mecyberna

MIKYVERNA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
(Mekuberna). A town of Macedonia in Chalcidice, at the head of the Toronaic Gulf, east of Olynthus, of which it was the sea-port.

Olynthus

OLYNTHOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
   (Olunthos). A town of Chalcidice, at the head of the Toronaic Gulf, and the most important of the Greek cities on the coast of Macedonia. It was at the head of a confederacy of all the Greek towns in its neighbourhood, and maintained its independence, except for a short interval, when it was subject to Sparta (379-375), till it was taken and destroyed by Philip, B.C. 347. The Olynthiac orations of Demosthenes were delivered by the orator to urge the Athenians to send assistance to the city when it was attacked by Philip. When the supremacy of Sparta was destroyed by the Thebans, Olynthus recovered its independence, and even received an accession of power from Philip, who was anxious to make Olynthus a counterpoise to the influence of Athens in the north of the Aegean. With this view Philip gave Olynthus the territory of Potidaea, after he had wrested this town from the Athenians in 356. But when he had sufficiently consolidated his power to be able to set at defiance both Olynthus and Athens, he threw off the mask, and laid siege to the former city. The Olynthians earnestly besought Athens for assistance, and were warmly supported by Demosthenes in his Olynthiac orations; but as the Athenians did not render the city any effectual assistance, it was taken and destroyed by Philip, and all its inhabitants sold as slaves (347). Olynthus was never restored. Olynthus used the town of Mecyberna as its port.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Potidaea

POTIDEA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
(Potidaia). A town in Macedonia, on the narrow isthmus of the peninsula Pallene, was a colony of the Corinthians. It afterwards became tributary to Athens, and its revolt from the latter city, in B.C. 432, was one of the immediate causes of the Peloponnesian War. It was taken by the Athenians in 429, after a siege of more than two years, its inhabitants expelled, and their place supplied by Athenian colonists. In 356 it was taken by Philip, who destroyed the city and gave its territory to the Olynthians. Cassander built a new city on the same site, to which he gave the name of Cassandrea, and which soon became the most flourishing city in all Macedonia.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Sermyla, Sermule

SERMYLI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town in Macedonia on the peninsula Sithonia or its isthmus.

Singus, Singos

SINGOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI

Sithonia

SITHONIA (Ancient area) HALKIDIKI
   The central one of the three peninsulas running out from Chalcidice in Macedonia, between the Toronaic and Singitic gulfs. The Thracians were originally spread over the greater part of Macedonia; and the ancients derived the name of Sithonia from a Thracian king, Sithon. We also find mention of a Thracian people, Sithonii, on the shores of the Pontus Euxinus; and the poets frequently use Sithonis and Sithonius in the general sense of Thracicus.

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Scione, (Skione)

SKIONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
The chief town in the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene, on the western coast. It revolted from Athens in the Peloponnesian War, and being taken by Cleon, the male inhabitants were put to death and the women and children sold as slaves.

Torone

TORONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
A town of Macedonia, in the district of Chalcidice, and on the southwest side of the peninsula Sithonia, from which the gulf between the peninsulas Sithonia and Pallene was called Sinus Toronaicus.

Individuals' pages

Local government Web-Sites

Municipality of Kallikratia

KALIKRATIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Moudania

MOUDANIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Ormylia

ORMYLIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Pallini

PALINI (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Polygyros

POLYGYROS (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Toroni

TORONI (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Municipality of Triglia

TRIGLIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Local government WebPages

Glarocavos

GLAROKAVOS (Settlement) HALKIDIKI
Glarocavos is a small, beautiful and natural gulf which is situated south of Pefkohori and is a place where you can enjoy the blue sea.

KALAMITSI (Settlement) HALKIDIKI
Kalamitsi is a settlement on the shore of a beautiful bay which consists of many small beaches, now equipped with campaign sides, restaurants, rent rooms etc.

PIGADAKIA (Settlement) HALKIDIKI
Pigadaki is the name of the tiny settlement of eight inhabitants which surrounds the picturesque port of Sikia and now boasts several fish tavernas.

Porto Koufo

PORTO KOUFO (Port) HALKIDIKI
Photo Album in URL, information in Greek only.

TORONI (Village) HALKIDIKI
Toroni stretches northwards along the beach from the ancient Acropolis of Likythos Its 239 inhabitants mostly occupy themselves with the tourist trade running seafront rent rooms and fish tavernas.

Maps

KALIKRATIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

PALINI (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

TRIGLIA (Municipality) HALKIDIKI

Non-profit organizations WebPages

Perseus Project

Potidaea, Poteidaia, Potidaia, Cassandrea

POTIDEA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI

Perseus Project index

Aphytis

AFYTIS (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
Total results on 27/8/2001: 19

Sarte

SARTI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Total results on 28/8/2001: 7

Sermyle, Sermylia

SERMYLI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI

Remarkable selections

Household & City Organization at Olynthus

OLYNTHOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
Household and City Organization at Olynthus. Nicholas Cahill. Yale University Press. 2002.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

Torone

TORONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  A titular see in Macedonia, suffragan of Thessalonica.
  Torone was a colony of Chalcideans from Euboea, on the southwest coast of the peninsula Sithonia, the modern name of which is Longos; this is the middle peninsula of Chalcidice, lying between the Toronaic Gulf, called today Cassandra, and the Gulf of Singitticus (Mt. Athos). Built on a hill, in a fine situation, it had a harbour called Kophos (deaf), because the sound of the sea-waves could not be heard there, thus giving rise to the proverb: “Deafer than the port of Torone.”
  Torone had thirty small cities under its government; like the other Grecian cities of the region, it furnished Xerxes with men and ships. After the Persian War it passed under the rule of Athens. In 424 B.C., the Olynthian Lysistratus, opened its gates to Brasidas; it was shortly afterwards retaken by Cleon. After the peace of Nicias it was ceded to the Athenians; in 379 B.C. it was taken by Agesipolas; in 364-3, by the Athenian Timotheus; in 349-8, by Philip, who annexed it with the other cities of Chalcidice to his own kingdom. In 169 Torone repelled an attack made by the Roman fleet. Since then history is silent about this city, which Pliny calls a free city. Its ruins, in the vilayet of Salonica, still bear the ancient name, pronounced by the Greeks, Toroni.
  As an episcopal see, Torone does not appear in any of the “Notitia episcopatuum,” and we know of no bishop of the diocese.

S. Petrides, ed.
Transcribed by: John Fobian
This text is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Aphytis

AFYTIS (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
  Identified by Leake with Athytos near the modern village of Nea Phlogita on the E side of the Kassandra peninsula. Herodotos names it as one of the cities of Pallene (Phlegra) from which Xerxes' fleet took ships and men. A Sanctuary of Dionysos there is mentioned by Xenophon. Local coins bearing the head of Zeus Ammon were first issued in 424 B.C.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Mende

MENDI (Ancient city) KASSANDRA
  A city on the peninsula of Pallene located on the Thermaic Gulf near the modern village of Kalandra. According to Thucydides (4.123.1) it was founded by Eretria probably in the 8th c. It later founded colonies of its own: Neapolis on the E coast of Pallene (ATL I 354) and Eion (Thuc. 4.7). An important trading city, Mende's best known commodity was its wine which was famed (Athen. I 29,d,e) and sent out all over the Mediterranean. It is likely that Mende also dealt in grain and wood.
  Mende's wealth is indicated by the high amounts of tribute paid to the Delian Confederacy: 8 talents until 451-450 and then again after 438-437 with fluctuations in between of from 5 to 9 talents. In the Peloponnesian War Mende originally sided with Athens, then on the urging of the oligarchs went over to Brasidas (Thuc. 4.123), but eventually returned to Athens (Thuc. 4. 129ff). It is not mentioned in connection with the Peace of Nikias. From 415-414 Mende again appears in the Athenian Tribute Lists. By 404 the city was minting copper on the Phoenician standard.
  Little is known of the city in the 4th c. except that it engaged in a war with Olynthos (Arist., Oec. 2. 1350a. 11ff). The city was not destroyed by Philip II but lost its importance with the founding of Kassandreia nearby in 315. Livy (31.45.14) calls Mende a maritimus vicus of Kassandreia.
  Mendean amphoras, which carried its famed wine, have been found throughout the Mediterranean. Silver coinage began in Mende in the 6th c. on the Euboic standard and featured various Dionysiac symbols. Mende's most famous citizen was the renowned 5th c. sculptor Paionios if, as seems likely, the Mende in Thrace which Pausanias (5.10.8) gives as that artist's home is in fact the Chalkidean city.
  No systematic excavations have been carried out at the site nor are there any substantial remains preserved. The section of fortification wall seen in 1923 by B. D. Meritt is no longer to be found and the blocks have reportedly been carried off for reuse by villagers. The outline of the acropolis is unmistakable, however. There is a sheer drop on the S to the sea, a steep decline on the E, a ravine on the W, and a gentler but discernible slope off to the N. A few architectural blocks and quantities of pottery from archaic to Hellenistic date at the site are the chief indications of ancient habitation.

S. G. Miller, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Mekyberna

MIKYVERNA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  The port town of Olynthos. The mound lies close to the shore, controlling two coves with wide beaches separated by an artificial mole. Early archaic remains were found in houses destroyed by fire, perhaps by retreating Persians in 479 B.C. Although the later row-houses along the N-S oriented streets were simple in plan, without courts or paved floors, the finds in them were fully comparable to those from contemporary Olynthos. The town was occupied by Philip before 348 B.C., but was probably not abandoned until the inhabitants moved to Kassandreia, soon after that town was founded in 316 B.C.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Olynthos

OLYNTHOS (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  About 3 km inland from the Bay of Terone and some 64 km SE of Thessalonika. Part of the site was inhabited in the Late Neolithic period but not in the Bronze Age. Continuously from perhaps as early as 1000 B.C. there was a small Iron Age settlement consisting, at least in part, of Boiotians. In 479 it was captured and turned over by the Persians to Terone and the Chalkidians. It appears on the tribute lists of the Delian League from 454 on (paying 2 talents) but in 432, encouraged by Macedon, it revolted and received a large accession of population from other revolting Chalkidic coastal cities. It was almost certainly at that time that the Chalkidic state (league) was formed and that a large new section of the city was laid out to accommodate the increased population. Olynthos weathered the Peloponnesian War successfully and about 389 B.C. made a treaty with Amyntas III of Macedon. Its growing prosperity and power led to an attack by Sparta and, after a lengthy siege, to its capitulation in 379 B.C. Though forced to become temporarily an ally of Sparta, its economy seems not to have suffered severely. At any rate Philip II, after his succession to the throne of Macedon in 360, seems to have found it expeditious to conclude a treaty (357) with the Chalkidians, a fragmentary copy of which was found close to the site. By his adroit political maneuvers Philip kept Olynthos and Athens from combining against him until 349 when open war broke out. Despite the Olynthiacs of Demosthenes, Athenian aid proved too little and too late; the city fell in 348 and was destroyed by the Macedonians. Coins indicate a slight continued habitation or rehabitation of a few poor houses at the extreme N end of the N Hill as late as ca. 316 B.C. when the few survivors were no doubt among those Olynthians settled by Kassander at Kassandreia on the site of Poteidaia (Diod. Sic. 19.52).
  Four expeditions between 1928 and 1938 uncovered a part of the S Hill (the site of the older town, with small irregular houses and slight remains of at least one public building), and about a quarter of the N Hill and slopes to the E (the site of the new housing district and of a stoa-like public building). The district was laid out on a very regular Hippodamian plan. Blocks of 300 Ionic feet (300 x 29.5 cm) E-W x 120 feet N-S were divided into two rows of five houses, each house approximately 60 feet square. Normal streets were 17 feet wide but Avenue B, the main N-S street, was 24 feet--the extra 7 feet being deducted from the length of the A blocks. The hundred-odd house plans recovered, including five complete blocks (50 houses) provide the best evidence available for the form of the Hellenic house (430-348 B.C.). Each block was evidently built as a unit with continuous rubble foundation walls, and the individual houses, though no two are exactly alike, conform to a general pattern with court on the S and portico on at least the N side off which most of the principal rooms open; this S orientation, for shelter in winter, agrees with the prescriptions for domestic architecture given by Xenophon and Aristotle.
  A typical house (A vii 4) has a porch (prothyron) opening from the street on the S into the SW corner of a cobble-paved court (aule) in the middle of the S side of the house (but the entrance is never axial). To the W of the court is a large storeroom or, possibly, shop; to the E is a cement-floored dining room (andron) with its anteroom; to the N is the broad portico (pastas--first identified at Olynthos) with a small storeroom at its E end. Off the N side of the pastas opens a series of rooms including a kitchen (ipnon), with flue (kapnodoke) and a cement-floored bathroom (balaneion) with built-in clay tub. A second story (with bedrooms?) was reached by wooden stairs from the court. The walls were of adobe brick on rubble foundations; the roof was sloping and tiled. The finest house discovered, the Villa of Good Fortune, measures about 85 x 55 feet; in addition to the pastas there were narrower and shorter porticos on the other three sides; pebble mosaic floors adorned four of the rooms, those in the andron and its anteroom having both patterns and mythological scenes (Dionysos in chariot; Thetis bringing armor to Achilles); the others bear inscriptions (Agathe tuche, Eutuchia kale, Aphrodite kale).
  The Olynthos mosaics, occurring principally in the andron, occasionally in the court or the pastas, constitute the most extensive and finest group of Greek pebble mosaics known in the period of the late 5th and early 4th c. B.C. Some sixteen inscriptions found in the houses give information regarding the sale, mortgage, or rental of houses, and mention values from 230 to 5300 drachmas.
  Public buildings so far discovered are few and unimportant: on the S Hill a fountain house and some remains of a larger structure; on the N Hill, at the E end of Block A iv, another fountain house, a building with a central row of Doric columns, and traces of what was apparently a stoa facing S on a large open space probably reserved for an agora to be enclosed eventually by other public buildings. A city wall of adobe brick on rubble foundations was traced along part of the W and N sides of the N Hill (at the rear of the houses). Two fairly extensive cemeteries with both inhumation (ca. 90 percent) and cremation burials were excavated, and a plundered stone chamber tomb was cleared on a hill to the W of the site.
  Most of the finds (large amounts of pottery, figurines, loom weights, grain mills, and other household objects) are housed in the archaeological museum in Thessalonika. The large numbers of Chalkidic silver tetradrachmas, tetrobols, and other coins (many found in hoards concealed in the houses) are in the Numismatic Museum in Athens.

J. W. Graham, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 5 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Poteidaia

POTIDEA (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  On the isthmus of the Pallene peninsula, the modern Kassandra. Though founded by Corinth ca. 600 B.C., an earlier settlement on the site cannot be discounted. The city experienced a high degree of development and played a prominent role in the major events of Classical Greece until it was captured by Philip II in 356 B.C. and was handed over to the Olynthians.
  With the destruction of Olynthos by Philip in 348 B.C., Poteidaia came under the direct dominion of Macedonia. In 316 B.C., Kassander founded on the same site a new city and named it Kassandreia. He included in his city additional land and provided for the settlement of Poteidaians, Olynthian survivors, and others from neighboring towns. Kassandreia soon became one of the most prosperous and powerful cities in Macedonia during the Hellenistic period and continued to play an important role during Roman times, especially after it received Roman colonists, the privilege of jus Italicum, and the right to coin money. In A.D. 269, it repulsed an attack of the Goths and, finally, was destroyed by the Huns and Slavs in A.D. 539-40. It seems to have accepted Christianity at an early period and served as the see of a bishop.
  In spite of the prominence of the two cities and the length of their historical existence, the literary evidence that has survived is scanty and disconnected. The most important references for Poteidaia are to be found in Herodotos, Thucydides, Xenophon, and Demosthenes, while for Kassandreia there are references in Diodoros, Polybios, Livy, Pliny the Elder, and Procopius. Other writers add but little to our knowledge of either city. The archaeological record of the site, however, though limited thus far mainly to chance finds and a mass of material (mostly architectural) unearthed during the cutting of the canal through the isthmus in 1935-37, is impressive enough in its content and variety.
  Archaeologically, Poteidaia is best represented by a good number of silver and bronze coins, the foundations of a treasury at Delphi, several bronzes in the British Museum, and a few terracottas (including a 4th c. life-size female protome of clay), and a 4th c. Apollo relief. As for Kassandreia, the discovery of the ruins of a temple attributed to Poseidon deserves special mention. Other important finds include inscriptions, coins of the Roman period, and several sculptural fragments. Two Latin inscriptions provide information regarding Roman magistracies in the city and the presence of two Roman tribes, the Papiria and the Romilia. A bilingual inscription commemorating the construction of a gymnasium is also worth mentioning.
  The finds from the site, which are now at the elementary school at Nea Poteidaia and at the Thessalonika Museum, are to be transferred to the recently erected museum at Polygyros, the capital of Chalkidike.
  Valuable contributions to our knowledge of the two cities have been made by discoveries in other sites of the mainland and the islands where the Kassandreians, especially, are recorded as participants in some form of activity or as recipients of honors, such as proxeny and theorodicy.

J. A. Alexander, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Skioni

SKIONI (Ancient city) HALKIDIKI
  A city near the end of the Pallene peninsula E of Mende. The importance of the town, which figured in the Peloponnesian War, is indicated by the high assessment assigned to it in the Athenian tribute lists. The mound of ruins marking the site lies between Cape Paliuri and Cape Kassandra.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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