Monuments reported by ancient authors MANTINIA (Province) ARCADIA - GTP - Greek Travel Pages

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Monuments reported by ancient authors (99)

Editor's remarks

Asylum

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
Among the Greek sanctuaries which were really privileged and where the right of asylum was confirmed by law, we must distinguish between those of merely local sanctity and those to which fugitives might have recourse from a distance. To the latter, more famous, class belonged the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea

Ancient altars

Altar of Earth

Close to the sanctuary of Eileithyia is an altar of Earth.

Altar of the Maid

Not far from it are two sanctuaries of Dionysus, an altar of the Maid, and a temple of Apollo with a gilded image.

Altar of Athena Alea

The altar for the goddess was made, they say, by Melampus, the son of Amythaon. Represented on the altar are Rhea and the nymph Oenoe holding the baby Zeus. On either side are four figures: on one, Glauce, Neda, Theisoa and Anthracia; on the other Ide, Hagno, Alcinoe and Phrixa. There are also images of the Muses and of Memory.

Altar of Zeus Teleius (Full-grown)

There is also an altar of Zeus Teleius (Full-grown), with a square image, a shape of which the Arcadians seem to me to be exceedingly fond.

Ancient sacred caves

Rhea's cave

MENALON (Mountain) LEVIDI
On the summit of the mountain is Rhea's Cave, into which no human beings may enter save only the women who are sacred to the goddess.

The grottos of Pan and of Apollo

PARTHENION (Mountain) KORYTHIO
The grottos of Pan and of Apollo have been excavated by M. Cavvadias (1897). There are two caves with narrow entrances, partly blocked by natural pillars of rock, so that they offer complete seclusion, though but narrow space within. These would be suitable for the secret meetings of Apollo and Creusa (Ion 10 f., 492 f., 936 f.), which Pausanias (i. 28. 4) places in the cave of Apollo, but Euripides in that of Pan, as does Aristophanes that of Cinesias and Myrrhina (Lys. 911 f.). Subsequently the worship of Apollo seems to have been transferred to the more open cave where votive tablets were found (Gardner, Athens, p. 93 f.; for a full discussion with plan cf. D'Ooge, Acropolis, pp. 6-9), the more secret caves being now the shrine of Pan. In the grotto was a statue of Pan (Anthol. Plan. 232; cf. 259) with an inscription ascribed to Simonides, fr. 136 ton tragopoun eme Pana, ton Arkada, ton kata Medon, | ton met' Athenaion stesato Miltiades. Such a statue, now at Cambridge, was discovered in a garden at the foot of the Acropolis, but it appears to have decorated a column or balustrade like the similar statue found in Peiraeus (Michaelis, Ancient Marbles in Great Britain, p. 248). The representations of the cave of Pan on Attic coins of Antonine date, giving views of the Acropolis, appear to be too inaccurate to be of service (J. H. S. viii, pp. 24-5). His worship may have been established or revived by Cimon (katastanton sphi eu ede ton pregmaton). (Cf. Macan, ii. 153, 181.)

Ancient sanctuaries

Sanctuary of Poseidon

KAFYES (Ancient city) LEVIDI
The Caphyatans have a sanctuary of the god Poseidon.

Sanctuary of Artemis Cnacalesia

The Caphyatans have a sanctuary of the god Poseidon, and one of the goddess Artemis, surnamed Cnacalesia.

Aphneus (Abundant)

KERASSITSA (Village) TEGEA
Sanctuary of, a title of Ares.

Sanctuary of Dionysus Mystic

KORYTHIS (Ancient city) KORYTHIO
Along the straight road there are many oaks, and in the grove of oaks is a temple of Demeter called "in Corythenses". Hard by is another sanctuary, that of Mystic Dionysus.

Sanctuary of Artemis Hymnia

LEVIDI (Small town) MANTINIA
In the territory of Orchomenus, on the left of the road from Anchisiae, there is on the slope of the mountain the sanctuary of Artemis Hymnia. The Mantineans, too, share it . . . a priestess also and a priest. It is the custom for these to live their whole lives in purity, not only sexual but in all respects, and they neither wash nor spend their lives as do ordinary people, nor do they enter the home of a private man. They also hold an annual festival in honor of Artemis Hymnia. At that (the old) time the office of priestess to the goddess was still always held by a girl who was a virgin. The maiden persisted in resisting the advances of Aristocrates, but at last, when she had taken refuge in the sanctuary, she was outraged by him near the image of Artemis. When the crime came to be generally known, the Arcadians stoned the culprit.

Sanctuary of Artemis Lycoan

LYKOA (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
Under the fringe of the Maenalian are traces of a city Lycoa, a sanctuary of Artemis Lycoan, and a bronze image of her.

Sanctuary of Pan

MAGOULA (Village) TEGEA
Crossing the Garates and advancing ten stades you come to a sanctuary of Pan, by which is an oak, like the sanctuary sacred to Pan.

Sanctuary of Poseidon

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
By the foot of the mountain is the sanctuary of Horse Poseidon. The modern sanctuary was built by the Emperor Hadrian, who set overseers over the workmen, so that nobody might look into the old sanctuary, and none of the ruins be removed. He ordered them to build around the new temple. Originally, they say, this sanctuary was built for Poseidon by Agamedes and Trophonius, who worked oak logs and fitted them together. They set up no barrier at the entrance to prevent men going inside; but they stretched across it a thread of wool. Perhaps they thought that even this would strike fear into the religious people of that time, and perhaps there was also some power in the thread. It is notorious that even Aepytus, the son of Hippothous, entered the sanctuary neither by jumping over the thread nor by slipping under it, but by cutting it through. For this sin he was blinded by a wave that dashed on to his eyes, and forthwith his life left him.

Sanctuary of Black Aphrodite

Farther off from Melangeia, about seven stades distant from Mantineia, there is a well called the Well of the Meliasts. Near the well is a hall of Dionysus and a sanctuary of Black Aphrodite. This surname of the goddess is simply due to the fact that men do not, as the beasts do, have sexual intercourse always by day, but in most cases by night.

Sanctuary of Zeus Saviour

The articles of the treaty, the oaths, and the alliance shall be inscribed on a stone pillar by the Athenians in the citadel, by the Argives in the market-place, in the temple of Apollo; by the Mantineans in the temple of Zeus, in the market-place.

Sanctuary of Zeus Giver of Gifts

The Mantineans have other sanctuaries also, one of Zeus Saviour, and one of Zeus Giver of Gifts, in that he gives good things to men.

Sanctuary of the Dioscuri

There is also a sanctuary of the Dioscuri.

Sanctuary of Demeter and the Maid

There is also a sanctuary of the Dioscuri, and in another place one of Demeter and the Maid. Here they keep a fire, taking anxious care not to let it go out.

Sanctuary of Athena Alea

They (the Mantineans) also worship Athena Alea, of whom they have a sanctuary and an image.

Sanctuary of Artemis

In addition to the roads mentioned there are two others, leading to Orchomenus. On one is what is called the stadium of Ladas, where Ladas practised his running, and by it a sanctuary of Artemis.

Sanctuary of Demeter

NESTANI (Acropolis) MANTINIA
After the ruins of Nestane is a holy sanctuary of Demeter, and every year the Mantineans hold a festival in her honor.

Sanctuary of Artemis Hymnia

ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
In the territory of Orchomenus, on the left of the road from Anchisiae, there is on the slope of the mountain the sanctuary of Artemis Hymnia.

Sanctuary of Poseidon

Worth seeing here is a spring, from which they draw water, and there are sanctuaries of Poseidon and of Aphrodite, the images being of stone.

Sanctuary of Aphrodite

Worth seeing here is a spring, from which they draw water, and there are sanctuaries of Poseidon and of Aphrodite, the images being of stone.

Sanctuary of Artemis Priestess

ORESTHION (Ancient city) VALTETSI
After Haemoniae on the right of the road are some noteworthy remains of the city of Oresthasium, especially the pillars of a sanctuary of Artemis, which still are there. The surname of Artemis is Priestess.

Sanctuary of the Maid

PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI
There is also a sanctuary of the Maid, the daughter of Demeter, and not far away is a statue of Polybius.

Sanctuary of the Pure Gods

The hill above the city was of old used as a citadel. On the crest of the hill there still remains a sanctuary of certain gods. Their surname is the Pure, and here it is customary to take the most solemn oaths. The names of the gods either they do not know, or knowing will not divulge; but it might be inferred that they were called Pure because Pallas did not sacrifice to them after the same fashion as his father sacrificed to Lycaean Zeus.

Sanctuary of Pan

PARTHENION (Mountain) KORYTHIO
A little farther on is a sanctuary of Pan, where Athenians and Tegeans agree that he appeared to Philippides and conversed with him. Mount Parthenius rears also tortoises most suitable for the making of harps; but the men on the mountain are always afraid to capture them, and will not allow strangers to do so either, thinking them to be sacred to Pan.

Sanctuary of Pan

PERETHEI (Ancient small town) VALTETSI
Going on from Paliscius and leaving on the left the Elaphus, an intermittent stream, after an advance of some twenty stades you reach ruins of Peraethenses, among which is a sanctuary of Pan.

Sanctuary of Zeus Charmon

SKOPI (Village) TRIPOLI
Just about a stade from the grave of Epaminondas is a sanctuary of Zeus surnamed Charmon.

Sanctuary of Athena Alea

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
The ancient sanctuary of Athena Alea was made for the Tegeans by Aleus. The sanctuary was utterly destroyed by a fire which suddenly broke out when Diophantus was archon at Athens, in the second year of the ninety-sixth Olympiad, at which Eupolemus of Elis won the foot-race.

Athena Alea

Sanctuary of Athena Poliatis (Keeper of the City)

There is at Tegea another sanctuary of Athena, namely of Athena Poliatis (Keeper of the City) into which a priest enters once in each year. This sanctuary they name Eryma (Defence) saying that Cepheus, the son of Aleus, received from Athena a boon, that Tegea should never be captured while time shall endure, adding that the goddess cut off some of the hair of Medusa and gave it to him as a guard to the city.

Sanctuary of Artemis Hegemone (leader)

It was built by an Orchomenian named Chronius.

Sanctuaries of Dionysus

Not far from it (the temple of Aphrodite Paphian) are two sanctuaries of Dionysus.

Sanctuary of Apollo Pythian

Next, turning aside to the left for about a stade, you see a dilapidated sanctuary of Apollo surnamed Pythian which is utterly in ruins.

Sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis

About seven stades farther on is a sanctuary of Artemis, surnamed Lady of the Lake, with an image of ebony. The fashion of the workmanship is what the Greeks call Aeginetan (Paus. 8,53,11). It was on the road from Tegea to Laconia, at the location Aspela near Piali (Ekd. Athinon, Pausaniou Periegissis, vol. 4, p. 408, note 2).

Ancient stadiums

Race-course outside Mantinea

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
On the left of the highway leading to Tegea there is, beside the walls of Mantineia, a place where horses race, and not far from it is a race-course, where they celebrate the games in honor of Antinous.

The stadium of Ladas

In addition to the roads mentioned there are two others, leading to Orchomenus. On one is what is called the stadium of Ladas, where Ladas practised his running,

Race-courses at Maenalus

MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
There are still left ruins of Maenalus itself: traces of a temple of Athena, one race-course for athletes and one for horses.

The stadium of Tegea

STADIO (Village) TEGEA
Not far from the temple is a stadium formed by a mound of earth, where they celebrate games, one festival called Aleaea after Athena, the other Halotia (Capture Festival) because they captured the greater part of the Lacedaemonians alive in the battle.

Ancient statues

Statue of Athena Ippia (Horse Goddess)

MANTHYREA (Ancient city) TEGEA
The present image at Tegea was brought from the parish of Manthurenses, and among them it had the surname of Hippia (Horse Goddess). According to their account, when the battle of the gods and giants took place the goddess drove the chariot and horses against Enceladus. Yet this goddess too has come to receive the name of Alea among the Greeks generally and the Peloponnesians themselves.

Wooden image of Artemis Cedreatis

ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
Near the city is a wooden image of Artemis. It is set in a large cedar tree, and after the tree they call the goddess the Lady of the Cedar.

Statue of Polybius

PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI
There is also a sanctuary of the Maid, the daughter of Demeter, and not far away is a statue of Polybius.

Statue of Asclepius

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
On one side of the image of Athena stands Asclepius, on the other Health, works of Scopas of Paros in Pentelic marble.

Statue of Hygeia (health)

On one side of the image of Athena stands Asclepius, on the other Health, works of Scopas of Paros in Pentelic marble.

Statue of Heracles

The Tegeans also have what they call a Common Hearth of the Arcadians. Here there is an image of Heracles, and on his thigh is represented a wound received in the first fight with the sons of Hippocoon.

The old statue of Athena Alea

The ancient image of Athena Alea, and with it the tusks of the Calydonian boar, were carried away by the Roman emperor Augustus after his defeat of Antonius and his allies, among whom were all the Arcadians except the Mantineans. The image of Athena Alea at Rome is as you enter the Forum made by Augustus. Here then it has been set up, made throughout of ivory, the work of Endoeus. Those in charge of the curiosities say that one of the boar's tusks has broken off; the remaining one is kept in the gardens of the emperor, in a sanctuary of Dionysus, and is about half a fathom long.

The new statue of Athena Alea

The present image at Tegea was brought from the parish of Manthurenses, and among them it had the surname of Hippia (Horse Goddess). According to their account, when the battle of the gods and giants took place the goddess drove the chariot and horses against Enceladus. Yet this goddess too has come to receive the name of Alea among the Greeks generally and the Peloponnesians themselves.

Statues of Apollo Lord of Streets

At Tegea the images of the Lord of Streets are four in number, one set up by each of the tribes. The images of Apollo, Lord of Streets, the Tegeans say they set up for the following reason. Apollo and Artemis, they say, throughout every land visited with punishment all the men of that time who, when Leto was with child and in the course of her wanderings, took no heed of her when she came to their land.

Ancient temples

Temple of the Mother of the gods

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI
Some five stades from Asea are the sources of the Alpheius and of the Eurotas, the former a little distance from the road, the latter just by the road itself. Near the source of the Alpheius is a temple of the Mother of the Gods without a roof, and two lions made of stone.

Temple of Athena

ATHINEON (Ancient city) VALTETSI
On the straight road from Haemoniae is a place called Aphrodisium, and after it another, called Athenaeum. On the left of it is a temple of Athena with a stone image in it.

Temple of Artemis the Strangled Lady

KONDYLEA (Ancient location) LEVIDI
About a stade distant from Caphyae is a place called Condylea, where there are a grove and a temple of Artemis called of old Condyleatis. They say that the name of the goddess was changed for the following reason. Some children, the number of whom is not recorded, while playing about the sanctuary found a rope, and tying it round the neck of the image said that Artemis was being strangled. The Caphyans, detecting what the children had done, stoned them to death. When they had done this, a malady befell their women, whose babies were stillborn, until the Pythian priestess bade them bury the children, and sacrifice to them every year as sacrifice is made to heroes, because they had been wrongly put to death. The Caphyans still obey this oracle, and call the goddess at Condyleae, as they say the oracle also bade them, the Strangled Lady from that day to this.About a stade distant from Caphyae is a place called Condylea, where there are a grove and a temple of Artemis called of old Condyleatis. They say that the name of the goddess was changed for the following reason. Some children, the number of whom is not recorded, while playing about the sanctuary found a rope, and tying it round the neck of the image said that Artemis was being strangled. The Caphyans, detecting what the children had done, stoned them to death. When they had done this, a malady befell their women, whose babies were stillborn, until the Pythian priestess bade them bury the children, and sacrifice to them every year as sacrifice is made to heroes, because they had been wrongly put to death. The Caphyans still obey this oracle, and call the goddess at Condyleae, as they say the oracle also bade them, the Strangled Lady from that day to this.

This extract is from: Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod, M.A., in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press
Cited Sept 2002 from Perseus Project URL bellow, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.

Temple of Demeter "in Corythenses"

KORYTHIS (Ancient city) KORYTHIO
Along the straight road there are many oaks, and in the grove of oaks is a temple of Demeter called "in Corythenses".

Temple of Poseidon and Leto

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
The Mantineans possess a temple composed of two parts, being divided almost exactly at the middle by a wall. In one part of the temple is an image of Asclepius, made by Alcamenes; the other part is a sanctuary of Leto and her children, and their images were made by Praxiteles two generations after Alcamenes. On the pedestal of these are figures of Muses together with Marsyas playing the flute. Here there is a figure of Polybius, the son of Lycortas, carved in relief upon a slab, of whom I shall make fuller mention later on.

Temple of Hera

Near the theater I saw a temple of Hera. Praxiteles made the images Hera is sitting, while Athena and Hera's daughter Hebe are standing by her side. Near the altar of Hera is the grave of Arcas.

Temple of Aphrodite Ally

Behind the theater I found the remains, with an image, of a temple of Aphrodite surnamed Ally. The inscription on the pedestal announced that the image was dedicated by Nicippe, the daughter of Paseas. This sanctuary was made by the Mantineans to remind posterity of their fighting on the side of the Romans at the battle of Actium.

Temple of Antinous

Antinous too was deified by them (the Mantineans); his temple is the newest in Mantineia. He was a great favorite of the Emperor Hadrian. I never saw him in the flesh, but I have seen images and pictures of him. He has honors in other places also, and on the Nile is an Egyptian city named after Antinous. He has won worship in Mantineia for the following reason. Antinous was by birth from Bithynium beyond the river Sangarius, and the Bithynians are by descent Arcadians of Mantineia. For this reason the Emperor established his worship in Mantineia also; mystic rites are celebrated in his honor each year, and games every four years. There is a building in the gymnasium of Mantineia containing statues of Antinous, and remarkable for the stones with which it is adorned, and especially so for its pictures. Most of them are portraits of Antinous, who is made to look just like Dionysus.

Temple of Artemis Cnaceatis

MAVRIKI (Village) TEGEA
Some ten stades farther on are the ruins of a temple of Artemis Cnaceatis.

Temple of Athena

MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
There are still left ruins of Maenalus itself: traces of a temple of Athena, one race-course for athletes and one for horses.

Temple of Pallas and Evander

PALLANTION (Ancient city) TRIPOLI
In Pallantium is a temple with two stone images, one of Pallas, the other of Evander.

Temple of Hermes Aepytus

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
Some three stades away from the fountain (where Heracles outraged Auge) is a temple of Hermes Aepytus.

Temple of Aphrodite "in brick"

The market-place is in shape very like a brick, and in it is a temple of Aphrodite called "in brick", with a stone image. There are two slabs; on one are represented in relief Antiphanes, Crisus, Tyronidas and Pyrrhias, who made laws for the Tegeans, and down to this day receive honors for it from them. On the other slab is represented Iasius, holding a horse, and carrying in his right hand a branch of palm. It is said that Iasius won a horse-race at Olympia, at the time when Heracles the Theban celebrated the Olympian festival.

Temple of Eileithyia

The Tegeans surname Eileithyia, a temple of whom, with art image, they have in their market-place, Auge on her knees, saying that Aleus handed over his daughter to Nauplius with the order to take and drown her in the sea. As she was being carried along, they say, she fell on her knees and so gave birth to her son, at the place where is the sanctuary of Eileithyia. This story is different from another, that Auge was brought to bed without her father's knowing it, and that Telephus was exposed on Mount Parthenius, the abandoned child being suckled by a deer. This account is equally current among the people of Tegea.

Temple of Demeter and the Maid

There is also at Tegea a temple of Demeter and the Maid, whom they surname the Fruit-bringers.

Temple of Paphian Aphrodite

There is also at Tegea a temple of Demeter and the Maid, whom they surname the Fruit-bringers, and hard by is one of Aphrodite called Paphian. The latter was built by Laodice, who was descended, as I have already said, from Agapenor, who led the Arcadians to Troy, and it was in Paphos that she dwelt.

Temple of Apollo

Not far from it are two sanctuaries of Dionysus, an altar of the Maid, and a temple of Apollo with a gilded image. The artist was Cheirisophus; he was a Cretan by race, but his date and teacher we do not know. By the Apollo stands Cheirisophus in stone.

Temple of Asclepius

The road from Tegea to Argos is very well suited for carriages, in fact a first-rate highway. On the road come first a temple and image of Asclepius.

Temple of Athena Alea

TheTegeans set up for the goddess a large temple far superior to all other temples in the Peloponnesus on many grounds, especially for its size. Its first row of pillars is Doric, and the next to it Corinthian; also, outside the temple, stand pillars of the Ionic order. Its architect was Scopas the Parian. On the front gable is the hunting of the Calydonian boar. The boar stands right in the center. On one side are Atalanta, Meleager, Theseus, Telamon, Peleus, Polydeuces, Iolaus, the partner in most of the labours of Heracles, and also the sons of Thestius, the brothers of Althaea, Prothous and Cometes. On the other side of the boar is Epochus supporting Ancaeus who is now wounded and has dropped his axe; by his side is Castor, with Amphiaraus, the son of Oicles, next to whom is Hippothous, the son of Cercyon, son of Agamedes, son of Stymphalus. The last figure is Peirithous. On the gable at the back is a representation of Telephus fighting Achilles on the plain of the Caicus.

Ancient theatres

Theatre of Tegea

Not far from the market-place is a theater, and near it are pedestals of bronze statues, but the statues themselves no longer exist.

Ancient tombs

The tomb of Leucone

KERASSITSA (Village) TEGEA
They say that Apheidas was the father of Leucone, and not far from Tegea is her tomb.

The tomb of Anchises

LEVIDI (Small town) MANTINIA
There still remains the road leading to Orchomenus, on which are Mount Anchisia and the tomb of Anchises at the foot of the mountain. For when Aeneas was voyaging to Sicily, he put in with his ships to Laconia, becoming the founder of the cities Aphrodisias and Etis; his father Anchises for some reason or other came to this place and died there, where Aeneas buried him. This mountain they call Anchisia after Anchises.

The tomb of Orestes

MAGOULA (Village) TEGEA
The straight road from Tegea to Thyrea and to the villages its territory contains can show a notable sight in the tomb of Orestes, the son of Agamemnon.

Common Hearth

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
Not far from the theater are famous tombs, one called Common Hearth, round in shape, where, they told me, lies Antinoe, the daughter of Cepheus.

Altars of the Sun

Near the altar of Hera is the grave of Arcas, the son of Callisto. The bones of Arcas they brought from Maenalus, in obedience to an oracle delivered to them from Delphi. This place, where the grave of Arcas is, they call Altars of the Sun.

The grave of Penelope

In addition to the roads mentioned there are two others, leading to Orchomenus. On one is what is called the stadium of Ladas, where Ladas practised his running, and by it a sanctuary of Artemis, and on the right of the road is a high mound of earth. It is said to be the grave of Penelope, but the account of her in the poem called Thesprotis is not in agreement with this saying. For in it the poet says that when Odysseus returned from Troy he had a son Ptoliporthes by Penelope. But the Mantinean story about Penelope says that Odysseus convicted her of bringing paramours to his home, and being cast out by him she went away at first to Lacedaemon, but afterwards she removed from Sparta to Mantineia, where she died.

Phoezon

Tomb near Mantinea.

Tomb of Arcas

MENALOS (Ancient city) FALANTHOS
The bones of Arcas they brought from Maenalus, in obedience to an oracle delivered to them from Delphi.

The grave of Maera

MERA (Ancient small town) MANTINIA
Thirty stades from Ptolis are the ruins of a village called Maera, with the grave of Maera, if it be really the case that Maera was buried here and not in Tegean land. For probably the Tegeans, and not the Mantineans, are right when they say that Maera, the daughter of Atlas, was buried in their land. Perhaps, however, the Maera who came to the land of Mantineia was another, a descendant of Maera, the daughter of Atlas.

Tombs of unknown warriors

ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
Beneath the city are heaps of stones at intervals, which were piled over men who fell in war. With what Peloponnesians, whether Arcadians or other, the war was fought, was set forth neither by inscriptions on the graves nor in Orchomenian tradition (Paus. 8,13,3). There were many tombs made of piled stones, most commonly at remote places outside town borders. These tombs were either dedicated to Hermes, who was considered to be the one who takes the souls to Hades, or were tombs of criminals. When this was the case, passers-by used to throw stones as a curse and then the piles were considered to be sources of evil (Ekd. Athinon, Pausaniou Periegissis, vol. 4, p.227, note 3).

The tomb of Aristocrates I

The other road, after you have crossed the water flowing through the gully, goes under Mount Trachy. On this road the first thing is the tomb of Aristocrates, who once outraged the virgin priestess of the goddess Hymnia.

The tomb of Callisto

PIANA (Village) FALANTHOS
To the right of Tricoloni there is first a steep road ascending to a spring called Cruni. Descending from Cruni for about thirty stades you come to the grave of Callisto, a high mound of earth, whereon grow many trees, both cultivated and also those that bear no fruit. On the top of the mound is a sanctuary of Artemis, surnamed Calliste (Most Beautiful).

The grave of Epaminondas

SKOPI (Village) TRIPOLI
When Epaminondas was wounded, they carried him still living from the ranks. For a while he kept his hand to the wound in agony, with his gaze fixed on the combatants, the place from which he looked at them being called Scope (Look) by posterity. But when the combat came to an indecisive end, he took his hand away from the wound and died, being buried on the spot where the armies met. On the grave stands a pillar, and on it is a shield with a dragon in relief. The dragon means that Epaminondas belonged to the race of those called the Sparti, while there are slabs on the tomb, one old, with a Boeotian inscription, the other dedicated by the Emperor Hadrian, who wrote the inscription on it.

Ancient walls

Walls and marketplace of Orchomenus

ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
The former city of Orchomenus was on the peak of a mountain, and there still remain ruins of a market-place and of walls.

Ancient works of art

Painting

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
There is also a copy here (at the gymnasium) of the painting in the Cerameicus which represented the engagement of the Athenians at Mantineia.

Carved image of Ares Gynaecothoenas

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
There is also an image of Ares in the marketplace of Tegea. Carved in relief on a slab it is called Gynaecothoenas (He who entertains women). At the time of the Laconian war, when Charillus king of Lacedaemon made the first invasion, the women armed themselves and lay in ambush under the hill they call today Phylactris (Sentry Hill). When the armies met and the men on either side were performing many remarkable exploits, the women, they say, came on the scene and put the Lacedaemonians to flight. Then they offered to Ares a sacrifice of victory on their own account without the men, and gave to the men no share in the meat of the victim. For this reason Ares got his surname.

Carved image of Polybius and Elatus

Close to the sanctuary of Eileithyia is an altar of Earth, next to which is a slab of white marble. On this is carved Polybius, the son of Lycortas, while on another slab is Elatus, one of the sons of Arcas.

Shrines

Shrine of Telephus

PARTHENION (Mountain) KORYTHIO
At this point begins Mount Parthenius. On it is shown a sacred enclosure of Telephus, where it is said that he was exposed when a child and was suckled by a deer.

Various

Trophy

MANTINIA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
The Mantineans affirmed that Poseidon too manifested himself in their defence, and for this reason they erected a trophy as an offering to Poseidon.

Well of the Meliasts

Farther off from Melangeia, about seven stades distant from Mantineia, there is a well called the Well of the Meliasts. These Meliasts celebrate the orgies of Dionysus.

Hall of Dionysus

Farther off from Melangeia, about seven stades distant from Mantineia, there is a well called the Well of the Meliasts. Near the well is a hall of Dionysus.

Arne fountain

A fountain.

Spring

ORCHOMENOS (Ancient city) LEVIDI
Worth seeing here is a spring, from which they draw water.

Several monuments of Tegea

TEGEA (Ancient city) ARCADIA
I also saw in Tegea: the house of Aleus, the tomb of Echemus, and the fight between Echemus and Hyllus carved in relief upon a slab.

Votive offerings in the temple of Athena Alea

Of the votive offerings in the temple these are the most notable. There is the hide of the Calydonian boar, rotted by age and by now altogether without bristles. Hanging up are the fetters, except such as have been destroyed by rust, worn by the Lacedaemonian prisoners when they dug the plain of Tegea. There have been dedicated a sacred couch of Athena, a portrait painting of Auge, and the shield of Marpessa, surnamed Choera, a woman of Tegea.

Andrew Stewart, One Hundred Greek Sculptors

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