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The springs of the rivers Alpheus and Eurotas

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI
Eurotas: River of Laconia, its sources, unites with Alpheus. Alpheus: River, sources and upper course, often vanishes under ground, tributaries, dearest of rivers to Zeus, ashes of victims kneaded with its water, wild olive first grew on its banks, women forbidden to cross it on certain days, loves Arethusa, flows through Adriatic to Ortygia, loves Artemis, images, altars, Leucippus keeps hair long for, Apollo at the, diverted by Herakles into the cattleyard of Augeas.

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TEGEA (Municipality) ARCADIA

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


AMILOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
Amilos: Amilios. A village of Arcadia in the territory of Orchomenus, and on the road from the latter to Stymphalus.


ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI
  he Asea: Aseates, a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, situated near the frontier of Laconia, on the road from Megalopolis to Pallantium and Tegea. Asea took part in the foundation of Megalopolis, to which city most of its inhabitants removed (Paus. viii. 27. § 3, where for Iasaia we ought to read Asaia or Asea); but Asea continued to exist as an independent state, since the Aseatae are mentioned, along with the Megalopolitae, Tegeatae, and Pallantieis, as joining Epaminondas before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 5) At a later time, however, Asea belonged to Megalopolis, as we see from the descriptions of Strabo and Pausanias. The city was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions its acropolis. In its territory, and at the distance of 5 stadia from the the city, on the road to Pallantium, were the sources of the Alpheius, and near them those of the Eurotas. The two rivers united their streams, and, after flowing in one channel for 20 stadia, disappeared beneath the earth; the Alpheius rising again at Pegae, and the Eurotas at Belemina in Laconia. North of Asea, on the road to Pallantium, and on the summit of Mt. Boreium (Kravari), was a temple of Athena Soteira and Poseidon, said to have been founded by Odysseus on his return from Troy, and of which the ruins were discovered by Leake and Ross. The remains of Asea are to be seen on the height which rises above the copious spring of water called Frangovrysi, Frank-spring, the sources of the Alpheius. (Strab. pp. 275, 343; Paus. viii. 3. § 4, viii. 44. § 3, viii. 54. § 2; Steph. B. s. v.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Athenaeum (Athenaion). A fortress in the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier (embole tes Lakonikes), and near Belemina. It was fortified by Cleomenes in B.C. 224, and was frequently taken and retaken in the wars between the Achaean League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it occupied the summit of Mount Tzimbaru, on which there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. In that case it must have been a different place from the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanias on the road from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from the latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46, 54, iv. 37, 60, 81; Paus. viii. 44. § § 2, 3; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 248.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DIPEA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
  Dipaia: Eth. Dipaieus. A town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, through whose territory the river Helisson flowed. Its inhabitants removed to Megalopolis on the foundation of the latter city. It is frequently mentioned on account of a battle fought in its neighbourhood between the Lacedaemonians and all the Arcadians except the Mantineians, sometime between B.C. 479 and 464 (Paus. iii. 11. § 7, viii. 8. § 6, 27. § 3, 30. §. 1, 45. § 2; Herod. ix. 35.) Leake supposes that the ruins near Davia represent Dipaea; but since Pausanias does not mention Dipaea in his description of Maenalia, although he notices every insignificant place, Ross remarks that it is improbable that Pausanias should have passed over Dipaea, if these ruins really belong to the latter, since they are still very considerable. Ross regards them as the remains of Maenalus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


EFTEA (Ancient city) SKYRITIDA
Eutaea (Eutaia: Eth. Eutaieus), a town in the S. of Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, probably between Asea and Pallantium, though not on the road between these towns. Leake places it at Barbitza. (Paus. viii. 27. § 3; Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 12; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 31.)


  Helisson (Paus.); Helissous, (Diod.). a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, situated on Mt. Maenalus near the territory of Mantineia. The town was taken by the Lacedaemonians in one of their wars with the Arcadians, B.C. 352; but most of its inhabitants had been previously removed to Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city in 371. Near it rose the liver Helisson, which flowed through Maenalia into the Alpheius. The site of Helisson is doubtful. Leake places it at the village Alonistena, from which the river takes its modern name, and near which it rises; but as there are no ancient remains at this village, Ross conjectures that its site is represented by the Paleokastron near the village Piana, lower down the mountain. (Paus. viii. 3. § 3, 27. § § 3, 7, 30. § 1; Diod. xvi. 39.) The Elisphasii mentioned by Polybius (xi. 11. § 6) are conjectured by some modern writers to be a corrupt form of Helissontii.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Phalanthum (Phalangon: Eth. Phalangios), a town and mountain of Arcadia, in the district Orchomenia, near Methydrium. (Paus. viii. 35. § 9; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 240.)


KAFYES (Ancient city) LEVIDI
  Kaphuai: Eth. Kaphuates, Kaphueus. A town of Arcadia situated in a small plain, NW. of the lake of Orchomenus. It was protected against inundations from this lake by a mound or dyke, raised by the inhabitants of Caphyae. The city is said to have been founded by Cepheus, the son of Aleus, and pretended to be of Athenian origin. (Paus. viii. 23. § 2; Strab. xiii.) Caphyae subsequently belonged to the Achaean league, and was one of the cities of the league, of which Cleomenes obtained possession. (Pol. ii. 52.) In its neighbourhood a great battle was fought in B.C. 220, in which the Aetolians, gained a decisive victory over the Achaeans and Aratus. (Pol. iv. 11, seq.) The name of Caphyae also occurs in the subsequent events of this war. (Pol. iv. 68, 70.) Strabo (viii. p. 388) speaks of the town as in ruins in his time; but it still contained some temples when visited by Pausanias. The remains of the walls of Caphyae are visible upon a small insulated height at the village of Khotussa, which stands near the edge of the lake. Polybius, in his description of the battle of Caphyae, refers to a plain in front of Caphyae, traversed by a river, beyond which were trenches (taphroi), a description of the place which does not correspond with present appearances. The taphroi were evidently ditches for the purpose of draining the marshy plain, by conducting the water towards the katavothra, around which there was, probably, a small lake. In the time of Pausanias we find that the lake covered the greater part of the plain; and that exactly in the situation in which Polybius describes the ditches, there was a mound of earth. Nothing is more probable than that during the four centuries so fatal to the prosperity of Greece, which elapsed between the battle of Caphyae and the visit of Pausanias, a diminution of population should have caused a neglect of the drainage which had formerly ensured the cultivation of the whole plain, and that in the time of the Roman empire an embankment of earth had been thrown up to preserve the part nearest to Caphyae, leaving the rest uncultivated and marshy. At present, if there are remains of the embankment, which I did not perceive, it does not prevent any of the land from being submerged during several months, for the water now extends very nearly to the site of Caphyae.
  Pausanias says that on the inner side of the embankment there flows a river, which, descending into a chasm of the earth, issues again at a place called Nasi (Nasoi); and that the name of the village where it issues is named Rheunus (Hpeunos). From this place it forms the perennial river Tragus (Tragos). He also speaks of a mountain in the neighbourhood of the city named Cnacalus (Knakalos), on which the inhabitants celebrate a yearly festival to Artemis Cnacalesia. Leake remarks that the mountain above Khotussa, now called Kastania, seems to be the ancient Cnacalus. The river Tara is probably the ancient Tragus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


LYKOA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
Lycoa: (Lukoa: Eth. Lukoates), a town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, at the foot of Mt. Maenalus, with a temple of Artemis Lycoatis. It was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, and is represented by the Paleokastron between Arachova and Karteroli. There was another Lycoa not far from the Alpheius, near its junction with the Lusius or Gortynius, at the foot of Mt. Lycaeus.It has been conjectured that the proper name of the latter of these towns was Lycaea, since Pausanias (viii. 27. § 4) speaks of the Lycaeatae (Lukaiatai) as a people in the district of Cynuria, and Stephanus mentions a town Lycaea (Lukaia). (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 304.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


(Mantineia: Eth. Mantineus, Mantinensis: Paleopoli), one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia, situated on the borders of Argolis, S. of Orchomenus, and N. of Tegea. Its territory was called Mantinice (Mantinike). The city is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as Mantinee erateine, and, according to tradition, it derived its name from Mantineus, a son of Lycaon. (Hom. Il. ii. 607; Pol. ii. 56; Paus. viii. 8. § 4.) Mantineia originally consisted of four or five distinct villages, the inhabitants of which were collected into one city. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 6, seq.; Strab. viii. p. 337; Diod. xv. 5.) If Strabo is correct in stating that this incorporation was brought about by the Argives, we may conjecture, with Mr. Grote, that the latter adopted this proceeding as a means of providing some check upon their powerful neighbours of Tegea. The political constitution of Mantineia is mentioned by Polybius as one of the best in antiquity; and the city had acquired so great a reputation at an early period, that the Cyrenaeans, in the reign of Battus III. (B.C. 550--530), when weakened by internal seditions, were recommended to apply to the Mantineians, who sent to them Demonax to settle their constitution. (Pol. vi. 43; Herod. iv. 161.) Some time before the Persian wars, Mantineia, like the other Arcadian towns, had acknowledged the Spartan supremacy; and accordingly the Mantineians fought against the Persians as the allies of Sparta. Five hundred of their citizens fought at Thermopylae, but their contingent arrived on the field of Plataea immediately after the battle. (Herod. vii. 202, ix. 77.) In the Peloponnesian War, Mantineia was at first a member of the Peloponnesian confederacy; but several causes tended to estrange her from the Spartan alliance. Mantineia and Tegea were, at this time, the two most important Arcadian states, and were frequently engaged in hostilities. In B.C. 423, they fought a bloody and indecisive battle, which is mentioned by Thucydides (iv. 134). Tegea, being oligarchically governed, was firmly attached to Sparta; whereas Mantineia, from her possessing a democratical constitution, as well as from her hatred to Tegea, was disposed to desert Sparta on the first favourable opportunity. In addition to this, the Mantineians had recently extended their dominion over the Parrhasians and had garrisoned a fortress at Cypsela, near the site where Megalopolis was afterwards built. Well aware that the Lacedaemonians would not allow them to retain their recent acquisitions, as it was the policy of Sparta to prevent the increase of any political power in the Peloponnesus, the Mantineians formed an alliance with Argos, Elis, and Athens, in B.C. 421, and thus became involved in war with Sparta. (Thuc. v. 29, 33, 47.) This war was brought to a close by the decisive battle fought near Mantineia, in June, 418, in which the Argives, Mantineians, and Athenians were defeated by the Lacedaemonians under Agis. This battle was fought to the S. of Mantineia, between the city and the frontiers of Tegea, and is the first of the five great battles bearing the name of Mantineia. The Mantineians now concluded a peace with Sparta, renouncing their dominion over the districts in Arcadia, which they had conquered. (Thuc. v. 65, seq., 81.)
  Mantineia continued an unwilling ally of Sparta for the next 33 years; but in the second year after the peace of Antalcidas, which had restored to the Spartans a great part of their former power, they resolved to crush for ever this obnoxious city. Accordingly, they required the Mantineians to raze their walls; and upon the refusal of the latter, they marched against the city with an army under the command of their king Agesipolis (B.C. 385), alleging that the truce for 30 years had expired, which had been concluded between the two states after the battle of 418. The Mantineians were defeated in battle, and took refuge in their city, prepared to withstand a siege; but Agesipolis having raised an embankment across the river Ophis, which flowed through Mantineia, forced back the waters of the river, and thus caused an inundation around the walls of the city. These walls, being built of unbaked bricks, soon began to give way; and the Mantineians, fearing that the city would be taken by assault, were obliged to yield to the terms of the Spartans, who required that the inhabitants should quit the city, and be dispersed among the villages, from the coalescence of which the city had been originally formed. (Xen. Hell. v. 2. 6, 7; Diod. xv. 5; Ephorus, ap. Harpocrat. s. v. Mantineon dioikismos; Pol. iv. 27; Paus. viii. 8. § 7, seq.) Of the forces of Mantineia shortly before this time we have an account from the orator Lysias, who says that the military population or citizens of Mantineia were not less than 3000, which will give 13,000 for the free population of the Mantineian territory. (Lysias, ap. Dionys. p. 531; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 416.)
  The Mantineians did not long remain in this dispersed condition. When the Spartan supremacy was overthrown by the battle of Leuctra in 371, they again assembled together, and rebuilt their city. They took care to exclude the river from the new city, and to make the stone substructions of the walls higher than they had been previously. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 3; Paus. viii. 8. § 10; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 73.) The Mantineians took an active part in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy, and in the foundation of Megalopolis, which followed immediately after the restoration of their own city; and one of their own citizens, Lycomedes, was the chief promoter of the scheme. But a few years afterwards the Mantineians, for reasons which are not distinctly mentioned, quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with their inveterate enemies the Spartans. In order to put down this new coalition, Epaminondas marched into the Peloponnesus; and Mantineia was again the scene of another great battle (the second of the five alluded to above), in which the Spartans were defeated, but which was rendered still more memorable by the death of Epaminondas. (Xen. Hell. vii. 5; Diod. xv. 84.) The site of this battle is described below. The third and fourth battles of Mantineia are only incidentally mentioned by the ancient writers: the third was fought in 295, when Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated Archidamus and the Spartans (Plut. Demetr. 35) ; the fourth in 242, when Aratus and the Achaeans defeated the Spartans under Agis, the latter falling in the battle. (Paus. viii. 10. § 5, seq.)
  Mantineia continued to be one of the most powerful towns of Arcadia down to the time of the Achaean League. It at first joined this league; but it subsequently deserted it, and, together with Orchomenus and Tegea, became a member of the Aetolian confederacy. These three cities at a later time renounced their alliance with the Aetolians, and entered into a close union with Sparta, about B.C. 228. This step was the immediate cause of the war between the Achaeans and the Spartans, usually called the Cleomenic War. In 226, Aratus surprised Mantineia, and compelled the city to receive an Achaean garrison. The Mantineians soon afterwards expelled the Achaeans, and again joined the Spartans ; but the city was taken a second time, in 222, by Antigonus Doson, whom the Achaeans had invited to their assistance. It was now treated with great severity. It was abandoned to plunder, its citizens were sold as slaves, and its name changed to Antigoneia (Antigoneia), in compliment to the Macedonian monarch (Pol. ii. 57, seq.; Plut. Arat. 45; Paus. viii. 8. § 11). In 207, the plain of Mantineia was the scene of a fifth great battle, between the Achaean forces, commanded by Philopoemen, and the Lacedaemonians, under the tyrant Machanidas, in which the latter was defeated and slain. An account of this battle is given by Polybius, from whom we learn that the Achaean army occupied the entire breadth of the plain S. of the city, and that their light-armed troops occupied the hill to the E. of the city called Alesium by Pausanias. The Lacedaemonians were drawn up opposite to the Achaeans ; and the two armies thus occupied the same position as in the first battle of Mantineia, fought in the Peloponnesian War. (Pol. xi. 11.)
  The Mantineians were the only Arcadian people who fought on the side of Augustus at the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12.) The city continued to bear the name of Antigoneia till the time of Hadrian, who restored to it its ancient appellation, and conferred upon it other marks of his favour, in honour of his favourite, Antinous, because the Bithynians, to whom Antinous belonged, claimed descent from the Mantineians. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12, viii. 9. § 7.)
The territory of Mantineia was bounded on the W. by Mt. Maenalus, and on the E. by Mt. Artemisium, which separated it from Argolis. Its northern frontier was a low narrow ridge, separating it from Orchomenia ; its southern frontier, which divided it from Tegeatis, was formed by a narrow part of the valley, hemmed in by a projecting ridge from Mt. Maenalus on the one side, and by a similar ridge from Mt. Artemisius on the other. The territory of Mantineia forms part of the plain now called the plain of Tripolitza, from the modern town of this name, lying between the ancient Mantineia and Tegea, and which is the principal place in the district. This plain is about 25 English miles in length, with a breadth varying from 1 to 8, and includes, besides the territory of Mantineia, that of Orchomenus and Caphyae on the N., and that of Tegea and Pallantium on the S. The distance between Mantineia and Tegea is about 10 English miles in a direct line. The height of the plain where Mantineia stood is 2067 feet above the level of the sea. Owing to its situation, Mantineia was a place of great military importance, and its territory was the scene of many important battles, as has been already related. It stood upon the river Ophis, nearly in the centre of the plain of Tripolitza as to length, and in one of the narrowest parts as to breadth. It was enclosed between two ranges of hills, on the E. and the W., running parallel to Mts. Artemisium and Maenalus respectively. The eastern hill was called Alesium (Alesion, Paus. viii. 10. § 1), and between it and Artemisium lay the plain called by Pausanias (viii. 7. § 1) to argon pedion, or the Uncultivated Plain. (viii. 8. § 1.) The range of hills on the W. had no distinct name: between them and Mt. Maenalus there was also a plain called Alcimedon (Alkimedon, Paus. viii. 12. § 2.)
  Mantineia was not only situated entirely in the plain, but nearly in its lowest part, as appears by the course of the waters. In the regularity of its fortifications it differs from almost all other Greek cities of which there are remains, since very few other Greek cities stood so completely in a plain. It is now called Paleopoli. The circuit of the walls is entire, with the exception of a small space on the N. and W. sides. In no place are there more than three courses of masonry existing above ground, and the height is so uniform that we may conclude that the remainder of the walls was constructed of unbaked bricks. The city had 9 or 10 gates, the approach to which was carefully defended. Along the walls there were towers at regular distances. Leake reckoned 118 towers, and says that the city was about 21 miles in circumference ; but Ross makes the city considerably larger, giving 129 or 130 as the number of the towers, and from 28 to 30 stadia, or about 3 1/2 English miles, as the circuit of the city. The walls of the city are surrounded by a ditch, through which the river Ophis flows. This stream is composed of several rivulets, of which the most important rises on Mt. Alesium, on the E. side of the city: the different rivulets unite on the NW. side of the town, and flow westward into a katavothra. Before the capture of Mantineia by Agesipolis, the Ophis was made to flow through the city and it is probable that all the water-courses of the surrounding plain were then collected into one channel above the city. Of the buildings in the interior of the city, described by Pausanias, few remains are left. Nearly in the centre of the city are the ruins of the theatre, of which the diameter was about 2440 feet; and west of the theatre, Ross observed the foundations of the temple of Aphrodite Symmachia, which the Mantineians erected to commemorate the share they had taken in the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 9. § 6.)
  The territory of Mantineia is frequently described by the ancient writers, from its having been so often the seat of war; but it is difficult, and almost impossible, to identify any of the localities of which we find mention, from the disappearance of the sanctuaries and monuments by which spots are indicated, and also from the nature of the plain, the topography of which must have been frequently altered by the change of the water-courses. On the latter subject a few words are necessary. The plain of Tripolitza, of which Mantinice formed part, is one of those valleys in Arcadia, which is so completely shut in by mountains, that the streams which flow into it have no outlet except through the chasms in the mountains, called katavothra. The part of the plain, which formed the territory of Mantineia, is so complete a level, that there is not, in some parts, a sufficient slope to carry off the waters ; and the land would be overflowed, unless trenches were made to assist the course of the waters towards some one or other of the katavothra which nature has provided for their discharge. (Pol. xi. 11.) Not only must the direction of these trenches have been sometimes changed, but even the course of the streams was sometimes altered, of which we have an interesting example in the history of the campaign of 418. It appears that the regulation of the mountain torrent on the frontiers of Mantinice and Tegeatis was a frequent subject of dispute and even of war between the two states; and the one frequently inundated the territory of the other, as a means of annoyance. This was done in 418 by Agis, who let the waters over the plain of Mantineia (Thuc. v. 65). This river can only be the one called Ophis by the Geographers of the French Commission. It rises a little N. of Tegea, and after flowing through Tegeatis falls now into a katavothra north of the hill Scope. In general the whole plain of Mantineia bears a very different aspect from what it presented in antiquity; instead of the wood of oaks and cork-trees, described by Pausanias, there is now not a single tree to be found; and no poet would now think of giving the epithet of lovely (erateine) to the naked plain, covered to a great extent with stagnant water, and shut in by gray treeless rocks. (Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, p. 128.)
  About a mile N. of the ruins of Mantineia is an isolated hill called Gurtzuli; north of which again, also at the distance of about a mile, is another hill. The latter was probably the site of the ancient Mantineia, arid was therefore called Ptolis in the time of Pausanias (viii. 12. § 7). This appears to have been one of the five villages from the inhabitants of which the city on the plain was peopled.
  There were several roads leading from Mantineia. Two of these roads led north of the city to Orchomenus: the more easterly of the two passed by Ptolis, just mentioned, the fountain of Alalcomeneia, and a deserted village named Maera (Maira), 30 stadia from Ptolis ; the road on the west passed over Mt. Anchisia, on the northern slope of which was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which formed the boundary between Mantinice and Orchomenia. (Paus. viii. 12. §§ 5--9, comp. viii. 5. § 11.)
  A road led from Mantineia on the W. to Methydrium. It passed through the plain Alcimedon, which was 30 stadia from the city, above which was Mount Ostracina; then by the fountain Cissa, and, at the distance of 40 stadia from the fountain, by the small place Petrosaka, which was on the confines of the Mantineian and Megalopolitan territories. (Paus. viii. 12. §§ 2--4.)
  Two roads led from Mantineia southwards,--the one SE. to Tegea, and the other SW. to Pallantium. On the left of the road to Tegea, called Xenis by Polybius (xi. 11, § 5), just outside the gates of Mantineia, was the hippodrome, and a little further on the stadium, above which rose Mount Alesium: at the spot where the mountain ceased was the temple of Poseidon Hippius, which was 7 stadia from the city, as we learn from Polybius (xi. 11. § 4, compared with xi. 14. § 1). Here commenced the ditch, which is said by Polybius to have led across the Mantineian plain to the mountains bordering upon the district of the Elisphasii (he ton Elisphasion Chora Pol. xi. 11. § 6, comp. 15. § 7, xvii. 6). Beyond the temple of Poseidon was a forest of oaks, called Pelagus (Pelagos), through which ran the road to Tegea. On turning out of the road to the left, at the temple of Poseidon, one found at the distance of 5 stadia the tombs of the daughters of Pelias. Twenty stadia further on was a place called Phoezon (Phoizon). This was the narrowest part of the plain between Tegea and Mantineia, the road being shortened by the hill Scope on the W. and a similar projecting rock on the E. Here was the tomb of Areithous, who was said to have been slain in a narrow pass by Lycurgus (steinopoi en hodoi, Hom. Il. vii. 143). 2 This narrow valley, shut in by the two projecting ridges already mentioned, formed the natural frontier between the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. The boundary between the two states was marked by a round altar on the road, which was about four miles distant from Mantineia, and about six miles from Tegea. It was here that the Lacedaemonian army was posted, over which Epaminondas gained his memorable victory. He had marched from Tegea in a north-westerly direction, probably passing near the site of the modern Tripolitza, and then keeping along the side of Mt. Maenalus. He attacked the enemy on their right flank, near the projecting ridge of Mt. Maenalus, already described. It was called Scope (Skope, now Myrtikas), because Epaminondas, after receiving his mortal wound, was carried to this height to view the battle. Here he expired, and his tomb, which Pausanias saw, was erected on the spot. (Paus. viii. 11. §§ 6, 7)
  The road from Mantineia to Pallantium ran almost parallel to the road to Tegea till it reached the frontiers of Tegeatis. At the distance of one stadium was the temple of Zeus Charmon. (Paus. viii. 10, 11, 12. § 1.)
Two roads led from Mantineia eastwards to Argos, called Prinus (Prinos) and Climax (Klimaxi), or the Ladder, respectively. (Paus. viii. 6. § 4.) The latter was so called from the steps cut out of the rock in a part of the road; and the Prinus probably derived its name from passing by a large holm-oak (prinos), or a small wood of holm-oaks; but the roads do not appear to have borne these names till they entered Mantinice. There are only two passes through the mountains, which separate the Argive plain from Mantinice, of which the southern and the shorter one is along the course of the river Charadrus, the northern and the longer one along the valley of the Inachus. Both Ross and Leake agree in making the Prinus the southern and the Climax the northern of these two roads, contrary to the conclusions of the French surveyors. Both roads quitted Argos at the same gate, at the hill called Deiras, but then immediately parted in different directions. The Prinus after crossing the Charadrus, passed by Oenoe, and then ascended Mount Artemisium (Malevos), on the summit of which, by the road-side, stood the temple of Artemis, and near it were the sources of the Inachus. Here were the boundaries of Mantinice and Argolis. (Paus. ii. 25. §§ 1--3.) On descending this mountain the road entered Mantinice, first crossing through the lowest and most marshy part of the Argon, or Uncultivated Plain, so called because the waters from the mountains collect in the plain and render it unfit for cultivation, although there is a katavothra to carry them off. On the left of the plain were the remains of the camp of Philip, son of Amyntas, and a village called Nestane, probably now the modern village of Tzipiana. Near this spot the waters of the plain entered the katavothra, and are said not to have made their exit till they reached the sea off the coast of the Argeia. Below Nestane was the Dancing-place of Maera (Choros Mairas), which was only the southern arm of the Argon Plain, by means of which the latter was connected with the great Mantineian plain. The road then crossed over the foot of Mount Alesium, and entered the great Mantineian plain near the fountain Arne at the distance of 12 stadia from the city. From thence it passed into the city by the south-eastern or Tegeatan gate. (Paus. viii. 6. § 6--viii. 8. § 4.)
  The other road, called Climax ran from Argos in a north-westerly direction along the course of the Inachus, first 60 stadia to Lyrceia, and again 60 stadia to Orneae, on the frontiers of Sicyonia and Phliasia. (Paus. ii.25. §§ 4--6.) It then crossed the mountain, on the descent of which into Mantinice were the steps cut out of the rock. The road entered Mantinice at the upper or northern corner of the Argon Plain, near the modern village of Sanga. It then ran in a south-westerly direction, along the western side of Mount Alesium, to a place called Melangeia (ta Melangeia), from which drinking-water was conducted by an aqueduct to Mantineia, of which remains were observed by Ross. It corresponds to the modern village of Pikerni, which is said to signify in the Albanian language abounding in springs. The road next passed by the fountain of the Meliastae (Meliastai), where were temples of Dionysus and of Aphrodite Melaenis: this fountain was 7 stadia from the city, opposite Ptolis or Old Mantineia. (Paus. viii. 6. §§ 4, 5.)

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Maenalus. (Mainalos, Strab. viii. p. 388; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 769; Mainalon, Theocr. i. 123; to Mainalion oros, Paus. viii. 36. § 7; Maenalus, Virg. Ecl. viii. 22; Mel. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 6. s. 10; Maenala, pl., Virg. Ecl. x. 55; Ov. Met. i. 216), a lofty mountain of Arcadia, forming the western boundary of the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. It was especially sacred to the god Pan, who is hence called Maenalius Deus (Ov. Fast. iv. 650.) The inhabitants of the mountain fancied that they had frequently heard the god playing on his pipe. The two highest summits of the mountain are called at present Aidin and Apano-Khrepa: the latter is 5115 feet high. The mountain is at present covered with pines and firs; the chief pass through it is near the modern town of Tripolitza. The Roman poets frequently use the adjectives Maenalius and Maenalis as equivalent to Arcadian. Hence Maenalii versus, shepherds' songs, such as were usual in Arcadia (Virg. Ecl. viii.21); Maenalis ora, i.e. Arcadia (Ov. Fast. iii. 84); Maenalisnympha, i. e. Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 634); Maenalis Ursa, and Maenalia Arctos, the constellation of the Bear, into which Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, was said to have been metamorphosed. (Ov. Trist. iii. 11. 8, Fast. ii. 192.)

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  Mainalos: Eth. Mainalios, Mainalites, Mainaleus. A town of Arcadia, and the capital of the district Maenalia (Mainalia), which formed part of the territory of Megalopolis upon the foundation of the latter city. The town Maenalus was in ruins in the time of Pausanias, who mentions a temple of Athena, a stadium, and a hippodrome, as belonging to the place. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4, 36. § 8; Steph. B. s. v.) Its site is uncertain. Ross supposes that the remains of polygonal walls on the isolated hill, on the right bank of the river Helisson and opposite the village Davia, represent Maenalus; and this appears more probable than the opinion of Leake, who identifies this site with Dipaea, and thinks that Maenalus stood on Mt. Apano-khrepa. (Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes vol. i., Leake, Morea, vol. ii., Peloponnesiaca.)

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  An ancient city of Arcadia, called by Thucydides (v. 61) the Arcadian (ho Arkadikos), to distinguish it from the Boeotian town. It was situated in a plain surrounded on every side by mountains. This plain was bounded on the S. by a low range of hills, called Anchisia, which separated it from the territory of Mantineia; on the N. by a lofty chain, called Oligyrtus, through which lie the passes into the territories of Pheneus and Stymphalus; and on the E. and W. by two parallel chains running from N. to S., which bore no specific name in antiquity: the eastern range is in one part 5400 feet high, and the western about 4000 feet. The plain is divided into two by hills projecting on either side from the eastern and western ranges, and which approach so close as to allow space for only a narrow ravine between them. The western hill, on account of its rough and rugged form, was called Trachy (Trachu) in antiquity; upon the summit of the western mountain stood the acropolis of Orchomenus. The northern plain is lower than the southern; the waters of the latter run through the ravine between Mount Trachy and that upon which Orchomenus stands into the northern plain, where, as there is no outlet for the waters, they form a considerable lake. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4.)
  The acropolis of Orchomenus, stood upon a lofty, steep, and insulated hill, nearly 3000 feet high, resembling the strong fortress of the Messenian Ithome, and, like the latter, commanding two plains. From its situation and its legendary history, we may conclude that it was one of the most powerful cities of Arcadia in early times. Pausanias relates that Orchomenus was founded by an eponymous hero, the son of Lycaon (viii. 3. § 3); but there was a tradition that, on the death of Areas, his dominions were divided among his three sons, of whom Elatus obtained Orchomenus as his portion. (Schol. ad. Dionys. Per. 415.) The kings of Orchomenus are said to have ruled over nearly all Arcadia. (Heraclid. Pont. ap. Diog. Laert. i. 94.) Pausanias also gives a list of the kings of Orchomenus, whom he represents at the same time as kings of Arcadia. One of these kings, Aristocrates, the son of Aechmis, was stoned to death by his people for violating the virgin priestess of Artemis Hymnia. Aristocrates was succeeded by his son Hicetas, and Hicetas by his son Aristocrates II., who, having abandoned the Messenians at the battle of the Trench in the second war against Sparta, experienced the fate of his grandfather, being stoned to death by the Arcadians. He appears to have been the last king of Orchomenus, who reigned over Arcadia, but his family was not deprived of the kingdom of Orchomenus, as is stated in some authorities, since we find his son Aristodemus represented as king of the city. (Paus. viii. 5; Polyb. iv. 3; Heracl. Pont. l. c.) It would appear, indeed, that royalty continued to exist at Orchomenus long after its abolition in most other Grecian cities, since Theophilus related that Peisistratus, king of Orchomenus, was put to death by the aristocracy in the Peloponnesian War. (Plut. Parall. 32.)
  Orchomenus is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of polumelos (Il. ii. 605); and it is also called ferax by Ovid (Met. vi. 416), and aphneos by Apollonius Rhodius (iii. 512). In the Persian wars Orchomenus sent 120 men to Thermopylae (Herod. viii. 102), and 600 to Plataeae (ix. 28). In the Peloponnesian War, the Lacedaemonians deposited in Orchomenus the hostages they had taken from the Arcadians; but the walls of the city were then in a dilapidated state; and accordingly, when the Athenians and their Peloponnesian allies advanced against the city in B.C. 418, the Orchomenians dared not offer resistance, and surrendered the hostages. (Thuc. v. 61.) At the time of the foundation of Megalopolis, we find the Orchomenians exercising supremacy over Theisoa, Methydrium, and Teuthis; but the inhabitants of these cities were then transferred to Megalopolis, and their territories assigned to the latter. (Paus.viii.27. §4.) The Orchomenians, through their enmity to the Mantineians, refused to join the Arcadian confederacy, and made war upon the Mantineians. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 11, seq.; Diod. xv. 62.) Henceforth Orchomenus lost its political importance; but, from its commanding situation, its possession was frequently an object of the belligerent powers in later times. In the war between Cassander and Polysperchon, it fell into the power of the former, B.C. 313. (Diod. xix. 63.) It subsequently espoused the side of the Aetolians, was taken by Cleomenes (Polyb. ii. 46), and was afterwards retaken by Antigonus Doson, who placed there a Macedonian garrison. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 6; Plut. Arat. 5.) It was given back by Philip to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxxii. 5.) Strabo mentions it among the Arcadian cities, which had either disappeared, or of which there were scarcely any traces left (viii. p. 338); but this appears from Pausanias to have been an exaggeration. When this writer visited the place, the old city upon the summit of the mountain was in ruins, and there were only some vestiges of the agora and the town walls; but at the foot of the mountain there was still an inhabited town. The upper town was probably deserted at a very early period; for such is the natural strength of its position, that we can hardly suppose that the Orchomenians were dwelling there in the Peloponnesian War, when they were unable to resist an invading force. Pausanias mentions, as the most remarkable objects in the place, a source of water, and temples of Poseidon and Aphrodite, with statues of stone. Close to the city was a wooden statue of Artemis, enclosed in a great cedar tree, and hence called Cedreatis. Below the city were several heaps of stones, said to have been erected to some persons slain in battle. (Paus. viii. 13.)
  The village of Kalpaki stands on the site of the lower Orchomenus. On approaching the place from the south the traveller sees, on his left, tumuli, chiefly composed of collections of stones, as described by Pausanias. Just above Kalpaki are several pieces of white marble columns, belonging to an ancient temple. There are also some remains of a temple at a ruined church below the village, near which is a copious fountain, which is evidently the one described by Pausanias. On the summit of the hill are some remains of the walls of the more ancient Orchomenus.
  In the territory of Orchomenus, but adjoining that of Mantineia, consequently on the northern slope of Mt. Anchisia, was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which was held in high veneration by all the Arcadians in the most ancient times. (Paus. viii. 5. § 11.) Its site is probably indicated by a chapel of the Virgin Mary, which stands east of Levidhi.
  In the southern plain is an ancient canal, which conducts the waters from the surrounding mountains through the ravine into the lower or northern plain, which is the other Orchomnenian plain of Pausanias (viii. 13. § 4). After passing the ravine, at the distance of 3 stadia from Orchomenus, the road divides into two. One turns to the left along the northern side of the Orchomenian acropolis to Caphyae, the other crosses the torrent, and passes under Mt. Trachy to the tomb of Aristocrates, beyond which are the fountains called Teneiae (Teneiai). Seven stadia further is a place called Amilus (Amilos). Here, in ancient times, the road divided into two, one leading to Stymphalus and the other to Pheneus. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4, seq.) The above-mentioned fountains are visible just beyond Trachy, and a little further are some Hellenic ruins, which are those of Amilus.

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  Oresthasion, Orestheion, Oresteion. A town in the south of Arcadia, in the district of Maenalia, a little to the right of the road, leading from Megalopolis to Pallantium and Tegea. Its inhabitants were removed to Megalopolis on the foundation of the latter city. Its territory is called Oresthis by Thucydides (iv. 134), and in it was situated Ladoceia, which became a suburb of Megalopolis. (Ladokeia) Leake places Oresthasium at or near the ridge of Tzimbaru, and conjectures that it may have occupied the site of the village of Marmara or Marmaria, a name often attached in Greece to places where ancient wrought or sculptured stones have been found.

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Pallantium, more rarely Palantion: Eth. Pallantieus. One of the most ancient towns of Arcadia, in the district Maenalia, said to have been founded by Pallas, a son of Lycaon, was situated W. of Tegea, in a small plain called the Pallantic plain (Pallantikon pedion, Paus. viii. 44. § 5), which was separated from the territory of Tegea by a choma (choma) or dyke. It was from this town that Evander was said to have led colonists to the banks of the Tiber, and from it the Palatium or Palatine Mount at Rome was reputed to have derived its name. (Hes. ap. Steph. B. s. v.; Paus. viii. 43. § 2; Liv. i. 5; Plin. iv. 6; Justin, xliii. 1.) Pallantium took part in the foundation of Megalopolis, B.C. 371 (Paus. viii. 27. § 3); but it continued to exist as an independent state, since we find the Pallantieis mentioned along with the Tegeatae, Megalopolitae and Aseatae, as joining Epaminondas before the battle of Mantineia, B.C. 362. (Xen. Hell. vii. 5. 5) Pallantium subsequently sank into a mere village, but was restored and enlarged by the emperor Antoninus Pius, who conferred upon it freedom from taxation and other privileges, on account of its reputed connection with Rome. The town was visited by Pausanias, who found here a shrine containing statues of Pallas and Evander, a temple of Core (Proserpine), a statue of Polybius; and on the hill above the town, which was anciently used as an acropolis, a temple of the pure (katharoi) gods. (Paus. viii. 43. § 1, 44. § § 5, 6.) Leake was unable to find the site of Pallantium, and supposed that it occupied a part of Tripolitza itself; though at a later time he appears to have adopted the erroneous opinion of Gell, who placed it at the village of Thana, to the S. of Triolitza. (Leake, Morea, vol. i., vol. iii. p. 36 Gell, Itinerary of the Morea, p. 136.) The remains of tie town were first discovered by the French expedition at a quarter of an hour's distance from the Khan of Makri on the road from Tripolitza to Leondari. The ruins have been used so long as a quarry by the inhabitants of Tripolitza and of the neighbouring villages, that there are very few traces of the ancient town. Ross discovered the foundations of the temple of the pure gods on the highest point of the acropolis.

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Soumetia, Soumateion, Soumeteia . A town of Arcadia in the district Maenalia, on the southern slope of Mt. Maenalus. It was probably on the summit of the hill now called Sylimna, where there are some remains of polygonal walls. the southern slope of Mt. Maenalus.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
  (Ion. Tegee: Eth. Tegeates). One of the most ancient and powerful towns of Arcadia, situated in the SE. of the country. Its territory, called TEGEATIS (Tegeatis), was bounded by Cynuria and Argolis on the E., from which it was separated by Mt. Parthenium, by Laconia on the S., by the Arcadian district of Maenalia on the W., and by the territory of Mantineia on the N. The Tegeatae are said to have derived their name from Tegeates, a son of Lycaon, and to have dwelt originally in eight, afterwards nine, demi or townships, the inhabitants of which were incorporated, by Aleus in the city of Tegea, of which this hero was the reputed founder. The names of these nine townships, which are preserved by Pausanias, are: Gareatae (Gareatai), Phylaceis (Phulakeis), Caryatae (Karuatai), Corytheis (Korutheis), Potachidae (Potachidai), Oeaatae (Oiatai); Manthyreis (manthureis), Echeuetheis (Echeuethheis), to which Apheidantes (Apheidantes was added as the ninth in the reign of king Apheidas. (Paus. viii. 3. § 4, viii. 45. § 1; Strab. viii. p. 337.) The Tegeatae were early divided into 4 tribes (phulai), called respectively Clareotis (Klareotis, in inscriptions Krariotis), Hippothoitis (Hippothoitis), Apolloneatis (Apolloneatis), and Athoneatis (Athaneatis), to each of which belonged a certain number of metoeci (metoikoi) or resident aliens. (Paus. viii. 53. § 6; Bockh, Corp. lnscr. no. 1513.)
  Tegea is mentioned in the Iliad (ii. 607), and was probably the most celebrated of all the Arcadian towns in the earliest times. This appears from its heroic renown, since its king Echemus is said to have slain Hyllus, the son of Hercules, in single combat. (Herod. ix. 26; Paus. viii. 45. § 3.) The Tegeatae offered a long-continued and successful resistance to the Spartans, when the latter attempted to extend their dominion over Arcadia. In one of the wars between the two people, Charilaus or Charillus, king of Sparta, deceived by an oracle which appeared to promise victory to the Spartans, invaded Tegeatis, and was not only defeated, but was taken prisoner with all his men who had survived the battle. (Herod. i. 66; Paus. iii. 7. § 3, viii. 5. § 9, viii. 45. § 3, 47. § 2, 48. § 4.) More than two centuries afterwards, in the reign of Leon and Agesicles, the Spartans again fought unsuccessfully against the Tegeatae; but in the following generation, in the time of their king Anaxandrides, the Spartans, having obtained possession of the bones of Orestes in accordance with an oracle, defeated the Tegeatae and compelled them to acknowledge the supremacy of Sparta, about B.C. 560. (Herod. i. 65, 67, seq.; Paus. iii. 3. § 5, seq.) Tegea, however, still retained its independence, though its military force was at the disposal of Sparta; and in the Persian War it appears as the second military power in the Peloponnesus, having the place of honour on the left wing of the allied army. Five hundred of the Tegeatae fought at Thermopylae, and 3000 at the battle of Plataea, half of their force consisting of hoplites and half of light-armed troops. (herod. vii. 202, ix. 26, seq., 61.) As it was not usual to send the whole force of a state upon a distant march, we may probably estimate, with Clinton, the force of the Tegeatae on this occasion as not more than three-fourths of their whole number. This would give 4000 for the military population of Tegea, and about 17,400 for the whole free population. (Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 417.)
  Soon after the battle of Plataea, the Tegeatae were again at war with the Spartans, of the causes of which, however, we have no information. We only know that the Tegeatae fought twice against the Spartans between B.C. 479 and 464, and were each time defeated; first in conjunction with the Argives, and a second time together with the other Arcadians, except the Mantineians at Dipaea, in the Maenalian district. (Herod. ix. 37; Paus. iii. 11. § 7.) About this time, and also at a subsequent period, Tegea, and especially the temple of Athena Alea in the city, was a frequent place of refuge for persons who had rendered themselves obnoxious to the Spartan government. Hither fled the seer Hegesistratus (Herod. ix. 37) and the kings Leotychides, and Pausanias, son of Pleistoanax. (Herod. vi. 72; Xen. Hell, iii. 5. 25; Paus. iii. 5. § 6.)
  In the Peloponnesian War the Tegeatae were the firm allies of the Spartans, to whom they remained faithful both on account of their possessing an aristocratical constitution, and from their jealousy of the neighbouring democratical city of Mantineia, with which they were frequently at war. Thus the Tegeatae not only refused to join the Argives in the alliance formed against Sparta in B.C. 421, but they accompanied the Lacedaemonians in their expedition against Argos in 418. (Thus. v. 32, 57.) They also fought on the side of the Spartans in the Corinthian War, 394. (Xen. Hell. iv. 2. 13) After the battle of Leuctra, however (371), the Spartan party in Tegea was expelled, and the city joined the other Arcadian towns in the foundation of Megalopolis and in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy. (Xen. hell. vi. 5. § 6, seq.) When Mantineia a few years afterwards quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with its old enemy Sparta, Tegea remained faithful to the new confederacy, and fought under Epaminondas against the Spartans at the great battle of Mantineia, 362. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. 36, seq., vii. 5. § 5, seq.)
  Tegea at a later period joined the Aetolian League, but soon after the accession of Cleomenes III. to the Spartan throne it formed an alliance with Sparta, together with Mantineia and Orchomenus. It thus became involved in hostilities with the Achaeans, and in the war which followed, called the Cleomenic War, it was taken by Antigonus Doson, the ally of the Achaeans, and annexed to the Achaean League, B.C. 222. (Pol. ii. 46, 54, seq.) In 218 Tegea was attacked by Lycurgus, the tyrant of Sparta, who obtained possession of the whole city with the exception of the acropolis. It subsequently fell into the hands of Machanidas, but was recovered by the Achaeans after the defeat of the latter tyrant, who was slain in battle by Philopoemen. (Pol. v. 17, xi. 18.) In the time of Strabo Tegea was the only one of the Arcadian towns which continued to be inhabited (Strab. viii. p. 388), and it was still a place of importance in the time of Pausanias, who has given us a minute account of its public buildings. (Paus. viii. 45 - 48, 53.) Tegea was entirely destroyed by Alaric towards the end of the 4th century after Christ. (Claud. B. Get. 576; comp. Zosim. v. 6.)
  The territory of Tegea formed the southern part of the plain of Tripolitza...Tegea was about 10 miles S. of the latter city, in a direct line, and about 3 miles SE. of the modern town of Tripolitza. Being situated in the lowest part of the plain, it was exposed to inundations caused by the waters flowing down from the surrounding mountains; and in the course of ages the soil has been considerably raised by the depositions brought down by the waters. Hence there are scarcely any remains of the city visible, and its size can only be conjectured from the broken pieces of stone and other fragments scattered on the plain, and from the foundations of walls and buildings discovered by the peasants in working in the fields. It appears, however, that the ancient city extended from the hill of Aio Sostis (St. Saviour on the N., over the hamlets Ibrahim-Effendi and Paleo--Episkopi, at least as far as Akhuria and Piali. This would make the city at least 4 miles in circumference. The principal remains are at Piali. Near the principal church of this village Leake found the foundations of an ancient building, of fine squared stones, among which were two pieces of some large columns of marble; and there can be little doubt that these are the remains of the ancient temple of Athena Alea. This temple was said to have been originally built by Aleus, the founder of Tegea; it was burnt down in B.C. 394, and the new building, which was erected by Scopas, is said by Pausanias to have been the largest and most magnificent temple in the Peloponnesus (Paus. viii. 45. §4, seq.) Pausanias entered the city through the gate leading to Pallantium, consequently the south-western gate, which must have been near Piali. He begins his description with the temple of Athena Alea, and then goes across the great agora to the theatre, the remains of which Ross traces in the ancient foundations of the ruined church of Paleo--Episkopi. Perhaps this theatre was the splendid marble one built by Antiochus IV. Epiphanes in B.C. 175. (Liv. xli. 20.) Pausanias ends his description with the mention of a height (chorion hupselon, viii. 53. § 9), probably the hill Aio Sostis in the N. of the town, and apparently the same as that which Pausanias elsewhere calls the Watch-Hill (lophos Phulaktris, viii. 48. § 4), and Polybius the acropolis (akra, v. 17). None of the other public buildings of Tegea mentioned by Paulsanias can be identified with certainty; but there can be no doubt if excavations were made on its site many interesting remains would be discovered, since the deep alluvial soil is favourable to their preservation...
  There were five roads leading from Tegea. One led due N. across the Tegeatic plain to Mantineia. A second led due S. by the valley of the Alpheius to Sparta, following the same route as the present road from Tripolitza to Mistra. A third led west to Pallantium. It first passed by the small mountain Cresium (Kresion), and then ran across the Manthyric plain along the side of the Taki. Mount Cresium is probably the small isolated hill on which the modern village of Vuno stands, and not the high mountain at the end of the plain, according to the French map. Upon reaching the Choma (Choma), the road divided into two, one road leading direct to Pallantium, and the other SW. to Megalopolis through Asea. (Paus. viii. 44. § 1, seq.; Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 9, hai epi to Pallantion Pherousai pulai. This choma separated the territories of Pallantium and Tegea, and extended as far south as Mount Boreium (Krauori), where it touched the territory of Megalopolis. There are still remains of this choma running NE. to SW. by the side of the marsh of Taki. These remains consist of large blocks of stone, and must be regarded as the foundations of the choma, which cannot have been a chaussee or causeway, as the French geographers call it, since Choma always signifies in Greek writers an artificial heap of earth, a tumulus, mound, or dyke. (Ross, p. 59.) A fourth road led SE. from Tegea, by the sources of the Garates to Thyreatis. (Paus. viii. 54. § 4.) A fifth road led NE. to Hysiae and Argos, across the Corythic plain, and then across Mt. Parthenium, where was a temple of Pan, erected on the spot at which the god appeared to the courier Pheidippides. This road was practicable for carriages, and was much frequented. (Paus. viii. 54. § 5, seq.; Herod. vi. 105, 106)
  The Roman poets use the adjective Tegeeus or Tegeaeus as equivalent to Arcadian: thus it is given as an epithet to Pan (Virg. Georg. i. 18), Callisto, daughter of Lycaon (Ov. Ar. Am. ii. 55, Fast. ii. 167), Atalanta (Ov. Met. viii. 317, 380), Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 627), and Mercury (Stat. Silv. i. 54)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities


(Oresteion) or Orestheum (Orestheion), also called Oresthasium (Oresthasion) by Pausanias. A town of Arcadia, southeast of Megalopolis, in the district of Oresthis. Its ruins, according to Pausanias, were to be seen to the right of the road leading from Megalopolis to Tegaea. Orestes died here.


   (Pallantion). An ancient town of Arcadia, near Tegea, said to have been founded by Pallas, son of Lycaon. Evander is said to have come from this place, and to have called the town which he founded on the banks of the Tiber Pallanteum (afterwards Palantium and Palatium), after the Arcadian town. Hence Evander is called Pallantius heros.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
   Now Piali; an important city of Arcadia, the capital of the district Tegeatis, which was bounded on the east by Argolis and Laconica, on the south by Laconia, on the west by Maenalia, and on the north by the territory of Mantinea. It was one of the most ancient towns of Arcadia, and is said to have been founded by Tegeates, the son of Lycaon. The Tegeatae sent 3000 men to the battle of Plataea, in which they were distinguished for their bravery. They remained faithful to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War; but after the battle of Leuctra they joined the rest of the Arcadians in establishing their independence. During the wars of the Achaean League, Tegea was taken both by Cleomenes, king of Sparta, and Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, and the ally of the Achaeans.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Individuals' pages


  Situated in Arcadia, almost in the middle of Peloponese, 20 km (13 miles)from both cities of Tripoli and Megalopoli and 190 km (120 miles) from Athens, Asea has become one of the most well positioned and attractive places in Greece. A village with few permanent inhabitants but with great prospects because it becomes the municipal center of the region. Asea attracts many visitors because of its natural beauty, during the weekends and the summer, so it's a place worth visiting.
  Short History
  The name comes from Aseatis, son of the Spartan king Lykaon. The ancient city of Asea, whose ruins can be seen until today, stands with its Acropolis near Kato Asea. Its cultural presence starts since 6000 BC and becomes more intensive during the following years. Many cultural treasures of that period can be seen at Tripoli, Nafplio and Athens Archeological museums.The two marvellous doric temples, of Poseidon (Neptune) and Athena (Minerva) show a prosperous city. The habitants of Asea took place in the historical battles of Plataies (479 BC) and Mantinia (362 BC). Coins of the city were cut at 196 BC. Asea took part in the foundation of the city of Megalopoli.Much later, under the turkish occupation the village had the name "Kandreva" and took back its ancient name at the 1920's. It's the village of Nikos Gatsos, one of the most well known contemporary greek poets.
  In Asea you can stop for coffee in the following traditional cafes: "Elvetia" and "O Barba Semis" In Kato Asea you can have lunch or dinner in "Mantinia" restaurant, for a cup of coffee or food in "Platanos" and at "B.Gatsos" cafe.


Local government Web-Sites

Municipality of Mantinia


Municipality of Tripoli

TRIPOLI (Municipality) ARCADIA

Municipality of Valtetsi


Local government WebPages




Municipality of Valtetsi



TEGEA (Municipality) ARCADIA

Non-profit organizations WebPages

Association of Artemisio in Athens


Orevatein WebPages

Perseus Project

Asea, Asean

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI

Mantinea, Mantineia, Ptolis, Mantinean


Mount Maenalus


Maenalus, Maenalian


Orchomenus, Orchomenos, Orchomenians, Orchomenian


Oresthasium, Oresteum






Tegea, Tegean, Tegeans

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA

Perseus Project index


DIPEA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Present location

Old castle of Fragos

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI


DIPEA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS

Kakavouleri knoll





ION (Ancient small town) SKYRITIDA


Its position has been located between the villages Agiorgitiko, Steno and Neochorio.

The Ntaraiikos plain

NASSI (Ancient small town) LEVIDI


To the south of the Rapsomati village.

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI
  The site is on a steep hill overlooking a valley between Tripolis and Megalopolis. Remains of a circuit wall around the top of the hill and of two spur walls which surround a lower town at E are dated to mid 3d c. B.C. Some houses belong to the Hellenistic period. One of them is of the Priene type, previously known only outside of Greece. The Hellenistic site seems to have existed into the 1st c. B.C. Ancient sources mention an Asea also during the Classical period, but this town must have lain somewhere else in the valley. Immediately below the Hellenistic stratum on the hill are the remains of a Middle Helladic settlement, which ceased at a time corresponding to the transition between MH II and MH III.

E. J. Holmerg, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


  Located in the plain N of modern Tripolis and off the road to Olympia. Mentioned as lovely by Homer (Il. 2.607), it was formed by the synoecism of five villages at some unknown date (Strab. 8.3.2). As an ally of Sparta, Mantinea took part with 500 hoplites in the battle of Thermopylai (Hdt. 7.202), but came too late for Plataia (Hdt. 9.77). Mantinea split with Sparta in 420 (Thuc. 5.29) when interests collided, and was disbanded by Sparta in 385. After the battle of Leuktra in 371 the city was reconstituted, and was a member of the Arkadian League until 362 (Xen. Hell. 7.5), at which time it returned to friendship with Sparta. In 223 Antigonos Doson destroyed the city which was then refounded under the name of Antigoneia, a name which it retained until Hadrian's time. Numerous battles took place in the vicinity (418: Thuc. 5.64-81; 362: Xen. Hell. 7.5; 207: Polyb. 11.11-19). Pausanias describes the city (8.8.3-8.12), thus disproving Strabo (8.8.2), who included it among states no longer extant.
  The 4th c. city--the most ancient site was at Ptolis, securely identified with the hill Gourtsouli--is located nearly in the middle of the plain, and was originally bisected by the Ophis river. Later, after Agesipolis had taken the city in 385 (Xen. Hell. 5.2.4-7) by damming the river and thus causing the sun-dried bricks of the walls to collapse, the river was diverted so as to flow around the city. The circuit of the walls, 3942 m long and roughly oval in shape, is preserved for nearly its entire extent. Originally built up in mudbrick, only the socle of the inner and outer curtain remains, at a height varying between 1-1.8 m with a width of 4.2-4.7 m. Over 100 towers (estimates vary as to the original number) are built out from the wall, and there are at least nine, and possibly ten, gates. Most of the gates are so constructed that one is forced to approach through towers into a passage between sections of the wall. Excavators have cleared the agora (85 x 150 m) with colonnades around it, and the remains of a 4th c. theater at its W end. Though rebuilt and remodeled at various times, it may well be one of the earlier Greek theaters.

W. F. Wyatt, Jr., ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


  The site is located N of Mantinea on an acropolis dominating the plains of Levidi and Candyla from an elevation of 936 m. The name Orchomenos appears in the Catalogue of Ships (Iliad) and in the Odyssey. At the time of Pausanias the higher part of the city had already been abandoned (Paus. 8.13.2), a fact confirmed also by the lack of Roman remains in that zone. A wall in polygonal masonry with a perimeter of ca. 2300 m enclosed the upper part of the acropolis. It appears to have undergone repeated renovation. The earliest wall must have been erected at the end of the 5th c. B.C. (Thuc. 5.61), though those parts actually visible are from the 4th and 3d c. and appear to be interrupted every 30 or 50 m by square towers. There were two gates, one opening to the W and the other to the SE toward the Charadra, the principal fountain of the city. Inside the walled area a quadrangular agora has been found, flanked on the N by a portico and on the E by a bouleuterion. S of the agora is the Temple of Artemis Mesopolitis, the major sanctuary of the city, datable to the second half of the 6th c. B.C. In Ionic style, with foundation and socle in limestone, the upper section was probably of brick. To the NE of the agora was the theater, of which there remains part of the skene and proskenion, as well as a marble seat from the proedria with an inscription from the 4th-3d c. The lower city, seat of the modern village, was inhabited from the Geometric age until Roman times. There are recognizable remains of a peripteral temple from the end of the 6th c. B.C., which may be identified as one of the two temples mentioned by Pausanias and dedicated respectively to Poseidon and Aphrodite. Also found are cisterns, fountains, and private houses from both Greek and Roman epochs, one of which is served by thermal springs.

L. Vlad Borrelli, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 29 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


  More important for Roman legend than for Greek history and archaeology, for the Romans believed that Evander set out from there to settle the Palatine in Rome. Though already mentioned in Hesiod (Fr. 162 Merkelbach-West), the town never attained importance. It subscribed to the Arkadian synoecism after the battle of Leuktra; a battle between Kleomenes and Aratos took place there in 228 (Plut. Cleom. 4.4, Arat. 35.5); because of the fancied Arkadian origin of the first settlers of the Palatine, the emperor Antoninus Pius made the village a city libera et immunis (Paus. 8.43.3).
  The ancient city is located some 7 km SW of Tripolis, just E of the Tripolis-Megalopolis road. On a low hill rising in front of Mt. Kravari (ancient Boreion) the Chapel of St. John is set down in the foundations of a rectangular building (16.15 x 8.90 m) with an E orientation, probably the sanctuary dedicated to the Pure Gods mentioned by Pausanias (8.44.5). A few in to the N, with the same orientation, there is a smaller, earlier, megaron (10.45 x 4.50 m). A number of votive offerings (6th-5th c. B.C.), now in the museum at Tegea, were found beneath a terracotta paving of a small room in the area. Portions of the acropolis wall are still in place. On the S slope of the hill, on a large terrace, there are to be found the foundations of a temple (21.40 x 11.70 m), apparently of 5th c. date. About 1.6 km SW of Pallantion, on the N portion of Mt. Boreion in a place called Vigli there are observable the foundations of a temple (11.55 x 24.70 m), dated to the last quarter of the 6th c. which has been identified with that of Athena Soteira and Poseidon (Paus. 8.44.4). The structure replaces an earlier, 7th c. building on the same site.

W. F. Wyatt, Jr., ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
  Old and important city in SW part of the region, some 12 km to the S of Tripolis. Mention is made of it as early as the Catalogue of Ships (Il. 2.607). In the archaic period (before 600), nine demes whose names are given by Pausanias (8.45.1) came together to form the city, which is situated in the Tegeatis, which on the E borders Kynuria and Argolis (though separated from them by Mt. Parthenion), in the S on Lakonia, in the W on Mainalia, and in the N on Mantineia. The city district lies between the villages of Piali (now Tegea), Haghios Sostis, Omertsaousi, and Achouria. In the absence of recent excavations, the location of the city walls remains uncertain.
  Tegea had a role to play in the saga of the Dorian migrations: Echemos, king of Tegea, killed Hyllos, son of Herakles (cf. Hdt. 9.26). In its early period, Tegea fought with Sparta, which sought in vain to conquer it (Hdt. 1.66-68) but from 550 B.C. incorporated it in its Peloponnesian League. Tegea remained in the alliance with Sparta, and furnished the second strongest Peloponnesian army in the Persian War. At the battle of Marathon, the Athenians adopted the Arkadian goat-god Pan from the Tegean mountains (Hdt. 6.105-6). The Tegeans fought with 1,500 hoplites at Plataiai (Hdt. 9.28) and are mentioned on the snake-column at Delphi. Between 470 and 465 a rivalry grew up between the Arkadians and the Spartans, and the Tegeans suffered defeats (Hdt. 9.35). An oligarchic party bound Tegea closer to Sparta, and thus brought the city into conflict with Mantineia. In the Peloponnesian War, Tegea fought on the Spartan side. Around 430-420 Tegea began to strike its own coins. It was given a city wall ca. 370 B.C. at the instigation of the pro-Sparta party (Xen. Hell. 6.4.18, 6.5.6-15, 7.5-8). In 362 at the battle of Mantineia Tegea fought on the Theban side, and in 316 successfully withstood a siege by Kassandros, but was taken in 222 by Antogonos Doson, in 218 by Lykourgos, and 210 by Machanidas. Directly afterwards Philopoimen made it a base for his struggle with Sparta. In 174 B.C. King Antiochos IV Epiphanes of Syria gave money for the rebuilding in marble of the cavea and the analemma-wall of the theater which had been standing since the end of the 4th c. B.C. Remains of it are incorporated in the Christian basilica of Palaio Episkopi.
  Although it lost in importance during the Hellenistic period, in comparison to other Arkadian cities Tegea maintained its position well (Strab. and is described extensively by Pausanias ca. A.D. 170 (8.45-54). In 124 the emperor Hadrian visited Tegea, and had the baths rebuilt. This led to the adoption of a new chronological reckoning-point (IG v.2 no. 51-52). About 395 Tegea was destroyed by Alaric and his Goths (Zosimos 5.6.4-5, Claudian, Bell. Goth. 57Sf). But the presence of Christian basilicas show that Tegea continued to be inhabited in the 5th and 6th c.
  The holiest sanctuary in Tegea and the old cultic center of the region was the Temple of Athena Alea, in the neighborhood of which Late Mycenaean sherds have been found. The votive gifts show that the cult of the goddess dates back to the Geometric period. According to tradition the shrine was founded by Aleos, and from the distant past it possessed the right of asylum, and was famous as a place of refuge not merely for fugitives and exiles, but also for various kings of Sparta. On the N side of the temple was the brook where Herakles is supposed to have ravished Aleos' daughter Auge. Her exposed son Telephos later became king of Mysia and Pergamon.
  In the area of the sanctuary have been found the remains of an archaic temple whose cult-statue was carved by the Attic sculptor Endoios and transported by Augustus to Rome, where it was placed in the Forum Augustum. The archaic temple burned down in 395-394 and was replaced in the middle of the 4th c. Skopas designed the new temple and its sculptures. The remains of this temple were discovered in 1879-80 and excavated from 1900 to 1902. A complete reconstruction of the architecture is now possible, but our knowledge of the accompanying sculptures (metopes and pediments) is still unsatisfactory, despite the fact that outstanding fragments are to be found in the museums at Tegea and Athens (nos. 178-180). The surviving sculptures should be dated around 340 B.C.
  The temple foundations are of rubble-work. The krepis and the other parts of the building are of marble from Doliana. On the stylobate, which measures 47.52 x 19.16 m, was the peristalsis, 14 Doric columgs long and 6 wide. The columns were 19.16 m high. Two ramps to the N and E lead to the stylobate. The cella also had a door to the N. The pronaos and opisthodomos also had Doric columns. Above them were carved metopes which have almost completely vanished but inscriptions for which remain on the architrave (IG v.2 no. 78-79). Inside the cella were Corinthian half-columns arranged in such a way that the Ionic bases are an extension of the wall base. The Corinthian capitals show the henceforth canonical acanthus leaves between the volutes, instead of the palmette seen at Bassai-Phigalia.
  On the E the metopes showed the fight of Herakles with Kepheus and his sons; on the W, the Telephos myth. The E pediment showed the Calydonian boar hunt with Meleager and Atalanta, the W pediment again depicting the Telephos myth. Counting the splendid plant-acroteria of the pediment, the temple was 15.7 m high. In the E of the temple the substructure of the altar measured some 11 x 23 m.
  In the 5th c. an Early Christian basilica was installed in the cella, use being made of a salvaged door.
  The market, which was rectangular according to Pausanias, has been identified as having been W of the theater and the Church of Palaio Episkopi. The agora had colonnades. An inscription and various finds show the existence of a common table and a weights and measures office of the agoranomon, as well as a macellum.
  In the park to the W of the Palaio Episkopi are the remains of an Early Christian basilica of the 5th c., with one nave and mosaic paving showing the twelve seasons and the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
  Tegea's acropolis was located on the hill of Haghios Sostis, which was inhabited from Mycenaean times. It is identical with a place named Phylaktris or Akra (Paus. 8.48.4, Polyb. 5.17.2). Here was situated the Temple of Athena Polias, which was not the same as that of Athena Alea. No remains of it have been found. On the NE side of Haghios Sostis excavations have uncovered a Sanctuary of Demeter-Kore which cannot be identified with that mentioned by Pausanias as belonging to the agora. Finds are in the National Museum at Athens and in the museum at Tegea. There are important questions concerning the city area that can be answered only after further excavations.
  For finds collected in the museum, see the Bibliography below.

W. Fuchs, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 58 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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