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Listed 52 sub titles with search on: Information about the place for wider area of: "VOLOS Municipality MAGNESSIA" .


Information about the place (52)

Miscellaneous

PORTARIA (Village) VOLOS

  The Municipality of Portaria comprises four villages perched on the slopes of northwestern Pelion. It lies between the beautiful beaches of the Pagasitikos Gulf and snow-capped peaks where exceptional ski runs have been created.
  There are dozens of hotels and hostels. There is a good road link with Volos and on the way up there is a wonderful view of Volos nestling in the bay.
  There is a police station, a post office, a bank, a medical centre and a pharmacy in Portaria.
This text (extract) is cited February 2004 from the Municipality of Portaria pamphlet (2001).


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PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

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PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

PORTARIA (Village) VOLOS

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AGRIA (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)

DIMITRIAS (Ancient city) MAGNESSIA

Demetrias

  Eth. Demetrieus. A city of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at the head of the Pagasaean gulf, was founded about. B.C. 290 by Demetrius Poliorcetes, who removed thither the inhabitants of Nelia, Pagasae, Ormenium, Rhizus, Sepias, Olizon, Boebe and lolcos, all of which were afterwards included in the territory of Demetrias. (Strab. ix.) It soon became an important place, and the favourite residence of the Macedonian kings. It was favourably situated for commanding the interior of Thessaly, as well as the neighbouring seas; and such was the importance of its position that it was called by the last Philip of Macedon one of the three fetters of Greece, the other two being Chalcis and Corinth. (Pol. xvii. 11; Liv. xxxii. 37.) Leake remarks that it may have been recommended to the kings of Macedonia as a residence not more for its convenience as a military and naval station in the centre of Greece, than for many natural advantages, in some of which it seems to have been very preferable to Pella. The surrounding seas and fertile districts of Thessaly supplied an abundance of the necessaries and luxuries of life: in summer the position is cool and salubrious, in winter mild, even when the interior of Thessaly is involved in snow or fog. The cape on which the town stood commands a beautiful view of the gulf, which appears like an extensive lake surrounded by rich and varied scenery; the neighbouring woods supply an abundance of delightful retreats, embellished by prospects of the Aegaean sea and its islands, while Mount Pelion might at once have afforded a park, an icehouse, and a preserve of game for the chase.
  After the battle of Cynoscephalae, B.C. 196, Demetrias was taken away from Philip, and garrisoned by the Romans. (Pol. xviii. 28; Liv. xxxiii. 31.) In B.C. 192, it was surprised by the Aetolians; and the news of its defection from the Romans determined Antiochus to defer no longer his departure to Greece. (Liv. xxxv. 34, 43.) After the return of Antiochus to Asia in B.C. 191, Demetrias surrendered to Philip, who was allowed by the Romans to retain possession of the place. (Liv. xxxvi. 33.) It continued in the hands of Philip and his successor till the over-throw of the Macedonian monarchy at the battle of Pydna, B.C. 169. (Liv. xliv. 13.) Demetrias is mentioned by Hierocles in the sixth century.
  The ancient town is described by Leake as occupying the southern or maritime face of a height, now called Goritza, which projects from the coast of Magnesia, between 2 and 3 miles to the southward of the middle of Volo. Though little more than foundations remains, the inclosure of the city, which was less than 2 miles in circumference, is traceable in almost every part. On three sides the walls followed the crest of a declivity which falls steeply to the east and west, as well as towards the sea. To the north the summit of the hill, together with an oblong space below it, formed a small citadel, of which the foundations still subsist. A level space in the middle elevation of the height was conveniently placed for the central part of the city. The acropolis contained a large cistern cut in the rock, which is now partly filled with earth...Many of the ancient streets of the town are traceable in the level which lies midway to the sea, and even the foundations of private houses: the space between one street and the next parallel to it, is little more than 15 feet. About the centre of the town is a hollow, now called the lagumi or mine, where a long rectangular excavation in the rock, 2 feet wide, 7 deep, and covered with flat stones, shows by marks of the action of water in the interior of the channel that it was part of an aqueduct, probably for the purpose of conducting some source in the height upon which stood the citadel, into the middle of the city. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 375, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FTHIOTIDES THIVES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Thebae Phthiotides

  Phthiae (Thebai hai phthiotides, Polyb. v. 99; Strab. ix. p. 433; Thebae Phthiae, Liv. xxxii. 33), an important town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, was situated in the northeastern corner of this district, near the sea, and at the distance of 300 stadia from Larissa. (Polyb. l. c.) It is not mentioned in the Iliad, but it was at a later time the most important maritime city in Thessaly, till the foundation of Demetrias, by Demetrius Poliorcetes, about B.C. 290. ( Thebas Phthias unum maritimum emporium fuisse quondam Thessalis quaestuosum et fugiferum, Liv. xxxix. 25.) It is first mentioned in B.C. 282, as the only Thessalian city, except Pelinnaeum, that did not take part in the Lamiac war. (Diod. xviii. 11.). In the war between Demetrius Poliorcetes and Cassander, in B.C. 302, Thebes was one of the strongholds of Cassander. (Diod. xx. 110.) It became at a later time the chief possession of the Aetolians in northern Greece; but it was wrested from them, after an obstinate siege, by Philip, the son of Demetrius, who changed its name into Philippopolis. (Polyb. v. 99, 100; Diod. xxvi. p. 513, ed. Wesseling.) It was attacked by the consul Flamininus, previous to the battle of Cynoscephalae, B.C. 197, but without success. (Liv. xxxiii. 5; Polyb. xviii. 2.) After the defeat of Philip, the name of Philippopolis was gradually dropped, though both names are used by Livy in narrating the transactions of the year B.C. 185. (Liv. xxxix, 25.) It continued to exist under the name of Thebes in the time of the Roman Empire, and is mentioned by Hierocles in the sixth century. ( Thebae Thessalae, Plin. v. 8. s. 15; Thebai phthiotidos, Ptol. iii. 13. § 17; Steph. B. s. v.; Hierocl. p. 642, ed. Wess.) The ruins of Thebes are situated upon a height half a mile to the north-east of Ak-Ketjel. The entire circuit of the walls and towers, both of the town and citadel, still exist; and the circumference is between 2 and 3 miles. The theatre, of which only a small part of tile exterior circular wall of the cavea remains, stood about the centre of the city, looking towards the sea.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


GLAFYRES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Glaphyrae

  Glaphupai. A town of Thessaly, mentioned by Homer along with Boebe and Iolcos (II. ii. 712; comp. Steph. B. s. v.), but of which the name does not subsequently occur. Leake conjectures that it is represented by the Hellenic ruins situated upon one of the hills above the modern village of Kaprena, between Boebe and Iolcos. The entire circuit of the citadel on the summit of the hill may be traced, and on its lower side part of the wall is still standing.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


IOLKOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

Iolcus

  Iolkos, Ep. Iaolkos, Dor. Ialkos: Eth. Iolkios, fem. Iolkis, Iolkias. An ancient city of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at the head of the Pagasaean gulf and at the foot of Mt. Pelion (Pind. Nem. iv. 88), and celebrated in the heroic ages as the residence of Jason, and the place where the Argonauts assembled. It is mentioned by Homer, who gives it the epithets of euktimene and euruchoros. It is said to have been founded by Cretheus (Apollod. i. 9. § 11), and to have been colonised by Minyans from Orchomenos. (Strab. ix.) lolcus is rarely mentioned in historical times. It was given by the Thessalians to Hippias, upon his expulsion from Athens. (Herod. v. 94.) The town afterwards suffered from the dissensions of its inhabitants, but it was finally ruined by the foundation of Demetrias in B.C. 290, when the inhabitants of Iolcos and of other adjoining towns were removed to this place. It seems to have been no longer in existence in the time of Strabo, since he speaks of the place where Iolcos stood (ho tes Iolkou topos).
  The position of Iolcos is indicated by Strabo, who says that it was on the road from Boebe to Demetrias, and at the distance of 7 stadia from the latter. In another passage he says that lolcos is situated above the sea at the distance of 7 stadia from Demetrias. Pindar also, as we have already seen, places Iolcos at the foot of Mt. Pelion, consequently a little inland. From these descriptions there is little doubt that Leake is right in placing Iolcos on the steep height between the southernmost houses of Volo and Vlckho-makhala, upon which stands a church called Episkopi. There are at present no ancient remains at this place; but some large squared blocks of stone are said to have formerly existed at the foot of the height, and to have been carried away for the construction of buildings elsewhere. Moreover, it is the only spot in the neighbourhood which has any appearance of being an ancient site. It might indeed appear, from Livy (xliv. 12, 13), that lolcus was situated upon the coast; but in this passage, as well as in Strabo, the name of lolcos seems to have been given to this part of the coast as well as to the city itself.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


NILIA (Ancient city) VOLOS

Nelia

A town of Magnesia in Thessaly, between which and lolcus Demetrias was situated. Leake identifies it with the remains of a small Hellenic town above Lekhonia.


ORMINION (Ancient city) VOLOS

Ormenium

  A town of Thessaly, mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships along with Hypereia and Asterium as belonging to Eurypylus (Hom. Il. ii. 734). It was said to have been founded by Ormenus, the grandson of Aeolus, and was the birthplace of Phoenix. (Demetr. Scepsius, ap. Strab. ix. p. 438, seq.) Strabo identifies this town with a place in Magnesia named Orminium, situated at the foot of Mt. Pelion, at the distance of 27 stadia from Demetrias, on the road passing through Iolcus, which was 7 stadia from Demetrias and 20 from Orminium. (Strab. l. c.) Leake, however, observes that the Ormenium of Homer can hardly have been the same as the Orminium of Strabo, since it appears from the situation of Asterium that Eurypylus ruled over the plains of Thessaliotis, which are watered by the Apidanus and Enipeus. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 434, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PAGASSES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pagasae

  Pagasai: also Pagasa, gen. - ae, Eth. Pagasaios, Pagasaeus. A town of Magnesia in Thessaly, situated at the northern extremity of the bay named after it. (Pagasetikos kolpos, Scylax, p. 24; Strab. ix. p. 438; Pagasites, Dem. Phil. Epist. 159; Pagasaeus Sinus, Mela, . c. c. Pagasicus, Plin. iv. 8. s. 15.) Pagasae is celebrated in mythology as the port where Jason built the ship Argo, and from which he sailed upon his adventurous voyage: hence some of the ancients derived its name from the construction of that vessel, (from pegnumi), but others from the numerous and abundant springs which were found at this spot. (Strab. ix. p. 436.) Pagasae was conquered by Philip after the defeat of Onomarchus. (Dem. Ol. i. pp. 11, 13; Diod. xvi. 31, where for Pagai we ought probably to read Pagasai.) On the foundation of Demetrias in B.C. 290, Pagasae was one of the towns, whose inhabitants were transferred to the new city; but after the Roman conquest Pagasae was restored, and again became an important place. In the time of Strabo it was the port of Pherae, which was the principal city in this part of Thessaly. Pagasae was 90 stadia from Pherae, and 20 from Iolcos. (Strab. l. c.) The ruins of the ancient city are to be seen near Volo, which has given the modern name to the bay. The acropolis occupied the summit of some rocky heights above Cape Angkistri, and at the foot of the rocks are many copious sources of water, of which Strabo speaks. But as these springs are rather saline to the taste, the city was provided in the Roman times with water from a distance by means of an aqueduct, the ruined piers of which are still a conspicuous object. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 368, seq.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

Pelium

  Pelium (Pelion), a lofty mountain in Thessaly, extending along the coast of Magnesia. It rises to the south of Ossa, and the last falls of the two mountains are connected by a low ridge. (Herod. vii. 129.) It forms a chain of some extent, stretching from Mt. Ossa to the extremity of Magnesia, where it terminates in the promontories of Sepias and Aeantium. It attains its greatest height above Iolcos. According to Ovid it is lower than Ossa (Fast. iii. 441), which Dodwell describes as about 5000 feet high. In form it has a broad and extended outline, and is well contrasted with the steeply conical shape of Ossa. On its eastern side Mt. Pelium rises almost precipitously from the sea; and its rocky and inhospitable shore (akta alimenos Peliou, Eurip. Alc. 595) proved fatal to the fleet of Xerxes. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 384.) Mt. Pelium is still covered with venerable forests, to which frequent allusion is made in the ancient poets. Homer constantly gives it the epithet of einosiphullon (Il. ii. 744, &c.). Its northern summit is clothed with oaks, and its eastern side abounds with chestnuts; besides which there are forests of beeches, elms, and pines. (Dicaearch. Descript. Mont. Pel. in Geogr. Graec. Min. p. 106, ed. Paris, 1855; Ov. Fast. v. 381; Valer. Flacc. ii. 6.)
  Mt. Pelium is celebrated in mythology. It plays an important part in the war of the giants and the gods: since the giants are said to have piled Ossa upon Pelium, in order to scale Olympus. It has been observed that this part of the fable is well explained by the respective forms of Ossa and Pelium. As Pelium is viewed from the south, two summits are seen at a considerable distance from each other, - a concavity between them, but so slight as almost to give the effect of a table-mountain, upon which fiction might readily suppose that another hill of the conical form of Ossa should recline. (Holland, Travels, vol. ii. p. 96.) Mt. Pelium was said to be the residence of the Centaurs, and more especially of Cheiron, the instructor of Achilles, a legend to which the number of medicinal plants found on the mountain perhaps gave rise. (Dicaearch. l. c.; Hom. Il. ii. 743, xvi. 143; Pind. Pyth. ii. 83, iii. 7; Virg. Georg. iii. 92.)
  According to Dicaearchus (l. c.), the cave of Cheiron and a temple of Zeus Actaeus occupied the summit of the mountain. The same writer relates that it was the custom of the sons of the principal citizens of Demetrias, selected by the priest, to ascend every year to this temple, clothed with thick skins, on account of the cold. Between the two summits of Mt. Pelium there is a fine cavern, now commonly known by the name of the cave of Achilles, and which accords with the position of the cave of Cheiron, mentioned by Dicaearchus. The same writer likewise speaks of two rivers of Mt. Pelium, called Crausindon and Brychon. One of them is now named Zervokhia, and falls into the gulf between Nekhori and St. George. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 384, seq.) Lastly, Pelium was connected with the tale of the Argonauts, since the timber of which their ship was built was cut down in the forests of this mountain. The north-western summit of Mt. Pelium is now named Plessidhi but the mountain is frequently called Zagora, from the; town of this name immediately below the summit on the eastern side. (Leake, l. c. Mezieres, Memoire sur Ie Pelion et l'Ossa, Paris, 1853.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PYRASSOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pyrasus

  Purasos, Purrhasos, Eth. Purasaios. A town of Phthiotis in Thessaly, mentioned by Homer along with Phylace and Iton, and described by him as Purrhason anthemoenta, Demetros temenos. (Il. ii. 695.) Pyrasus was situated on the Pagasaean gulf, at the distance of 20 stadia from Thebes, and possessed a good harbour (eulimenos, Strab. ix. p. 435). It had disappeared in the time of Strabo. Its name was superseded by that of Demetrium, derived from the temple of Demeter, spoken of by Homer, and which Strabo describes as distant two stadia from Pyrasus. Demetrium is mentioned as a town of Phthiotis by Scylax (p. 24, Hudson), Livy (xxviii. 6), Stephanus B. (s. v. Demetrion), and Mela (ii. 3). Leake places Pyrasus at Kokkina, where there are vestiges of an ancient town, consisting of wrought quadrangular blocks, together with many smaller fragments, and an oblong height with a flat summit, partly if not wholly artificial. He also states that at Kokkina there is a circular basin full of water near the shore, which was once probably a small harbour, since there are traces of a mole not far from it. The exact site of the temple was probably at a spot, 5 minutes short of Kokkina, where exist many stones and some hewn blocks. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 366.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities

DIMITRIAS (Ancient city) MAGNESSIA

Demetrias

nbsp;  A town in Magnesia in Thessaly, on the innermost recesses of the Pagasaean Gulf, founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and peopled by the inhabitants of Iolcus and the surrounding towns. Its position was such that it was styled by the last Philip of Macedon one of the three fetters of Greece, the other two being Chalcis and Corinth.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


FTHIOTIDES THIVES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Thebae

Called Phthioticae (hai Phthiotides), an important city of Thessaly in the district Phthiotis, at a short distance from the coast, and with a good harbour.


IOLKOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

Iolcus

(Iolkos). An ancient town in Magnesia in Thessaly, at the top of the Pagasean Gulf, about a mile from the sea. It was celebrated in mythology as the residence of Pelias and Iason, and as the place from which the Argonauts sailed in quest of the golden fleece.


PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

Pelion

   (to Pelion oros), more rarely Pelios (Pelios). A lofty range of mountains in Thessaly, in the district of Magnesia, situated between the lake Boebeis and the Pagasaean Gulf. Its sides were covered with wood, and on its summit was a temple of Zeus Actaeus. Mount Pelion was celebrated in mythology. Near its summit was the cave of the Centaur Chiron. The Giants, in their war with the gods, are said to have attempted to heap Ossa and Olympus on Pelion, or Pelion and Ossa on Olympus, in order to scale heaven. On Pelion the timber was felled with which the ship Argo was built.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Links

Local government Web-Sites

ARTEMIDA (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Municipality of Artemida


IOLKOS (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Municipality of Iolkos


MAKRINITSA (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Community of Makrynitsa


NEA IONIA (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Municipality of Nea Ionia


PORTARIA (Municipal unit) VOLOS

Municipality of Portaria


VOLOS (Municipal unit) MAGNESSIA

Municipality of Volos


Local government WebPages

PILIO (Ski centre) PELION

  Pelion is the perfect place for holidays, all seasons of the year. Especially, during winter, people from all over the world are gathered here, in Pelion Ski Center, to enjoy the snow and winter sports. Have you ever imagined skiing with a view over the Aegean Sea? This unique combination of mountain and sea is to be found at Pelion Ski Center! Descend the pure white slopes of Pelion with the blue of the sea keeping you company... Enjoy your favorite sport or learn how to ski and have the fun of a lifetime!
  Pelion Ski Center offers modern facilities, easy and more difficult tracks for ski or snowboard, expert and skilled teachers, teleferique, locker rooms and restaurant-cafeteria.

This text is cited September 2004 from the Municipality of Portaria URL below, which contains images


Maps

    English Greek

Non-profit organizations WebPages

AGRIA (Small town) VOLOS

CHANIA (Settlement) VOLOS

KATOCHORI (Village) VOLOS

NEA AGCHIALOS (Small town) VOLOS

PORTARIA (Village) VOLOS

Portaria


Orevatein WebPages

PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

Perseus Project

FTHIOTIDES THIVES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Perseus Project index

DIMITRIAS (Ancient city) MAGNESSIA

Demetrias

Total results on 27/4/2001: 62


IOLKOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

ORMINION (Ancient city) VOLOS

Ormenium

Total results on 14/8/2001: 11


PAGASSES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pagasai

Total results on 28/6/2001: 39 for Pagasai, 25 for Pagasae.


PELION (Mountain) MAGNESSIA

PYRASSOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pyrasus

Total results on 2/7/2001: 9


SESKLO (Village) VOLOS

Present location

NEES PAGASSES (Settlement) VOLOS

NILIA (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pefkakia


ORMINION (Ancient city) VOLOS

Goritsa


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

DIMITRIAS (Ancient city) MAGNESSIA

Demetrias

  A city of Magnesia. It was founded in ca. 293 B.C. by Demetrios Poliorketes as a synoecism, according to Strabo (9.436, 443), of Neleia, Pagasai, Ormenion, Rhizus, Sepias, Boibe, lolkos, and probably Kasthanaie. From inscriptions we learn that Spalauthra, Korope, Halos, Aiole, Homolion were absorbed into it then or later. Demetrias was then and through the 3d c. B.C. a strong point and harbor for the Antigonids. In 196 B.C. it fell to Rome and in 194 B.C. was made head of the Magnesian League (Livy 34.51.3). With inside help it fell to the Aitolians in 192 B.C. (Livy 35.34) and was used by Antiochus III until his retreat from Greece. The confused city was retaken by Philip V of Macedon in 191 B.C. (Livy 36.33) and remained in Macedonian control until the battle of Pydna in 167 B.C., when its fortifications were destroyed. It continued, however, as head of the reformed Magnesian League, and flourished through the Roman period, although its most splendid days were past. It was a bishopric in the Christian period, was ravaged by the Saracens in the 9th c., and declined until its desertion by 1600.
  The city was long thought to be located at Goritza across the way, but has proved to be, as Strabo (9.436) stated, exactly between Pagasai and Neleia, indeed it absorbed part of the walled area of Pagasai and probably all of Neleia. Pagasai is immediately SW of Demetrias and Neleia was probably at the tip of modern Cape Pevkakia (Tarsanas) within the wall circuit of Demetrias. Demetrias is on the W shore of the Gulf of Pagasai, 3 km SE of modern Volo. Its wall included a rocky cape (Pevkakia) jutting E into the gulf and a hill inland to the W. The low hill of the cape and the higher one inland are separated by a flat valley through which runs the modern Volo-Halmyros road. Immediately to the S of this cape is a marsh (Halykes) which may have been the S harbor of the city, and to the N a bay (N harbor) with a marsh (Bourboulithra) at its W end.
  The wall of Demetrias, ca. 7 km in circumference, is fairly well preserved to several courses high along much of its length; it has largely disappeared along the shore between the Pevkakia peninsula and the Bourboulithra marsh. The enclosed acropolis is on a high point (Palatia, 170 m) on the W hill of the city. There remain 182 projecting towers, more or less evenly spaced along the wall. The wall and towers consist of a stone socle with mudbrick upper parts, the brick represented now only by some earth covering. The socle is built of rough-faced rectangular and trapezoidal blocks laid in more or less regular courses, and varying somewhat in style depending on the material at hand. It is double with a filling of stones. In some places the remains of an outer wall (proteichisma) also furnished with towers (included in the 182) may be seen. The wall must date from the early 3d c. B.C. A few of the towers at the SW end of the city were hastily enlarged, perhaps at some time between 192 and 191 B.C. in connection with the Aitolian takeover, or Antiochus' use of the city, or in the disturbed period after his departure. These towers included painted grave stelai from a necropolis immediately outside the original wall.
  Several buildings are visible within the circuit. No comprehensive excavations have ever been carried out, although in the early part of the century Arvanitopoullos excavated here and there (including the stelai towers) and some areas have been cleared or recleared recently.
  The civic center of the ancient city seems to have been at least partly at the base of the peninsula. Here are the foundations of a temple, perhaps originally peripteral, excavated in 1908 and recently cleared. It is attributed to Artemis lolkia, and apparently dates to the early 3d c. B.C. Remains of its peribolos wall can be seen to the N and S of it. It appears that at least on the W side the precinct was bounded by a stoa. Within the peribolos was a Sacred Market, known from inscriptions. Just N of this is a large (54 x 55 m) building with a square central peristyle court surrounded by rooms. Stahlin thought this was a market, but by analogy with, e.g., the Macedonian palace at Verghina it has recently tentatively been identified as the Antigonid palace known to have been built at Demetrias. Partially excavated and recently cleared, it is dated to the first half of the 3d c. B.C. West of this is a flat area with the remains of a terrace wall at its W side. On the peninsula are various other ruins, including a shrine of Pasikrata excavated by Arvanitopoullos. Some remains of the ancient harbor may be seen. At the tip of the peninsula recent excavations have uncovered numerous Mycenaean remains, probably those of Neleia, and some Hellenistic remains, notably those of a purple-dye factory.
  The ancient theater lay at the foot of the W hill, just across the valley from the Macedonian palace (?). It was partially excavated early in the century, and finally cleared in 1958 and 1959. The edge of the orchestra was discovered, and the first row of seats. The theater apparently dates from the period of the city's foundation. Only the foundations of the Hellenistic proskenion remain. The fairly well-preserved skene is of the Late Roman period. North of the theater are two large hollow areas, and some ancient remains including washbasins. It is presumed the hippodrome and stadium were here. On the N harbor there is a modern lighthouse. Near this in 1912 were discovered the poros foundations of a temple.
  The main Late Roman and Christian settlement was evidently in the flat valley by the N harbor. Here are numerous wall remains, the foundations of a basilica, etc. Seventy-six piers of a Roman Imperial aqueduct (now called Dontia, teeth) cross the valley from just S of the theater. In 1962 an Early Christian (late 4th c. B.C.) basilica was excavated above the S harbor of the city.
  There are few remains to be seen on the city's W hill. Above the theater is a not completely understood building partially cleared in 1961. This is a complex of rooms and terraces with a rough surrounding wall, and a roadway leading to an entrance, perhaps with propylon, on the W side. There was an altar in the center of the complex. Stahlin suggested the Macedonian palace might have been here, but at present this building is considered to be a shrine.
  The finds from Demetrias are mainly in the Museum of Volo; some of the objects from tombs are in the Stathatos Collection in the National Museum of Athens. Perhaps the most notable group of objects is that of the painted grave stelai from the towers. Numbering ca. 400 and dating mainly from the 3d c. B.C., they are of marble, painted with encaustic, generally with farewell scenes, or single or grouped figures. Most are faded; a few retain considerable color.

T. S. Mackay, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


FTHIOTIDES THIVES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Phthiotic Thebes

  A city located at the N end of the ancient Krokian plain (modern plain of Halmyros). It is also known as Thebes of Achaia and Thebes of Thessaly. Modern Mikrothivai (formerly Akitsi) is in the plain a little S of the ancient city. Thebes shared the plain with Halos to the S. Its inland neighbors were Pherai and Pharsalos, its neighbor to the N was Demetrias/Pagasai (Strab. 9.433, 435; Polyb. 5.99).
  The site has been occupied since the Stone Age, but does not appear by name until the 4th c. B.C. It was enlarged by a synoecism with the neighboring cities of Phylake and Pyrasos (the latter at modern Nea Anchialos, on the shore ca. 6 km to the E) probably in the second half of the 4th c. B.C. It became the leading city of the Phthiotic Achaian League and flourished as the main harbor on the Gulf of Pagasai until the foundation of Demetrias in ca. 293 B.C. In the second half of the 3d c. B.C. it was joined to the Aitolians. Philip V of Macedon took it after a siege in 217 B.C. for that reason. He enslaved the inhabitants and placed a Macedonian colony there. In 189 B.C. it became again capital of the newly reformed Phthiotic Achaian League, which was in Augustus' time reattached completely to Thessaly. Thebes was then in existence and Pyrasos abandoned, but in the Roman Imperial period Thebes moved to the old site of Pyrasos, where it flourished then and later. The old site was apparently not abandoned completely, but the main development of the city was at its harbor.
  The ancient acropolis was a rocky peak overlooking the plain. It was surrounded by a wall of large rough blocks, apparently Cyclopean. The wall surrounding the lower city is still visible, although in some places only the foundation is left. It makes a large circuit down the hill from the acropolis SE to the plain. It is ca. 2 m long. The acropolis and hill slope are flanked by two deep ravines. There are some 40 towers along the wall, which is constructed of rectangular and trapezoidal blocks of irregular size, laid in more or less regular courses except where stepped in the slopes. Stahlin dated the wall to the 4th c. B.C.
  Excavations, principally on the acropolis, uncovered prehistoric through Byzantine layers, and in the Greek level the foundations of a temple (9 x 12 m) perhaps originally distyle in antis. It may have been the Temple of Athena Polias, who is known to have had a cult at this site. It was built with materials from an earlier temple. Near the acropolis some post-Classical statuary was recently discovered, including a head of Asklepios? from a sanctuary.
  A few remains of the lower city are visible. The ancient theater of which some seats are to be seen was about half way down the hill, looking towards the sea. South of this was a stoa of the Hellenistic period and another building excavated in 1907. South of these were the foundations of a large building (14 x 19 m) also excavated at that time.
  Objects from Thebes are largely in the Museum of Volo, although some are in the small Halmyros Museum.

T. S. Mackay, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


GLAFYRES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Glaphyrai

  A town near Lake Boibeis, mentioned in Homer but not by later authors; it belonged to Magnesia. The site is now generally taken to be the hill N of the village of Kaprena near modern Glafira. Leake was able to trace the full circuit of the walls, built of roughly shaped blocks in irregular courses, and reported considerable remains of walls inside. Inscriptions found there indicate that the town continued to be inhabited in the Classical period.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ORMINION (Ancient city) VOLOS

Orminion

  An ancient site on a ridge just SE of modern Volo. The ridge stretches down from the mass of Pelion to the sea, and cuts off the plain of Volo from that of (modern) Agria to the SE; thus the site on it controls the road from Thessaly along the inner coast of Magnesia. This site and Demetrias across the way control shipping into the innermost recess of the Gulf of Pagasai, now the harbor of Volo. The site used to be thought Demetrias but Stahlin suggested that it was Orminion. Strabo (9.438) says Orminion is 27 stades (ca. S m) distant from Demetrias by land, and 20 (ca. 4 km) from the site of Iolkos, which is on the road between the two. This is approximately correct for equating Orminion with Goritsa. Orminion was one of the cities incorporated into Demetrias in 293 B.C., but otherwise nothing is known of its history.
  A considerable amount of the wall circuit remains on the hill, in form an oval with pointed ends running roughly SW-NE, and ca. 2,480 m around. The NW long wall runs along the irregular spine of the ridge, and the SE wall along its sloping side, close above the sea. The old road from Volo to Agria ran through the center of the walled city, but a new road has been built along the shore, below the walls. The wall is double faced, with tie blocks, the interior filled with earth. The faces are built of large rectangular or trapezoidal blocks laid in fairly regular courses. Like the fortifications of Demetrias, the wall consisted of a stone socle and upperworks of earth or mudbrick. The wall was furnished with 26 projecting square towers. The highest point of the ridge, about in the middle of the long wall, is enclosed to make a fortified acropolis of very small area; this now contains a Church of the Panaghia. Here are a cistern and, before the rebuilding of the church, the foundation of a building 14 x 10 m. In 1931 some tests in the church foundations revealed ancient blocks (part of this foundation?). The city wall presently visible is successor to an earlier one of much the same construction. A stretch of this earlier wall is visible outside the later one to the S of the city's W gate, another section at the middle of the long SE wall where the earlier wall lies along the edge of a ravine, partly outside and partly inside the later one. The original wall included a small hill at the NE end of the city, which the later wall excluded. The later wall had gates well protected by towers at the SW end of the circuit, a N gate between the acropolis and the outlying hill mentioned above, a SE gate at the head of a ravine just above the W end of the Agria plain (where there used to be a marshy area, perhaps an ancient boat landing or harbor, but then by the 1930s a cement factory) and a narrow gate at the head of the ravine where the earlier wall is visible, in the middle of the SE wall. At the NE end of the circuit where the later wall was built considerably inside the line of the earlier one are the remains of a powerful bastion built to protect this rather accessible section. This bastion was partially excavated in 1931, but only described in 1956. It consisted of a thick stretch of wall flanked by two projecting rectangular towers with half-round outer faces. The towers inside had each a rectangular room; the outer semicircle was solid. There was a door into each tower from the city, and small entrances into each from the outside, at the corner between the tower and the wall between them. The whole bastion is ca. 34 m wide and 14 m deep.
  In the center of the city is a square level area 61 x 61 m, probably the ancient agora. A water channel cut in the rock and covered with slabs can be seen along the N side, and for a little way down the E side. Near the NE corner of this area is a small (9 x 6 m) foundation, probably of a temple. The street pattern of the ancient town was a grid, oriented NS by EW. Streets and house remains can be made out in many places.
  Outside the walls, above the modern road from Volo to Agria, on the slope of the hill, a private excavation in 1931 revealed some ancient tombs--one containing objects of silver, bronze, and alabaster--of the Hellenistic period, now in the Volo Museum. In 1962 a cist grave of the same period was excavated here. In the SE end of the Volo plain under the Goritsa hill, and near the beach could be seen (1930s) some Roman and/or Byzantine wall remains.
  It has been suggested by Meyer that the fortifications of the city were constructed at the same time as those of Demetrias as part of the same scheme. The later wall is of problematic date, but may, with the bastion, have been constructed by Antiochus III in 192-191 B.C., in connection with his use of Demetrias as a headquarters in his war with the Romans.

T. S. Mackay, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


PAGASSES (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pagasai

  The city seems to have existed from the 7th or the 6th c. B.C. as the port of Pherai. In 353-352 B.C. it was taken by Philip II of Macedon, who made it an independent city, probably of Magnesia (Diod. Sic. 16.31.6, 35.5; Theopomp.: FGrH 115 fr. 53, 54; Dem. 4.35). In 293 B.C. it was absorbed into Demetrias. Pagasai was supposed to be 90 stades (14 km) from Pherai, 20 stades (ca. 4 km) from Iolkos (Strab. 9.436), between the latter and Amphanai (Skylax 64f). Ruins on the W shore of the Gulf of Volo, ca. 4 km S of Volo, were long recognized as those of Pagasai. Walls of two periods were involved. In 1908, however, Arvanitopoullos determined that the later part of the walls belonged to Demetrias and only the older wall circuit adjoining it to the S were the walls of Pagasai.
  This wall runs from a hill called Prophitis Elias (44 m) which is ca. one km from the sea just to the E of the modern shore road Volo, SW across a dry wash (Ligarorema) and along the SW side of a low ridge about 2 km long, then around its end (Damari) and along the N side. The wall crosses the Ligarorema a little less than 2 km NW of the Prophitis Elias hill. It runs less than 1 km NW to the Kastro hill (201 m), and then N for a short distance where it disappears. Both ends of the wall are very close to the walls of Demetrias. There is no indication of how the two ends joined; it seems likely the wall must have curved through the city area of later Demetrias. The masonry varies from roughly polygonal to rectangular blocks, depending on the native type of rock. It is poorly preserved. There are the remains of 69 towers to be seen, but apparently traces of 138 regularly spaced along the wall. The preserved section is 5 km long; the estimated original length about 8 km. The wall seems to date from the first half of the 4th c. The walls seem not to have included a harbor. Just to the E of the city is a promontory (modern Pevkakia, formerly Tarsanas, ancient Neleia). To the S and N of this are possible harbors (the N later included in the walls of Demetrias); it is not clear which Pagasai's harbor was or whether both were used. Only one small square foundation has been found inside the city's SE wall and no buildings certainly earlier than Demetrias' foundation outside. Some sculpture, including a head of the 5th c., now in Volo, has been found in the area, and some graves belonging to the city. It has been suggested that the walled area was generally disused after Demetrias' foundation, as Hellenistic graves have been found outside the walls of Demetrias but inside those of Pagasai.

T. S. Mackay, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


PYRASSOS (Ancient city) VOLOS

Pyrasos

  The harbor town of Thessalian Thebes on a small hill overlooking the Bay of Volo. A small fish pond between the hill and the sea represents the site of the ancient harbor, known in later times as Demetrion from the early and important Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore. The site of the sanctuary is disputed, but numerous gravestones attest the international character of the harbor. Stahlin found an early circuit wall of field stones and mudbrick overlaid by Byzantine remains near the top of the hill, and other similar walls at the foot on the NE and E.

M. H. Mc Allister, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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