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Listed 10 sub titles with search on: Information about the place  for wider area of: "XYLOKASTRO Small town CORINTHIA" .

Information about the place (10)


Xylokastro Castle

Built in 1260, dominated the area, was destroyed by earthuquake in 1402 and does not exist today

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(Following URL information in Greek only)

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


  The harbour of Pellene was called Aristonautae (Aristonautai), and was distant 60 stadia from Pellene, and 120 from Aegeira. It is said to have been so called from the Argonauts having landed there in the course of their voyage. (Paus. vii. 26. § 14, ii. 12. § 2.) It was probably on the site of the modern Kamari. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 384.) A little to the E., near the coast, was the fortress Olurus (Olouros), dependent upon Pellene; Leake places it at Xylo-castro. It would thus have stood at the entrance of the gorge leading from the maritime plain into the territory of Pellene, and would have been a position of great importance to the safety of that district. (Xen. Hell. vii. 14. 17, 18; Plin. iv. 6; Mel. iii. 3; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, vol. iii. p. 224.) Near Aristonautae was Gonnusa or Gonoessa, to which Homer gives the epithet of lofty (aipeine). According to Pausanias its proper name was Donussa (Donoussa), which was changed by Peisistratus into Gonoessa, when he collected the poems of Homer. Pausanias says that it was a fortress belonging to the Sicyonians, and lay between Aegeira and Pellene; but from its position we may infer that it was at one time dependent upon Pellene. Leake places it at Koryfi, the lofty mountain, at the foot of which is Kamari, the ancient Aristonautae. (Horn. Il. ii. 573; Paus. vii. 26. § 13; Leake, vol. iii. p. 385.)

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  Dor. Pellana, Pellina. Eth. Pelleneus, Pellenensis, Pellenaeus. (Tzerkovi, nr. Zugra). A town of Achaia, and the most easterly of the twelve Achaean cities, whose territory bordered upon that of Sicyon on the E. and upon that of Aegeira on the W. Pellene was situated 60 stadia from the sea, upon a strongly fortified hill, the summit of which rose into an inaccessible peak, dividing the city into two parts. Its name was derived by the inhabitants themselves from the giant Pallas, and by the Argives from the Argive Pellen, a son of Phorbas. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Strab. viii. p. 386; Paus. vii. 26. § § 12 - 14; Apoll. Rhod. i. 176.) Pellene was a city of great antiquity. It is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue; and according to a tradition, preserved by Thucydides, the inhabitants of Scione in the peninsula of Pallene in Macedonia professed to be descended from the Achaean Pallenians, who were driven on the Macedonian coast, on their return from Troy. (Horn. Il. ii. 574; Thuc. iv. 120.) At the commencement of the Peloponnesian War, Pellene was the only one of the Achaean towns which espoused the Spartan cause, though the other states afterwards followed their example. (Thuc. ii. 9.) In the time of Alexander the Great, Pellene fell under the dominion of one of its citizens of the name of Chaeron, a distinguished athlete, who raised himself to the tyranny by Alexander's assistance. (Paus. vii. 27. § 7.) In the wars which followed the re-establishment of the Achaean League, Pellene was several times taken and re-taken by the contending parties. (Pol. ii. 52, iv. 8, 13; Plut. Cleom. 17, Arat. 31, 32.). The buildings of Pellene are described by Pausanias (Vii. 27). Of these, the most important were a temple of Athena, with a statue of the goddess, said to have been one of the earlier works of Pheidias; a temple of Dionysus Lampter, in whose honour a festival, Lampteria, was celebrated; a temple of Apollo Theoxenius, to whom a festival, Theoxenia, was celebrated; a gymnasium, &c. Sixty stadia from the city was the Mysaeum (Musaion), a temple of the Mysian Demeter; and near it a temple of Asclepius, called Cyrus (Kuros): at both of these places there were copious springs. The ruins of Pellene are situated at Zugra, and are now called Tzesrkovi. The two temples of Mysaeum and Cyrus are placed by Leake at Trikkala, SE. of the ancient city. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 215, Peloponnesiaca, p. 391.)
  Between Aegium and Pellene, there was a village also called Pellene, celebrated for the manufacture of a particular kind of cloaks, which were given as prizes in the agonistic contests in the city. (Strab. viii. p. 386; Pind. Ol. ix. 146, with Schol.; Aristoph. Av. 1421, with Schol.; Hesych. and Phot. s. v. Pellenikai chlainai.) K. O. Muller (Dor. vol. ii. p. 430), however, questions this second Pellene: he supposes that Strabo is describing Pellene as both citadel and village, and he corrects the text, keitai de metaxu Aigiou kai Kullenes, instead of Pellenes; but the context renders this conjecture improbable.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities


The most easterly of the twelve cities of Achaia, near the frontiers of Sicyonia, and situated on a hill sixty stadia from the city. The inhabitants of the peninsula of Pallene, in Macedonia, professed to be descended from the Pellenaeans in Achaia, who were shipwrecked on the Macedonian coast on their return from Troy.


Local government Web-Sites

Perseus Project index

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites


  A city on the W side of the Sys, near the modern village of Zougra, commanding the road from the coast of the Corinthian Gulf at Xylokastro S to Trikkala. Homeric Pellene, whose site is not known, was destroyed by Sikyon; the Classical city dates from the 6th c. and was refortified in Late Roman times. Pausanias mentions a gold-and-ivory statue by Pheidias in the Temple of Athena, as well as Sanctuaries of Eileithyia, Poseidon, Artemis, Dionysos, and Apollo Theoxenios (god of strangers). Games called the Theoxenia were limited to native competitors; the famous Pellene cloaks were at one time given as prizes. Scattered remains of buildings and walls mark the site, which is divided by a barren ridge, the main part of the city being on the W side, the smaller on the E. There has been some controversy over the location of Aristonautai, the port of Pellene: it was probably at Xylokastro at the mouth of the river. The ruins at Kamari, some 6 km to the W at the mouth of the next river, are perhaps to be identified with 4th c. Oluros, described by Pliny as the fortress of the people of Pellene, but apparently no longer of any significance in the time of Pausanias. The Sanctuary (Mysaion) and Sanatorium (Kyros) of Asklepios near Trikkala also belonged to Pellene.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

Pitsa - Cave of Saphtoulis

  A modern village S of ancient Aigira on the N side of Mt. Chelydorea (Paus. 7.17.5) near the summit of which a rich votive deposit in a deep cave (Cave of Saphtoulis) has been excavated. Extending to a depth of over 20 m and divided into several chambers, the cave was a cult center for the worship of chthonic deities, especially the nymphs and possibly Demeter, from ca. 700 B.C. into the Roman Imperial period.
  The finds, which remain largely unpublished, are in the nearby museum of Sikyon and in the National Museum of Athens. They include numerous terracotta figurines, votive pottery (mainly Corinthian), bronze mirrors and jewelry, Corinthian and Sikyonian coins, wooden statuettes, bone dice, etc. The cave is famous, however, for its beautifully painted and well-preserved wooden plaques. Represented on one plaque in free-style, polychrome technique of ca. 550 B.C. is a sacrificial procession with dipinto name-labels and the incomplete signature of a Corinthian painter in the epichoric Corinthian alphabet. Dipinti on this and on another plaque also show that these objects were dedicated to the nymphs. The four plaques from the cave are dated ca. 550-500 B.C. and supply almost unique evidence for nonceramic Corinthian painting of this period.

R. Stroud, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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