EL
Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 70 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "SERRES Prefecture GREECE" .


Information about the place (70)

Boundaries

The Kerkini lake constitutes part of the Strymon river, which flows through the lake to the NE and comes out of it to the SE, turning the artificial lake into a dam for the irrigatiion of the Serres plain.


Commercial WebPages

ACHINOS (Municipality) SERRES

EMMANOUIL PAPPAS (Municipality) SERRES

LEFKONAS (Municipality) SERRES

NEA ZICHNI (Municipality) SERRES

PALEOKOMI (Small town) SERRES

RODOLIVOS (Municipality) SERRES

SERRES (Municipality) MAKEDONIA CENTRAL

STRYMONIKO (Municipality) SERRES

Commercial WebSites

SERRES (Prefecture) GREECE

Educational institutions WebPages

(Following URL information in Greek only)


VISSALTIA (Ancient area) SERRES

Visaltia


(Following URL information in Greek only)


General

MENIKIO (Mountain) SERRES

Menikion Mountain

Menikion Mountain is a place with low mossy sprouting, full of unexplored caves, stony cattle-breeders' huts, and technical works for gathering rain water.


Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

AMFIPOLIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Amphipolis

  Eth. Amphipolites, Amphipolites: Adj. Amphipolitanus (Just. xiv. sub fin.). A town in Macedonia, situated upon an eminence on the left or eastern bank of the Strymon, just below its egress from the lake Cercinitis, at the distance of 25 stadia, or about three miles from the sea. (Thuc. iv. 102.) The Strymon flowed almost round the town, whence its name Amphi-polis. Its position is one of the most important in this part of Greece. It stands in a pass, which traverses the mountains bordering the Strymonic gulf; and it commands the only easy communication from the coast of that gulf into the great Macedonian plains. In its vicinity were the gold and silver mines: of Mount Pangaeus, and large forests of ship-timber. It was originally called Ennea Hodoi, or Nine-Ways (Ennea hodol), from the many roads which met at this place; and it belonged to the Edonians, a Thracian people. Aristagoras of Miletus first attempted to colonize it, but was cut off with his followers by the Edonians, B.C. 497. (Thuc. l. c.; Herod. v. 126.) The next attempt was made by the Athenians, with a body of 10,000 colonists, consisting of Athenian citizens and allies; but they met with the same fate as Aristagoras, and were all destroyed by the Thracians at Drabescus, B.C. 465. (Thuc. i. 100, iv. 102; Herod. ix. 75.) So valuable, however, was the site, that the Athenians sent out another colony in B.C. 437 under Agnon, the son of Nicias, who drove the Thracians out of Nine-Ways, and founded the city, to which he gave the name of Amphipolis. On three sides the city was defended by the Strymon; on the other side Agnon built a wall across, extending from one part of the river to the other. South of the town was a bridge, which formed the great means of communication between Macedonia and Thrace. The following plan will illustrate the preceding account. (Thuc. iv. 102.)
  Amphipolis soon became an important city, and was regarded by the Athenians as the jewel of their empire. In B.C. 424 it surrendered to the Lacedaemonian general Brasidas, without offering any resistance. The historian Thucydides, who commanded the Athenian fleet off the coast, arrived in time from the island of Thasos to save Eion, the port of Amphipolis, at the mouth of the Strymon, but too late to prevent Amphipolis itself from falling into the hands of Brasidas. (Thuc. iv. 103-107.) The loss of Amphipolis caused both indignation and alarm at Athens, and led to the banishment of Thucydides. In B.C. 422 the Athenians sent a large force, under the command of Cleon, to attempt the recovery of the city. This expedition completely failed; the Athenians were defeated with considerable loss, but Brasidas as well as Cleon fell in the battle. The operations of the two commanders are detailed at length by Thucydides, and his account is illustrated by the masterly narrative of Grote. (Thuc. v. 6-11; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. vi. p. 634, seq.)
  From this time Amphipolis continued independent of Athens. According to the treaty made between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians in B.C. 421, it was to have been restored to Athens; but its inhabitants refused to surrender to their former masters, and the Lacedaemonians were unable to compel them to do so, even if they had been so inclined. Amphipolis afterwards became closely allied with Olynthus, and with the assistance of the latter was able to defeat the attempts of the Athenians under Timotheus to reduce the place in B.C. 360. Philip, upon his accession (359) declared Amphipolis a free city; but in the following year (358) he took the place by assault, and annexed it permanently to his dominions. It continued to belong to the Mace donians, till the conquest of their country by the Romans in B.C. 168. The Romans made it a free city, and the capital of the first of the four districts, into which they divided Macedonia. (Dem. in Aristocr. p. 669; Diod. xvi. 3. 8; Liv. xlv. 29; Plin. iv. 10.)
  The deity chiefly worshipped at Amphipolis appears to have been Artemis Tauropolos or Brauronia (Diod. xviii. 4; Liv. xliv. 44), whose head frequently appears on the coins of the city, and the ruins of whose temple in the first century of the Christian era are mentioned in an epigram of Antipater of Thessalonica. (Anth. Pal. vol. i. no. 705.) The most celebrated of the natives of Amphipolis was the grammarian Zoilus.
  Amphipolis was situated on the Via Egnatia. It has been usually stated, on the authority of an anonymous Greek geographer, that it was called Chrysopolis under the Byzantine empire; but Tafel has clearly shown, in the works cited below, that this is a mistake, and that Chrysopolis and Amphipolis were two different places. Tafel has also pointed out that in the middle ages Amphipolis was called Popolia. Its site is now occupied by a village called Neokhorio, in Turkish Jeni-Keui, or New-Town. There are still a few remains of the ancient town; and both Leake and Cousinery found among them a curious Greek inscription, written in the Ionic dialect, containing a sentence of banishment against two of their citizens, Philo and Stratocles. The latter is the name of one of the two envoys sent from Amphipolis to Athens to request the assistance of the latter against Philip, and he is therefore probably the same person as the Stratocles mentioned in the inscription.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


ARGILOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Argilus

  Argilus (Argilos: Eth. Argilios), a city of Macedonia in the district Bisaltia, between Amphipolis and Bromiscus. It was founded by a colony from Andros. (Thuc. iv. 103.) It appears from Herodotus (vii. 115) to have been a little to the right of the route of the army of Xerxes, and must therefore have been situated a little inland. Its territory must have been extended as far as the right bank of the Strymon, since Cerdylium, the mountain immediately opposite Amphipolis, belonged to Argilus. (Thuc. v. 6.) The Argilians readily joined Brasidas in B.C. 424, on account of their jealousy of the important city of Amphipolis, which the Athenians had founded in their neighbourhood. (Thuc. iv. 103; comp. Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. , p. 171.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DRAVISKOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Drabescus

  Drabeskos (Strab. vii. p. 331; Steph. B.). A place where the Athenian colonists of Amphipolis were defeated by the Thracian Edoni. In the Peutinger Table (Daravescus) it is marked 12 M. P. to the NW. of Philippi, a situation which corresponds with the plain of Dhrama. The plain. of Drabescus is concealed from Amphipolis by the meeting of the lower heights of Pangaeum with those which enclose the plain to the NE. Through this: strait the ‘Anghista makes its way to the lake; and thus there is a marked separation between the Strymonic plain and that which contains Drabescus and Philippi.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FAGRIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Phagres

  A fortress in the Pieric hollow, and the first place after the passage of the Strymon. It is identified with the post station of Orfana, on the great road from Greece to Constantinople, where Greek coins have been often found, and, among other small productions of Hellenic art, oval sling bullets of lead, or the glandes of which Lucan (vii. 512) speaks in his description of the battle of Pharsalia. These are generally inscribed with Greek names in characters of the best times, or with some emblem, such as a thunderbolt.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


GALIPSOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Galepsus

  A colony of Thasos, on the coast of Thrace, which was taken by Brasidas after the capture of Amphipolis (Thuc. iv. 107), and retaken by Cleon in the ensuing year. (Thuc. v. 6.) Livy (xliv. 45) relates that Perseus, when flying from the Romans, after the defeat at Pydna, sailed from the mouth of the Strymon to Galepsus on the first day, and on the second to Samothrace, which renders it probable that it was one of the most remarkable harbours of the intervening coast, which data can only be reconciled at the harbour of Nefter, which is situated 2 hours to the S. of Pravista, just within the Cape forming the W. entrance of the Gulf of Kavala, where still remain the ruins of a Greek city, now known by the names of Paleopoli, or Nefteropoli, or Dhefteropoli.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


GAZOROS (Ancient city) SERRES

Gasorus

Gazorus (Gasoros, Ptol. iii. 13. § 31; Gazoros, Steph. B.) A town of the Edoni in Macedonia, and, probably, the same place as the Graepo of the Peutinger Table. Gasorus, therefore, probably stood between Tragilus and Euporia, towards the NW. end of Mons Pangaeus.


KERKINI (Mountain) SERRES

Cercine

  Cercine (Kerkine, Thuc. ii. 98; Kerketesion or Kerketesion, Ptol. iii. 13. § 19: Karadagh), the uninhabited mountain chain which branched off from Haemus in a SE. direction, and formed the water-shed to the streams which feed the rivers Axius and Strymon. Sitalces, in his route from Thrace into Macedonia, crossed this mountain, leaving the Paeonians on his right, and the Sinti and Maedi on his left descending upon the Axius at Idomene.


MYRKINOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Myrcinus

  Murkinos, Murkinnos, Eth. Murkinios. A place belonging to the Edoni, on the left bank of the Strymon, which was selected by Histiaeus of Miletus for his settlement. It offered great advantages to settlers, as it contained an abundant supply of timber for shipbuilding, as well as silver mines. (Herod. vii. 23.) Aristagoras retired to this place, and, soon after landing, perished before some Thracian town which he was besieging. (Herod v. 126; Thuc. iv. 102.) Afterwards, it had fallen into the hands of the Edoni; but on the murder of Pittacus, chief of that people, it surrendered to Brasidas. (Thuc. iv. 107.) The position of Myrcinus was in the interior, to the N. of M. Pangaeus, not far from Amphipolis. (Leake, North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 181.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


SIRIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Siris

  Sirae, Serrhae, Eth. Siropaioneis, Serres. A town of Macedonia, standing in the widest part of the great Strymonic plain on the last slopes of the range of mountains which bound it to the NE. Xerxes left a part of his sick here, when retreating to the Hellespont (Herod. Herod. viii. 115.): and P. Aemilius Paulus, after his victory at Pydna, received at this town, which is ascribed to Odorantice, a deputation from Perseus, who had retired to Samothrace. (Liv. xlv. 4.) Little is known of Serrhae, which was the usual form of the name in the 5th century (though from two inscriptions found at Serres it appears that Sirrha, or Sirrhae, was the more ancient orthography, and that which obtained at least until the division of the empire), until the great spread of the Servian kingdom. Stephen Dushan in the 14th century seized on this. large and flourishing city, and assumed the imperial crown here, where he established a court on the Roman or Byzantine model, with the title of Emperor of Romania, Sclavonia, and Albania. (Niceph. Greg. p. 467.) After his death a partition of his dominions took place. but the Greeks have never. since been able to recover their former preponderance in the provinces of the Strymonic valley. Sultan Murad took this town from the Servians, and when Sigismund, king of Hungary, was about to invade the Ottoman dominions, Bayezid (Bajazet Ilderim) summoned the Christian princes who were his vassals to his camp at Serrhae, previous to his victory at Nicopolis, A.D. 1396. (J. von Hammer, Gesch. des Osman. Reiches, vol. i. pp. 193, 246, 600.)
  Besides the Macedonian inscriptions of the Roman empire found by Leake (Inscr. 126) and Cousinery, the only other vestige of the ancient town is a piece of Hellenic wall faced with large quadrangular blocks, but composed within of small stones and mortar forming a mass of extreme solidity. Servian remains are more common. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 200 - 210.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Strymon

  Strymon (Strumon, Ptol. iii. 13. § 18), the largest river of Macedonia, after the Axius, and, before the time of Philip, the ancient boundary of that country towards the E. It rises in Mount Scomius near Pantalia (the present Gustendil) (Thuc. ii. 96), and, taking first an E. and then a SE. course, flows through the whole of Macedonia. It then enters the lake of Prasias, or Cercinitis, and shortly after its exit from it, near the town of Amphipolis, falls into the Strymonic gulf. Pliny, with less correctness, places its sources in the Haemus (iv. 10. s. 12). The importance of the Strymon is rather magnified in the ancient accounts of it, from the circumstance of Amphipolis being seated near its mouth; and it is navigable only a few miles from that town. Apollodorus (ii. 5. 10) has a legend that Hercules rendered the upper course of the river shallow by casting stones into it, it having been previously navigable much farther. Its banks were much frequented by cranes (Juv. xiii. 167; Virg. Aen. x. 269; Mart. ix. 308). The Strymon is frequently alluded to in the classics. (Comp. Hesiod. Theog. 339; Aesch. Suppl. 258, Agam. 192; Herod. vii. 75; Thuc. i. 200; Strab. vii. p. 323; Mela. ii. 2; Liv. xliv. 44. &c. Its present name is Struma, but the Turks call it Karasu. (Comp. Leake, North. Gr. iii. pp. 225, 465, &c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TRAGILOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Tragilus

  Tragilos: Eth. Tragileus. A town of Macedonia, and doubtless the same as the Bragilos or Dragilos found in Hierocles among the towns of the first or consular Macedonia. In the Table there is a place Triulo marked as 10 miles from Philippi. This is apparently a corruption of Traelio, since numerous coins have been found near Amphipolis with the inscription TRAILION Leake conjectures with much probability that the real name was Tragilus, and that in the local form of the name the r may have been omitted, so that the TPAILION of the coin may represent the Hellenic Tragilion.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VERGI (Ancient city) SERRES

Berga

  Berge: Eth. Bergaios. A town of Macedonia, lying inland from the mouth of the Strymon (Scymnlus Ch. 654; Ptol. iii. 13. § 31) only known as the birthplace of the writer Antiphanes, whose tales were so marvellous and incredible as to give rise to a verb Bergaizein, in the sense of telling falsehoods. (Strab. i. p. 47, ii. pp. 102, 104.) Leake places Berga near the modern Takhyno, upon the shore of the Strymonic lake.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


VISSALTIA (Ancient area) SERRES

Bisaltia

  Bisaltia (Bisaltia), a district in Macedonia, extending from the river Strymon and the lake Cercinitis, on the E., to Crestonica on the W. (Herod. vii. 115.) It is called Bisaltica by Livy (xlv. 29). The inhabitants, called Bisaltae (Bisaltai), were a Thracian people. At the time of the invasion of Xerxes, B.C. 480, Bisaltia and Crestonica were governed by a Thracian prince, who was independent of Macedonia (Herod. viii. 116); but before the commencement of the Peloponnesian war, Bisaltia had been annexed to the Macedonian kingdom. (Thuc. ii. 99.) Some of the Bisaltae settled in the peninsula of Mt. Athos. (Thuc. iv. 109.) The most important town in Bisaltia was the Greek city of Argilus. In this district there was a river Bisaltes (Bisaltes), which Leake conjectures to be the river which joins the Strymon a little below the bridge of Neokhorio, or Amphipolis; while Tafel supposes it to be the same as the Rechius of Procopius (de Aedif. iv. 3), which discharges into the sea the waters of the lake Bolbe. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 228; Tafel, in Pauly's Realencycl. vol. i. p. 1115.) The annexed coin, which is one of great antiquity, bears en the obverse the legend Bisaltikon.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

AMFIPOLIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Amphipolis

   A town in Macedonia, on the eastern bank of the Strymon, about three miles from the sea. The Strymon flowed almost round the town, nearly forming a circle, whence its name Amphi-polis. It was originally called Ennea Hodoi, the "Nine Ways," and belonged to the Edonians, a Thracian people. It was colonized by the Athenians in B.C. 437, who drove the Edonians out of the place. It was one of the most important of the Athenian possessions in the north of the Aegaean Sea. Hence their indignation when it fell into the hands of Brasidas (B.C. 424), and of Philip (B.C. 358). The port of Amphipolis was Eion.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Ennea Hodoi

   A spot in Thrace, near which the city of Amphipolis was founded. It appears to have derived its name, which means "the Nine Ways," from the number of roads which met here from different parts of Thrace and Macedon. It was here, according to Herodotus, that Xerxes and his army crossed the Strymon on bridges, after having offered a sacrifice of white horses to that river and buried alive nine youths and nine maidens.

This text is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DRAVISKOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Drabescus, (Drabeskos)

A town in the district Edonis in Macedonia, on the Strymon.


FAGRIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Phagres

A town of the Pierians in Macedonia.


Strymon

   Now Struma, called by the Turks Karasu; an important river in Macedonia, forming the boundary between that country and Thrace down to the time of Philip. It rose in Mount Scomius, flowed first south and then southeast, passed through the lake Prasias, and, immediately south of Amphipolis, fell into a bay of the Aegaean Sea, called after it Strymonicus Sinus.


Links

AMFIPOLIS (Ancient city) SERRES

LAILIAS (Ski centre) SERRES

Local government Web-Sites

AMFIPOLI (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Amfipolis


HERAKLIA (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Heraklia


KERKINI (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Kerkini


LEFKONAS (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Lefkonas


NEA ZICHNI (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Nea Zichni


NIGRITA (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Nigrita


PROTI (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Proti


RODOLIVOS (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Rodolivos


SERRES (Prefecture) GREECE

Prefecture of Serres


SERRES (Municipality) MAKEDONIA CENTRAL

Municipality of Serres


SIDIROKASTRO (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Didirokastro


STRYMONAS (Municipality) SERRES

Municipality of Strymonas


Local government WebPages

KIMISSI (Village) SERRES

PSOMOTOPI (Village) SERRES

Strymonas Delta

A small hydro-biosphere which accommodates a substantial number of aquatic birds that live on the water's edge every year is Strymon's Delta, in Amfipolis. Unfortunately, it sustained a disastrous impact due to the construction of a petrochemical factor's erection, when the public opposition prevented the construction. However, it got damaged by the huge road works, that were constructed at the jundions in Nea Egnatia Motorway.


VALTERO (Small town) SERRES

Maps

SERRES (Prefecture) GREECE


Ministry of Culture WebPages

Prefecture of Serres

In the following WebPages you can find an interactive map with all the monuments and museums of the Prefecture, with relevant information and photos.


Names of the place

AMFIPOLIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Chrysoupolis

The plague in the 6th century A.D. and the subsequent movements of the Slav populations led to a steady shrinking of the ancient Ampipolis, and this in the end brought about its demise as an urban centre. After the 9th century A.D. interest in the urban settlement shifts to the mouth of the Strymon river, where an extensive harbour town sprang up, known as Chrysoupolis, which continued into the 16th century.


Marmarion

In the ruins of Amphipolis on the north-west fringes of the hills beside the Strymon a small settlement developed, Marmarion, which served as a stop-over for travellers crossing the river by the ford that was known as the Marmarion Ford. Life at Chrysoupolis and Marmarion continued into the post-Byzantine and Ottoman periods.


Non-profit organizations WebPages

Perseus Project

Amphipolis


Perseus Project index

ARGILOS (Ancient city) SERRES

DRAVISKOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Drabeskos

Total results on 30/4/2001: 7 for Drabeskos, 7 for Drabescus.


FAGRIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Phagres

Total results on 29/8/2001: 6


MYRKINOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Myrcinus


Present location

FAGRIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Phagres

It was located to the SE of Amphipolis, between the mouths of the rivers of Nestos and Strymon.


The Catholic Encyclopedia

Serrae

  Titular metropolitan see in Macedonia, more correctly Serrhae, is called Siris by Herodotus, Sirae by Titus Livius. The city is in Eastern Macedonia, about forty-three miles northeast of Salonica in the plain of Strymon, on the last outposts of the mountains which bound it on the north-east.
  The city possessed great strategic importance under the Byzantine Empire in the wars against the Serviani and Bulgars. It was captured by the latter in 1206 and recaptured by the Emperor John Dukas in 1245. Later the Servian, Kral Stephen Dushan, captured it in turn, was crowned there im 1345, established a Court on the model of that of Byzantium, and married the daughter of Andronicus II.
  The city carries on a brisk trade in textile and agricultural products. At first Serrae was a suffragan of Thessalonica, remaining so probably until the eighth century, when Eastern Illyricum was removed from Roman jurisdiction and attached to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. At the end of the next century it had become a metropolitan see without suffragans, and such is still its status for the Greeks.

S. Petrides, ed.
Transcribed by: Joseph E. O'Connor
This extract is cited June 2003 from The Catholic Encyclopedia, New Advent online edition URL below.


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

AMFIPOLIS (Ancient city) SERRES

Amphipolis

  City in the Edonian region, on the E bank of the river Strymon, about 4 km N of its estuary. The city was built on a level plateau dominating the surrounding country, on the SW slope of the Pangaium range and at the point where the Strymon makes a 180° curve before flowing into the Aegean. In 497 B.C. Histiaeus, the tyrant of Miletos, and his son-in-law Aristagoras attempted to colonize the site, but they were driven back by the Edonians (Hdt. 523124ff; 7114ff). A new attempt by the Athenians to colonize the area in 465 B.C. ended in failure (Hdt. 9.75, Thuc. 1.100, 4.102). In 437 B.C. Agnon, son of Nicias, succeeded in founding Amphipolis on the site of the Nine Roads, as the area was formerly called, using as a base the old Persian fortress at the mouth of the river Eion, which became a trading port of the Athenians in 476 B.C., after its conquest by Kimon (Thuc. 4.102). The Spartan general Brasidas, marching from Chalkidike in 424 B.C., easily conquered the city because of its mixed population and treason on the part of its Argilian colonists. The intervention of Thucydides, "general over Thrace", with seven triremes, resulted in the rescue of only the Eion. The expedition of the Athenian demagogue Kleon with strong forces in 422 B.C. did not succeed in breaking off Amphipolis from the Lakedemonians. In the battle that ensued in front of the walls, the generals Brasidas and Kleon were killed. Brasidas was buried within the city walls and honored as a hero and founder with annual games and sacrifices (Thuc. 5.6-11).
   In spite of repeated efforts by the Athenians, Amphipolis remained autonomous until 357 B.C., when it was conquered by King Philip II of Macedon. During Alexander the Great's campaign to Asia in 334 B.C., the city was used as a naval base, and his fleet gathered in the waters of the Strymon from its estuary to Lake Cercinitis (Arr. Anab. 1, 2.3). Alexander the Great's three most celebrated admirals, Nearchos, Androsthenes, and Laomedon, were natives of Amphipolis. During the Hellenistic period it was a Macedonian city, a fortress, and one of the royal mints where Philip II's famous gold staters were coined.
   After the battle of Pydna (168 B.C.) Emilius Paulus conquered the city. A council constituted of Romans and 10 select representatives of Hellenic cities met there to decide on the fate of areas of the Macedonian kingdom. Macedonia was divided into four districts, the merides, and Amphipolis was declared capital of the first district (Plin. HN 4.38). Coins minted here in the period 168-146 B.C. carry the inscription MAKEDONON PROTES. The city's prosperity lasted through Roman times, and the great Roman Via Egnatia passes through Amphipolis. It is not known when the city was deserted, but it is probable that it was destroyed during the Slavic incursions of the early 9th c. During Byzantine times the area was known as Popolia.
   During the Balkan wars of 1912-13 fragments of a large statue were uncovered on the W bank of the Strymon near the present-day bridge. Excavation of the site revealed foundations of a structure which carried a pyramid-shaped base for a lion. The statue was reconstructed and reerected in 1936 on a contemporary base built with ancient architectural material. The lion of Amphipolis belongs to a large funeral monument, influenced by the architecture of the Ionian tumuli, very probably that of Alexander the Great's admiral, Laomedon. It is dated from the last quarter of the 4th c. B.C.
   A large necropolis of Hellenistic times was excavated systematically in the N of the city, as well as graves outside it, located singly and in groups. A total of about 440 graves of various types (pit-shaped, tile-roofed, box-shaped, sculptured underground) have been studied. Three "Macedonian" graves built with stone-plinths of limestone and with arched roofs, found N and E of the city, consist of an entrance, a death chamber, and often an antechamber. There are built-in beds for the deceased. The beds of Macedonian grave I, which dates from the second half of the 3d c. B.C., are decoratively painted with dionysiac forms, animals, utensils, etc. Another box-shaped grave of Hellenistic times is decorated with water birds flying among flower garlands.
   The graves yielded terracotta figurines, pots, tombstones, and gold jewelry fashioned into wreaths of oak or olive leaves, diadems, earrings, rings, necklaces, and charms. The gravestones cover the period from the end of the 5th c. B.C. to Roman Imperial times. They picture isolated forms: older men, suppers for the dead, scenes of the reception of the dead, or scenes of everyday life.
   Trial excavations have uncovered parts of habitations of the 4th c. of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. In a house of the Roman period a mosaic floor depicts the Rape of Europa. On the edge of a deep ravine in the hill of the present-day village, walls of a structure, in strict isodomic style, remain. A dedicatory inscription identifies the building as the Temple of Clio. Of the fortifications known from Thucydides' account (4.102, 103; 5.10), a large section of the wall was found in the part of the city farthest W. On the crest of a line of hills in the SE of the city, stone plinths of a long wall directed toward the river are preserved, as are small sections of wall in the E and N section.
   On the site of "Bezesteni" in the center of the city, the stylobate of a large stoa of the Roman or Early Christian period was excavated for a length of 53.50 m. Its marble columns (five Ionic and one Doric) come from more ancient buildings. In the same region four Early Christian basilicas were uncovered. Two of these, which were excavated in large part, have very beautiful multicolored mosaic decorations. Mosaic floors depict rich geometric motifs, fountains, pots, and plants as well as a large number of fish and various birds and animals, both wild and tame. Neither the agora nor any of the large temples of the city known from ancient sources have been uncovered.

D. Lazarides, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 85 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


DRAVISKOS (Ancient city) SERRES

Drabeskos

  A town in the district of the Edonoi, about 12 km N of Amphipolis on the NE side of the Angites river plain. Here the Athenian colonists from Amphipolis were besieged and massacred by the Thracians in 465 B.C. Though lacking ancient remains, modern Sdravik now seems generally accepted as the location of Drabeskos, while Daravescus of the Roman period is identified with Drama farther to the NE.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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