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Information about the place (7)
City of Asia Minor.
Clazomenae was a member city of the Ionian Confederacy, the Paniones,
grouping cities founded in Asia
Minor by Ionians fleeing the southern shores of the gulf
of Corinth west of Sicyon
in northern Peloponnese when
the area was conquered by Achaeans.
Clazomenae was the birthplace of Anaxagoras.
Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1998), ed.
This text is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.
The Catholic Encyclopedia
- The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908)
The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
At the scala of Urla, 36 km W of Izmir. (The modern name has only
lately been in use; the ancient name survived until recently 9 km to the E at
the village of Kilisman, now Kizilbahce.) The main site, though not the original
site, is on a small island joined to the mainland by a causeway. Pausanias (3.8.9)
records that a band of Ionian settlers built a city on the mainland, but later
they crossed to the island from fear of the Persians. From the sherds found on
the site it appears that this move came not after the fall of Sardis in 546 but
rather at the time of the Ionian Revolt. The city remained in Persian hands until
the formation of the Delian Confederacy. By the King's Peace of 386 B.C. all the
cities of Asia were surrendered to the Persians, and "of the islands Cyprus
and Klazomenai." Persian rule ended with Alexander, who displayed some interest
in the city. By the treaty of Apamea in 188 B.C. Klazomenai was granted immunity
by the Romans. At the end of the first Mithridatic War, about 84 B.C., Klazomenai
is mentioned by Appian (Mithr. 63) together with other cities as having been sacked
by pirates "in Sulla's presence." Klazomenian coinage began (apparently)
in the 6th c. B.C. and continued to Gallienus; standard types are the winged boar
and the swan.
The most distinguished citizens of Klazomenai were the philosophers
Anaxagoras and Scopelianus.
Not much remains of the city today, and of the original mainland site
virtually nothing apart from the well-known sarcophagi of painted terracotta which
have been found over a wide area near the coast, but not on the island. The causeway
survives alongside its modern replacement, but normally only a few blocks are
visible above water. On the island the ring wall stands only for a short stretch
at the N end; the masonry is ashlar, the blocks on the small side. There are some
remains of a harbor on the W shore, and the emplacement of a theater facing N.
Near the SW corner is a cave comprising four chambers, most of which has now collapsed;
it contains a well, and may be the "cave of Pyrrhos' mother" referred
to by Pausanias (7.5.11).
G. E. Bean, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites,
Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Nov 2002 from
Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
Perseus Project index
Total results on 10/5/2001: 37 for Klazomenai, 60 for Clazomenae.
Ministry of Culture WebPages
Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
An important city of Asia Minor, and one of the twelve Ionian cities, on the north coast of the Ionian peninsula, upon the Gulf of Smyrna. It was the birthplace of Anaxagoras, and was also celebrated for its temples of Apollo, Artemis, and Cybele.
- Perseus: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (1898)
Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)
Klazomenai: Eth. Klazomenios: Kelisman. One of the cities of Ionia.
Strabo fixes its position within certain limits accurately enough. Clazomenae
occupied the northern side of an isthmus, of which the Teii had the southern part;
and this isthmus is the neck of land that connects the peninsula on which Erythrae
stands with the mainland. The Clazomenii had the Smyrnaei for their neighbours
on the east, and the Erythraei on the west; and on the west side, at the point
where the isthmus commenced, there was a rugged spot which was the boundary of
the territories of Erythrae and Clazomenae. Between Erythrae, which was on the
west coast of the peninsula, and this rugged boundary was the promontory of Mimas,
a mountain covered with forests. Close upon the boundary was a place called Chytrium,
as it is in Strabo's text, which, he says, was the original site of Clazomenae;
and next to it was the city of Clazomenae, as it existed in his time, with eight
small islands in front of it, which were cultivated. Pliny (v. 31) names numerous
islands in this part, and Thucydides (viii. 31) mentions three, which are in Pliny's
list, Pele, Drymussa, and Marathussa. Chandler (Asia Minor, c. 24) could only
count six, and all uncultivated. This name Chytrium is not mentioned by any writer
except Strabo, but it is evidently the place which Stephanus (s. v. Chuton) calls
Chytum; and Aristotle (Pol. v. 3) Chytrum. Clazomenae was on the south side of
the bay of Smyrna, as Strabo's description shows. The original settlement was
on the mainland, but the people through fear of the Persians passed over to the
island (Paus. vii. 3. § 8). Alexander, as Pausanias says, intended to make Clazomenae
a peninsula by uniting it to the mainland by a causeway. It appears that this
was done, for Chandler found near Vourla, on the south side of the bay of Smyrna,
a causeway about a quarter of a mile in length, and about 30 ft. wide, which connected
the mainland with a small island. He estimated the length of the island at a mile,
and the breadth at a quarter of a mile. The town was small, and the port was to
the NNW. Near the sea Chandler found traces of the walls, and on a hill the remains
of a theatre. It appears from this that the site of Clazomenae must have been
very contracted, and the city inconsiderable. Clazomenae, it is said, did not
exist before the Ionians settled in Asia. The greater part of the first settlers
were not Ionians, but people from Cleonae and Phlius, who left these cities when
the Dorians came into the Peloponnesus. These emigrants first occupied a place
in the territory of Colophon, named Scyppium or Schyphia (Steph. s. v. Skuphia),
and finally they removed to the place called Clazomenae (Paus. vii. 3. § 8). This
old town was on the mainland, and it successfully resisted the attacks of Alyattes
king of Lydia (Herod. i. 16). The enterprise of the people is shown by an early
attempt to colonise Abdera in Thrace, and by their trade with Egypt (Herod. i.
168, ii. 178). In the time of Croesus the Clazomenii had a treasury at Delphi
(i. 51). Herodotus enumerates Clazomenae among the states of Ionia that were on
the mainland, for the only insular states which he names are, Chios and Samos;
and yet the city of Clazomenae was on the island in his time. But as the territory
of the Clazomenii was on the mainland, and the city was merely their stronghold
on a small island close to the main, it could not be properly called an insular
state like Chios and Samos. (Herod. i. 142). Otanes the Persian took Clazomenae
soon after the commencement of the Ionian revolt (Herod. v. 123) and we must suppose
that the city at that time was on the island. Clazomenae became a dependency of
Athens, but after the losses of the Athenians in Sicily, it revolted with Chios
and Erythrae. The Clazomenii at the same time began to fortify Polichne on the
main as a place of refuge, if it should be necessary. The Athenians took Polichne,
and removed the people back to the island, except those who had been most active
in the revolt; and they went off to a place called Daphnus (Thuc. viii. 14, 23).
Clazomenae was now again in alliance with or dependence on Athens; but Astyochus
the Lacedaemonian commander arriving soon after bade those who were of the Athenian
party, remove from Clazomenae to Daphnus, which they refused to do, and Astyochus
failed in the attack that he made on Clazomenae, though it was unwalled (Thuc.
viii. 31). Some critics have argued that Polichne is not the name of a place,
and that it is Daphnus; but this does not appear to be so. Xenophon (Hell. v.
1. § 28) speaks of Clazomenae as an island even after the close of the Peloponnesian
War, and this is consistent with the story in Pausanias. The walls of the city
may have been built after the construction of the causeway, for Thucydides speaks
of Clazomenae as unwalled. Stephanus (s. v. Lampsos), on the authority of Ephorus,
names Lampsus as a part of the territory of Clazomenae. Strabo (p. 646) also speaks
of a temple of Apollo, and warm springs between Clazomenae and the bay of Smyrna,
and he appears to place them in the territory of Clazomenae. These are the springs
(Loutra) mentioned by Pausanias (vii. 5. § 11); and those which Chandler visited
on the road from Smyrna to Vourla, a place which is not far from the site of Clazomenae.
He found the heat of the water in the vein to be 150 degrees (of Fahrenheit).
When the Romans settled the affairs of this part of Asia after their treaty with
Antiochus (B.C. 188), they made the Clazomenii immunes or tax-free, and gave them
the island Drymussa, one of the small islands near Clazomenae, not a very valuable
present (Liv. xxxviii. 39; Polyb. xxii. 27). At the time when L. Sulla was in
Asia, after bringing Mithridates to terms (B.C. 84), Clazomenae and other places
on this coast were plundered by the pirates who infested the Aegean sea. (Appian,
Mithrid. 63.) Clazomenae was included in the Roman province of Asia. Clazomenae
was the birthplace of Anaxagoras (ho phusikos), who was one of the masters of
Archelaus, and the dramatist Euripides. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. ii. p.
9) obtained a few coins of Clazomenae at Ritri (Erythrae), and accordingly not
far from the site of the place to which they belonged.
This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD)