Information about the place LEVIDI (Small town) MANTINIA - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


AMILOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
Amilos: Amilios. A village of Arcadia in the territory of Orchomenus, and on the road from the latter to Stymphalus.


KAFYES (Ancient city) LEVIDI
  Kaphuai: Eth. Kaphuates, Kaphueus. A town of Arcadia situated in a small plain, NW. of the lake of Orchomenus. It was protected against inundations from this lake by a mound or dyke, raised by the inhabitants of Caphyae. The city is said to have been founded by Cepheus, the son of Aleus, and pretended to be of Athenian origin. (Paus. viii. 23. § 2; Strab. xiii.) Caphyae subsequently belonged to the Achaean league, and was one of the cities of the league, of which Cleomenes obtained possession. (Pol. ii. 52.) In its neighbourhood a great battle was fought in B.C. 220, in which the Aetolians, gained a decisive victory over the Achaeans and Aratus. (Pol. iv. 11, seq.) The name of Caphyae also occurs in the subsequent events of this war. (Pol. iv. 68, 70.) Strabo (viii. p. 388) speaks of the town as in ruins in his time; but it still contained some temples when visited by Pausanias. The remains of the walls of Caphyae are visible upon a small insulated height at the village of Khotussa, which stands near the edge of the lake. Polybius, in his description of the battle of Caphyae, refers to a plain in front of Caphyae, traversed by a river, beyond which were trenches (taphroi), a description of the place which does not correspond with present appearances. The taphroi were evidently ditches for the purpose of draining the marshy plain, by conducting the water towards the katavothra, around which there was, probably, a small lake. In the time of Pausanias we find that the lake covered the greater part of the plain; and that exactly in the situation in which Polybius describes the ditches, there was a mound of earth. Nothing is more probable than that during the four centuries so fatal to the prosperity of Greece, which elapsed between the battle of Caphyae and the visit of Pausanias, a diminution of population should have caused a neglect of the drainage which had formerly ensured the cultivation of the whole plain, and that in the time of the Roman empire an embankment of earth had been thrown up to preserve the part nearest to Caphyae, leaving the rest uncultivated and marshy. At present, if there are remains of the embankment, which I did not perceive, it does not prevent any of the land from being submerged during several months, for the water now extends very nearly to the site of Caphyae.
  Pausanias says that on the inner side of the embankment there flows a river, which, descending into a chasm of the earth, issues again at a place called Nasi (Nasoi); and that the name of the village where it issues is named Rheunus (Hpeunos). From this place it forms the perennial river Tragus (Tragos). He also speaks of a mountain in the neighbourhood of the city named Cnacalus (Knakalos), on which the inhabitants celebrate a yearly festival to Artemis Cnacalesia. Leake remarks that the mountain above Khotussa, now called Kastania, seems to be the ancient Cnacalus. The river Tara is probably the ancient Tragus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Maenalus. (Mainalos, Strab. viii. p. 388; Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. i. 769; Mainalon, Theocr. i. 123; to Mainalion oros, Paus. viii. 36. § 7; Maenalus, Virg. Ecl. viii. 22; Mel. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 6. s. 10; Maenala, pl., Virg. Ecl. x. 55; Ov. Met. i. 216), a lofty mountain of Arcadia, forming the western boundary of the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. It was especially sacred to the god Pan, who is hence called Maenalius Deus (Ov. Fast. iv. 650.) The inhabitants of the mountain fancied that they had frequently heard the god playing on his pipe. The two highest summits of the mountain are called at present Aidin and Apano-Khrepa: the latter is 5115 feet high. The mountain is at present covered with pines and firs; the chief pass through it is near the modern town of Tripolitza. The Roman poets frequently use the adjectives Maenalius and Maenalis as equivalent to Arcadian. Hence Maenalii versus, shepherds' songs, such as were usual in Arcadia (Virg. Ecl. viii.21); Maenalis ora, i.e. Arcadia (Ov. Fast. iii. 84); Maenalisnympha, i. e. Carmenta (Ov. Fast. i. 634); Maenalis Ursa, and Maenalia Arctos, the constellation of the Bear, into which Callisto, daughter of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, was said to have been metamorphosed. (Ov. Trist. iii. 11. 8, Fast. ii. 192.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  An ancient city of Arcadia, called by Thucydides (v. 61) the Arcadian (ho Arkadikos), to distinguish it from the Boeotian town. It was situated in a plain surrounded on every side by mountains. This plain was bounded on the S. by a low range of hills, called Anchisia, which separated it from the territory of Mantineia; on the N. by a lofty chain, called Oligyrtus, through which lie the passes into the territories of Pheneus and Stymphalus; and on the E. and W. by two parallel chains running from N. to S., which bore no specific name in antiquity: the eastern range is in one part 5400 feet high, and the western about 4000 feet. The plain is divided into two by hills projecting on either side from the eastern and western ranges, and which approach so close as to allow space for only a narrow ravine between them. The western hill, on account of its rough and rugged form, was called Trachy (Trachu) in antiquity; upon the summit of the western mountain stood the acropolis of Orchomenus. The northern plain is lower than the southern; the waters of the latter run through the ravine between Mount Trachy and that upon which Orchomenus stands into the northern plain, where, as there is no outlet for the waters, they form a considerable lake. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4.)
  The acropolis of Orchomenus, stood upon a lofty, steep, and insulated hill, nearly 3000 feet high, resembling the strong fortress of the Messenian Ithome, and, like the latter, commanding two plains. From its situation and its legendary history, we may conclude that it was one of the most powerful cities of Arcadia in early times. Pausanias relates that Orchomenus was founded by an eponymous hero, the son of Lycaon (viii. 3. § 3); but there was a tradition that, on the death of Areas, his dominions were divided among his three sons, of whom Elatus obtained Orchomenus as his portion. (Schol. ad. Dionys. Per. 415.) The kings of Orchomenus are said to have ruled over nearly all Arcadia. (Heraclid. Pont. ap. Diog. Laert. i. 94.) Pausanias also gives a list of the kings of Orchomenus, whom he represents at the same time as kings of Arcadia. One of these kings, Aristocrates, the son of Aechmis, was stoned to death by his people for violating the virgin priestess of Artemis Hymnia. Aristocrates was succeeded by his son Hicetas, and Hicetas by his son Aristocrates II., who, having abandoned the Messenians at the battle of the Trench in the second war against Sparta, experienced the fate of his grandfather, being stoned to death by the Arcadians. He appears to have been the last king of Orchomenus, who reigned over Arcadia, but his family was not deprived of the kingdom of Orchomenus, as is stated in some authorities, since we find his son Aristodemus represented as king of the city. (Paus. viii. 5; Polyb. iv. 3; Heracl. Pont. l. c.) It would appear, indeed, that royalty continued to exist at Orchomenus long after its abolition in most other Grecian cities, since Theophilus related that Peisistratus, king of Orchomenus, was put to death by the aristocracy in the Peloponnesian War. (Plut. Parall. 32.)
  Orchomenus is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithet of polumelos (Il. ii. 605); and it is also called ferax by Ovid (Met. vi. 416), and aphneos by Apollonius Rhodius (iii. 512). In the Persian wars Orchomenus sent 120 men to Thermopylae (Herod. viii. 102), and 600 to Plataeae (ix. 28). In the Peloponnesian War, the Lacedaemonians deposited in Orchomenus the hostages they had taken from the Arcadians; but the walls of the city were then in a dilapidated state; and accordingly, when the Athenians and their Peloponnesian allies advanced against the city in B.C. 418, the Orchomenians dared not offer resistance, and surrendered the hostages. (Thuc. v. 61.) At the time of the foundation of Megalopolis, we find the Orchomenians exercising supremacy over Theisoa, Methydrium, and Teuthis; but the inhabitants of these cities were then transferred to Megalopolis, and their territories assigned to the latter. (Paus.viii.27. §4.) The Orchomenians, through their enmity to the Mantineians, refused to join the Arcadian confederacy, and made war upon the Mantineians. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. 11, seq.; Diod. xv. 62.) Henceforth Orchomenus lost its political importance; but, from its commanding situation, its possession was frequently an object of the belligerent powers in later times. In the war between Cassander and Polysperchon, it fell into the power of the former, B.C. 313. (Diod. xix. 63.) It subsequently espoused the side of the Aetolians, was taken by Cleomenes (Polyb. ii. 46), and was afterwards retaken by Antigonus Doson, who placed there a Macedonian garrison. (Polyb. ii. 54, iv. 6; Plut. Arat. 5.) It was given back by Philip to the Achaeans. (Liv. xxxii. 5.) Strabo mentions it among the Arcadian cities, which had either disappeared, or of which there were scarcely any traces left (viii. p. 338); but this appears from Pausanias to have been an exaggeration. When this writer visited the place, the old city upon the summit of the mountain was in ruins, and there were only some vestiges of the agora and the town walls; but at the foot of the mountain there was still an inhabited town. The upper town was probably deserted at a very early period; for such is the natural strength of its position, that we can hardly suppose that the Orchomenians were dwelling there in the Peloponnesian War, when they were unable to resist an invading force. Pausanias mentions, as the most remarkable objects in the place, a source of water, and temples of Poseidon and Aphrodite, with statues of stone. Close to the city was a wooden statue of Artemis, enclosed in a great cedar tree, and hence called Cedreatis. Below the city were several heaps of stones, said to have been erected to some persons slain in battle. (Paus. viii. 13.)
  The village of Kalpaki stands on the site of the lower Orchomenus. On approaching the place from the south the traveller sees, on his left, tumuli, chiefly composed of collections of stones, as described by Pausanias. Just above Kalpaki are several pieces of white marble columns, belonging to an ancient temple. There are also some remains of a temple at a ruined church below the village, near which is a copious fountain, which is evidently the one described by Pausanias. On the summit of the hill are some remains of the walls of the more ancient Orchomenus.
  In the territory of Orchomenus, but adjoining that of Mantineia, consequently on the northern slope of Mt. Anchisia, was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which was held in high veneration by all the Arcadians in the most ancient times. (Paus. viii. 5. § 11.) Its site is probably indicated by a chapel of the Virgin Mary, which stands east of Levidhi.
  In the southern plain is an ancient canal, which conducts the waters from the surrounding mountains through the ravine into the lower or northern plain, which is the other Orchomnenian plain of Pausanias (viii. 13. § 4). After passing the ravine, at the distance of 3 stadia from Orchomenus, the road divides into two. One turns to the left along the northern side of the Orchomenian acropolis to Caphyae, the other crosses the torrent, and passes under Mt. Trachy to the tomb of Aristocrates, beyond which are the fountains called Teneiae (Teneiai). Seven stadia further is a place called Amilus (Amilos). Here, in ancient times, the road divided into two, one leading to Stymphalus and the other to Pheneus. (Paus. viii. 13. § 4, seq.) The above-mentioned fountains are visible just beyond Trachy, and a little further are some Hellenic ruins, which are those of Amilus.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Local government WebPages


Orevatein WebPages

Perseus Project

Mount Maenalus

Orchomenus, Orchomenos, Orchomenians, Orchomenian


Present location

The Ntaraiikos plain

NASSI (Ancient small town) LEVIDI

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


  The site is located N of Mantinea on an acropolis dominating the plains of Levidi and Candyla from an elevation of 936 m. The name Orchomenos appears in the Catalogue of Ships (Iliad) and in the Odyssey. At the time of Pausanias the higher part of the city had already been abandoned (Paus. 8.13.2), a fact confirmed also by the lack of Roman remains in that zone. A wall in polygonal masonry with a perimeter of ca. 2300 m enclosed the upper part of the acropolis. It appears to have undergone repeated renovation. The earliest wall must have been erected at the end of the 5th c. B.C. (Thuc. 5.61), though those parts actually visible are from the 4th and 3d c. and appear to be interrupted every 30 or 50 m by square towers. There were two gates, one opening to the W and the other to the SE toward the Charadra, the principal fountain of the city. Inside the walled area a quadrangular agora has been found, flanked on the N by a portico and on the E by a bouleuterion. S of the agora is the Temple of Artemis Mesopolitis, the major sanctuary of the city, datable to the second half of the 6th c. B.C. In Ionic style, with foundation and socle in limestone, the upper section was probably of brick. To the NE of the agora was the theater, of which there remains part of the skene and proskenion, as well as a marble seat from the proedria with an inscription from the 4th-3d c. The lower city, seat of the modern village, was inhabited from the Geometric age until Roman times. There are recognizable remains of a peripteral temple from the end of the 6th c. B.C., which may be identified as one of the two temples mentioned by Pausanias and dedicated respectively to Poseidon and Aphrodite. Also found are cisterns, fountains, and private houses from both Greek and Roman epochs, one of which is served by thermal springs.

L. Vlad Borrelli, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 29 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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