The farthest N of these islands, lying between Euboia and Tenos. Andros,
son of Eurymachos or Anios, gave his name to it; according to another tradition,
the name is associated with Andros, to whom Radamanthys gave the island (Diod.
Sic. 5.79; Paus. 10.13.3). The Andrians were Ionian descendants. Though dependent
on Eretria in the 8th c. B.C., Andros prospered by the next century, and founded
numerous colonies. It submitted to Persia in 490, received an Athenian cleruchy
in 450-440, and later entered the second Athenian League (378-377). In 200 B.C.
it was captured by Pergamene and Roman forces, and the cities mercilessly looted.
Major sites lie in the W part of the island. The ancient center of Andros is located at Palaiopolis, in the middle of the W coast, where there is an acropolis with vestiges of walls on the N side. Sections of walls and one gate are preserved at several points around the city. Ruins of a stoa dated in the 3d or 2d c. B.C. are preserved in the agora. In the city there were a famous Temple of Dionysos, a Fountain of Zeus (Plin. HN 2.231; Paus. 6.26.2; Philostr. Imag. 1.25) and Temples of Apollo, Hestia, and Athena Tauropols (Suidas, s.v.Tauropols). Further to the N is the harbor Gaupeion (Xen. Hell. 1.4.22; Diod. Sic. 13.69). To the NE is Haghios Petros, a village where a Hellenistic tower survives. Ancient iron mines have been reported in the area. Quarries of marble existed in the N part of the island. The important site of Geometric Zagora lies to the SE of Palaiopolis. The settlement, which flourished during the late 8th c. B.C. was fortified with a strong wall. One gate has been found on the S side; the N side is still unexcavated. The town is represented by a complex of rooms and courts. At a central position is a temple (10 x 8 m) consisting of a closed prodomos and an almost square cella which contained a stone altar (?). The temple is almost entirely built of schist, and probably had a flat roof. The plan is reminiscent of the temples at Xombourgo on Tenos and Emporio on Chios. There is an archaeological collection in Andros with sculptures of archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods and Geometric ceramic.
D. Schilardi, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
The most northerly and one of the largest islands of the Cyclades, southeast of Euboea, twenty-one miles long and eight broad, early attained importance, and colonized Acanthus and Stagira about B.C. 654. It was celebrated for its wine, whence the whole island was regarded as sacred to Dionysus.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
The chief city also called Andros, was situated nearly in the middle of the western coast of the island, at the foot of a lofty mountain. Its citadel strongly fortified by nature is mentioned by Livy. It had no harbour of its own, but it used one in the neighbourhood, called Gaurion (Taurion) by Xenophon (Hell. i. 4. § 22), and Gaureleon by Livy, and which still bears the ancient name of Gavrion. The ruins of the ancient city are described at length by Ross, who discovered here, among other inscriptions, an interesting hymn to Isis in hexameter verse, of which the reader will find a copy in the Classical Museum (vol. i. p. 34, seq.). The present population of Andros is 15,000 souls. Its soil is fertile, and its chief productions are silk and wine. It was also celebrated for its wine in antiquity, and the whole island was regarded as sacred to Dionysus. There was a tradition that, during the festival of this god, a fountain flowed with wine. (Plin. ii. 103, xxxi. 13; Paus. vi. 26, § 2.) (Thevenot, Travels, Part i. p. 15, seq.; Tournefort, Voyage, vol. i. p. 265, seq.; Fiedler, Reise, vol. ii. p. 221, seq.; and especially Ross, Reisen auf d. Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 12, seq.)
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
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