Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 100 (total found 213) sub titles with search on: Various locations for wider area of: "TURKEY Country EUROPE" .

Various locations (213)

Ancient authors' reports


MYRINA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Harbor of the Achaeans

PITANI (Ancient city) TURKEY


In Pitane there is also a place on the sea called "Atameus below Pitane," opposite the island called Eleussa (Strab. 13,1,67).

Eleussa island

In Pitane there is also a place on the sea called Atameus below Pitane, opposite the island called Eleussa (Strab. 13.1.67).



  Lagusa (Lagousa), one of a group of small islands in the bay of Telmissus in Lycia, 5 stadia from Telmissus, and 80 from Cissidae. (Plin. v. 35 ; Steph. B. s. v.; Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. § 226, foll.) This island is generally considered to be the same as the modern Panagia di Cordialissa.

Ancient place-names

ACHARAKA (Ancient city) TURKEY


On the road between the Tralleians and Nysa is a village of the Nysaeans, not far from the city Acharaca, where is the Plutonium, with a costly sacred precinct and a shrine of Pluto and Core, and also the Charonium, a cave that lies above the sacred precinct, by nature wonderful; for they say that those who are diseased and give heed to the cures prescribed by these gods resort thither and live in the village near the cave among experienced priests, who on their behalf sleep in the cave and through dreams prescribe the cures. These are also the men who invoke the healing power of the gods. And they often bring the sick into the cave and leave them there, to remain in quiet, like animals in their lurking-holes, without food for many days. And sometimes the sick give heed also to their own dreams, but still they use those other men, as priests, to initiate them into the mysteries and to counsel them. To all others the place is forbidden and deadly.

A festival is celebrated every year at Acharaca; and at that time in particular those who celebrate the festival can see and hear concerning all these things; and at the festival, too, about noon, the boys and young men of the gymnasium, nude and anointed with oil, take up a bull and with haste carry him up into the cave; and, when let loose, the bull goes forward a short distance, falls, and breathes out his life.


Thirty stadia from Nysa, after one crosses over Mt. Tmolus and the mountain called Mesogis, towards the region to the south of the Mesogis, there is a place called Leimon, whither the Nysaeans and all the people about go to celebrate their festivals. And not far from Leimon is an entrance into the earth sacred to the same gods, which is said to extend down as far as Acharaca. The poet (Homer) is said to name this meadow when he says, ‘On the Asian meadow’; and they point out a hero-temple of Cayster and a certain Asius, and the Cayster River that streams forth near by.

AMISSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY


  Ancon (Ankon), a headland and bay, as the name implies, on the coast of Pontus, east of Amisus. It is mentioned by Valerius Flaccus (iv. 600) in his Argonautica, after the Iris, as if it were east of the mouth of that river. Apollonius Rhodius simply speaks of it as a headland (ii. 369). The ancient authorities do not agree in the distances along this coast (Steph. s. v. Chadisia; Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 288). The conclusion of Hamilton seems to be the most probable, that Derbend Bournou, east of Amisus, represents Ancon, as it is the first headland east of Amisus, and the only place before reaching the mouth of the Iris where a harbour can exist. He adds, that at the extremity of Derbend Bournou, a small stream falls into the sea between two precipitous headlands, probably the Chadisius of the ancients.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited October 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Platanus town

  Platanus (Platanous), according to the Stadiasmus ( § § 178, 179), a coast-town of Cilicia Aspera, 350 stadia west of Anemuriun. This distance is incorrect. Beaufort remarks that between the plain of Selinti and the promontory of Anamur, a distance of 30 miles, the ridge of bare rocky hills forming the coast is interrupted but twice by narrow valleys, which conduct the mountain torrents to the sea. The first of these is Kharadra; the other is halfway between that place and Anamur. The latter, therefore, seems the site of Platanus, that is, about 150 stadia from Anemurium. The whole of that rocky district, which was very dangerous to navigators, seems to have derived the name of Platanistus (Strab. xiv. p. 669) from Platanus. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 200).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ANGYRA (Ancient city) TURKEY


  Macestus or Mecestus (Makestos or Mekestos), a tributary of the river Rhyndacus: it took its origin in a lake near Ancyra, and, after flowing for some distance in a western direction, it turned northward, and joined the Rhyndacus a little to the north of Miletopolis. (Strab. xii. p. 576; Plin. v. 40.) It seems to be the same river as the one called by Polybius Megistus (v. 77), though the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1162) remarks, that in his time the Rhyndacus itself bore that name. The lower part of the river now bears the name Susu or Susugherli, while the upper part is called Simaul-Su. (Hamilton's Researches, vol. ii. pp. 105, 111.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Daphne, a celebrated grove and sanctuary of Apollo, near Antioch in Syria. Both locally and historically it was so closely connected with the Syrian metropolis, that we can hardly consider the one without the other. We have seen that Antioch was frequently called A. epi Daphei and he pros Daphnen, and conversely we find Daphne entitled D. he pros Antiocheian. (Joseph. B. J. i. 12. § 5.) Though really distant a few miles from Antioch, it was called one of its suburbs. If Antioch has been compared to Paris, Daphne may be called its Versailles.
  It was situated to the west, or rather to the south-west, of Antioch, at a distance of about 5 miles, or 40 stadia, and on higher ground than the metropolis itself (huperkeitai tettarakonta stadious he Daphne, Strab. xvi.). The place was naturally of extreme beauty, with perennial fountains, and abundant wood.Here a sanctuary was established, with the privileges of asylum (2 Macc. iv. 33; Polyaen. viii. 50), which became famous throughout the heathen world, and remained for centuries a place of pilgrimage, and the scene of an almost perpetual festival of vice. The zeal with which Gibbon has described it, in his twenty-third chapter, is well known.
  Daphne, like Antioch, owed its origin to Seleucus Nicator; and, as in the case of his metropolis, so he associated the religious suburb with mythological traditions, which were intended to glorify his family. The fame of Apollo was connected with his own. The fable of the river Peneus was appropriated; and the tree was even shown into which the nymph Daphne was transformed.1 One of the fountains received the name of the Castalian spring, and the chief honours of the new sanctuary were borrowed from Delphi. In the midst of a rich and deep grove of bay trees and cypresses (Procop. B. Pers. ii. 14), with baths, gardens, and colonnades on every side, Seleucus built the temple of Apollo and Diana. The statue of the god was colossal: its material was partly marble, and partly wood; the artist was Bryaxis the Athenian, whose works were long celebrated at Rhodes and elsewhere. (Clem. Alex. Protr. § 47.) It is described at length by Libanius (Monod. de Daphnaeo Templo, iii. 334), who states that the god was represented with a harp, and as if in the act of singing (eoikei aidonti melos). With the worship of Apollo Antiochus Epiphanes associated that of Jupiter in the sanctuary of Daphne. This monarch erected here, in honour of that divinity (with whom he was singularly fond of identifying himself), a colossal statue of ivory and gold, resembling that of Phidias at Olympia. Games also. were established in his honour, as may be seen by extant coins of Antioch. (See Muller's Antiq. Antiochenae, p. 64, note 12.) The games of Daphne are described in Athenaeus. (Ibid. note 13.) What has been said may be enough to give the reader some notion of this celebrated place in the time of the Seleucidae, and in its relation to the Oriental Greeks before the Roman occupation of Syria. It ought to be added, that the road between Antioch and Daphne, which passed through the intermediate suburb of Heracleia, was bordered by gardens, fountains, and splendid buildings, suitable to the gay processions that thronged from the city gate to the scene of consecrated pleasure.
  The celebrity of Daphne continued unimpaired for a long period under the Romans, from Pompey to Constantine. It seems to have been Pompey who enlarged the dimensions of the sacred enclosure to the circumference of 80 stadia, or 10 miles, mentioned by Strabo (l. c.; see Eutrop. vi. 14). Some of the aqueducts erected for the use of Antioch by the Roman emperors were connected with the springs of Daphne. (Malala, pp. 243; 278.) The reign of Trajan was remarkable in the annals of the place for the restoration of the buildings destroyed by an earthquake. That of Commodus was still more memorable on account of the establishment (or rather the re-establishment) of periodical Olympian games at Antioch; for the stadium of Daphne was the scene of the festive contests. This was the time of that corruption of manners (the Daphnici mores of Marcus Antoninus) under which Roman soldiers and Roman emperors suffered so seriously in the Syrian metropolis.
  The decay of Daphne must be dated from the reign of Julian, when the struggle between Heathenism and Christianity was decided in favour of the latter. Constantine erected a statue of Helena within the ancient sanctuary of Apollo and Jupiter, and the great church at Antioch was roofed with cypresswood from Daphne; which, about the reign of Zeno, fell into the condition of an ordinary Syrian town.
  It is needless to pursue the history further. Among modern travellers, Pococke and Richter have fixed the site of Daphne at Beit-el-Maa, the distance of which from Antakia agrees with the ancient measurement, and where some poor remains are found near a number of abundant fountains. Forbiger (Alte Geographie, vol. ii. p. 657) thinks with Kinneir that the true position is at Babyla; but, though the apparent connection of this name with that of the martyr Babylas gives some ground for this opinion, the distance from Antioch is too great; and the former view is probably correct. No detailed account of the remains has been given. Poujoulat says (Corr. d'Orient. viii. 38), A cote de la plus profonde fontaine de Beit-el-moie, on remarque des debris massifs appartenant a un edifice des ages recules: si jetais antiquaire et savant, je pourrais peut etre prouver que ces restes sont ceux du Temple d'Apollon.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Orontes river

Orontes. The largest river of Syria, rising in the Anti-Libanus, flowing past Antioch, and falling into the sea at the foot of Mount Pieria. Its earlier name was Typhon (Strabo, p. 750).

Orontes, the most renowned river of Syria, used by the poet Juvenal for the country, in Tiberim defluxit Orontes. (Juv. iii.) Its original name, according to Strabo, was Typhon (Tuphon), and his account both of its earlier and later names, follows his description of Antioch. The river Orontes flows near the city. This river rising in Coele-Syria, then sinking beneath the earth, again issues forth, and, passing through the district of Apamea to Antiocheia, after approaching the city, runs off to the sea towards Seleuceia. It received its name from one Orontes, who built a bridge over it, having been formerly called Typhon, from a mythic dragon, who being struck with lightning, fled in quest of a hiding-place, and after marking out the course of the stream with its trail, plunged into the earth, from whence forthwith issued the fountain. He places its embouchure 40 stadia from Seleuceia. He elsewhere places the source of the river more definitely near to Libanus and the Paradise, and the Egyptian wall, by the country of Apamea. Its sources have been visited and described in later times by Mr. Barker in 1835. The river is called by the people El-A/si, "the rebel," from its refusal to water the fields without the compulsion of water-wheels, according to Abulfeda (Tab. Syr. p. 149), but according to Mr. Barker, from its occasional violence and windings, during a course of about 200 miles in a northerly direction, passing through Hems and Hamah, and finally discharging itself into the sea at Suweidiah near Antioch. (Journal of the Geog. Soc. vol. vii. p. 99.) The most remote of these sources is only a few miles north of Baalbek, near a village called Labweh, at the foot of the range of Anti-libanus on the top of a hillock, near which passes a small stream, which has its source in the adjoining mountains, and after flowing for several hours through the plain, falls into the basin from which springs the Orontes. These fountains are about 12 hours north of Labweh, near the village Kurmul, where is a remarkable monument, square, and solid, terminating above in a pyramid from 60 to 70 feet high. On the four sides hunting scenes are sculptured in relief, of which the drawing borders on the grotesque. (Robinson, Journal of Geog. Soc. vol. xxiv. p. 32.) There can be no difficulty in connecting this monument with the Paradise or hunting park mentioned by Strabo near the source of the Orontes, similar, no doubt, in origin and character, to those with which the narrative of Xenophon abounds, within the territories of the Persian monarchs. The rise and course of this river and its various tributaries has been detailed by Col. Chesney (Expedition, vol. i. pp. 394--398), and the extreme beauty of its lower course between Antioch and the sea has been described in glowing terms by Captains Irby and Mangles.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  A small river of the plain of Antioch. (Strab. xvi. p. 751.) It runs from the north, parallel to the Arceuthus and, mixing with its waters and those of the Oenoparas coming from the east, in a small lake, they flow off in one stream and join the Orontes a little above Antioch.

Oenobaras river

  Oenobaras (Oinobaras or Oinoparas), a river of the plain of Antioch, in Syria, at which, according to Strabo (xvi. p. 751), Ptolemy Philometer, having conquered Alexander Balas in battle, died of his wounds. It has been identified with the Uphrenus, modern Aphreen, which, rising in the roots of Amanus Mons (Almadaghy), runs southward through the plain of Cyrrhestica, until it falls into the small lake, which receives also the Labotas and the Arceuthus, from which their united waters run westward to join the Orontes coming from the south. The Oenoparas is the easternmost of the three streams. It is unquestionably the Afrin of Abulfeda. (Tabula Syr., Supplementa, p. 152, ed. Koehler; Chesney, Expedition, vol. i. pp. 407, 423.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

APAMIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Aulocrenae valley

  Aulocrenae, a valley ten Roman miles from Apamia (Cibotus) for those who are going to Phrygia. (Plin. v. 29.) The Marsyas, says Pliny, rises and is soon hidden in the place where Marsyas contended with Apollo on the pipe in Aulocrenae; whence, perhaps, the place derives its name from the legend of Apollo and Marsyas, as it means the fountains of the pipe. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Maeander as rising, according to report, in one lake above Celaenae, which produces reeds adapted for making mouth-pieces for pipes; he gives no name to the lake. Pliny (xvi. 44) says, We have mentioned the tract (regio) Aulocrene, through which a man passes from Apamia into Phrygia; there a plane tree is shown from which Marsyas was suspended, after being vanquished by Apollo. But Pliny has not mentioned the regio Aulocrene before; and the passage to which he refers (v. 29), and which is here literally rendered, is not quite clear. But he has mentioned, in another passage (v. 29), a lake on a mountain Aulocrene, in which the Maeander rises. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. i. p. 498) found near Denair (Apameia Cibotus), a lake nearly two miles in circumference, full of reeds and rushes, which he considers to be the source of the Maeander, and also to be the lake described by Pliny on the Mons Aulocrene. But the Aulocrenae he considers to be in the plain of Dombai. Thus Pliny mentions a regio Aulocrene, a mons Aulocrene, and a valley (convallis) Aulocrenae.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ASCANIA (Ancient area) MYSIA

Ascania lake

  Ascania lacus or Ascanius (Askania: Isnik), a large lake in Bithynia, at the east extremity of which was the city of Nicaea. (Strab. p. 5 65, &c.) Apollodorus, quoted by Strabo (p. 681), says that there was a place called Ascania on the lake. The lake is about 10 miles long and 4 wide, surrounded on three sides by steep woody slopes, behind which rise the snowy summits of the Olympus range. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 7.) Cramer refers to Aristotle (Mirab. Ausc. c. 54) and Pliny (xxxi. 10), to show that the waters of this lake are impregnated with nitre; but Aristotle and Pliny mean another Ascania. This lake is fresh; a river flows into it, and runs out into the bay of Cios. This river is the Ascanius of Pliny (v. 32) and Strabo.
  The Ascanius of Homer (Il. ii. 862) is supposed to be about this lake of Strabo (p. 566), who attempts to explain this passage of the Iliad. The country around the lake was called Ascania. (Steph. s. v. Askania.) The salt lake Ascania, to which Aristotle and Pliny refer, is a lake of Pisidia, the lake of Buldur or Burdur.
  The salt lake Ascania of Arrian (Anab. i. 29) is a different lake [Anaya].

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

ASPENDOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Castnium mountain

Castnium (Kastnion), a mountain at Aspendus of Pamphylia. (Steph. s. v.)

Eurymedon river

which flows past Aspendus (Pliny 5.26)

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Satnioeis River

Satnioeis (Satnioeis: Tuzlia or Tusla), a small river in the southern part of Troas, having its sources in Mount Ida, and flowing in a western direction between Hamaxitus and Larissa, discharges itself into the Aegean. It owes its celebrity entirely to the Homeric poems. (Il. vi. 34, xiv. 445, xxi. 87; Strab. xiii. who states that at a later time it was called Saphnioeis.)

ATTALIA (Ancient city) TURKEY


Masura (Masoura), a place between Attalia and Perge in Pamphylia (Stadiasm. § § 200, 201), and 70 stadia from Mygdala, which is probably a corruption of Magydus.

AZANITIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Pencalas river



A group of small islands off the coast of Troy, to the north of Tenedos (Plin. v. 38; comp. Eustath. ad Hom. Il. ii. p. 306). Their modern name is Taochan Adassi.




Rhyndacus river

  Rhyndacus (Rhundakos), an important river in the province of Hellespontus, which has its sources at the foot of Mount Olympus in Phrygia Epictetus, near the town of Azani. (Scylax, p. 35; Plin. v. 40; Pomp. Mela, i. 19; Strab. xii. p. 576.) According to Pliny, it was at one time called Lycus, and had its origin in the lake of Miletopolis ; but this notion is incorrect. The river flows at first in a north-western direction, forming the boundary between Mysia and Bithynia, through the lake of Apollonia, and in the neighbourhood of Miletopolis receives the river Megistus, and discharges itself into the Propontis opposite the island of Besbicus. The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1165) states that in later times the Rhyndacus, after receiving the waters of the Megistus, was itself called Megistus; but Eustathius (ad Horn. Il. xiii. 771) assures us that in his time it still bore the name of Rhyndacus. According to Valerius Flaccus (iii. 35) its yellow waters were discernible in the sea at a great distance from its mouth. In B.C. 73 Lucullus gained a victory over Mitlhridates on the banks of this river. (Plut. Luc. 11; comp. Polyb. v. 17; Ptol. v. 1. § § 4, 8; Steph. B. s. v.) The Rhyndacus is now called Lupad, and after its union with the Megistus (Susughirli) it bears the name of Mohalidsh or Micalitza. (See Hamilton's Researches, i. p. 83, &c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

EFESSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY


Spring near Ephesus.


Cenchrius (Kenchrios). A river of Ionia near Ephesus and Mount Solmissus, where the Curetes, according to some, concealed and protected Leto after her delivery, when she was pursued by the power of Here.

Cayster plain

Caystri Campus (to Kaustrou pedion) is Strabo's name for the plain of the Cayster. Stephanus (s. v. Kaustrion pedion) assigns it to the Ephesia or territory of Ephesus, with the absurd remark that the Cayster, from which it takes its name, was so called from its proximity to the Catacecaumene or Burnt Region. Stephanus adds the Ethnic name Kaustrianos ; but this belongs properly to the people of some place, as there are medals with the legend Kaustrianon.
  Xenophon, in his march of Cyrus from Sardis (Anab. i. 2. § 11), speaks of a Kaustrou pedion. Before coming here, Cyrus passed through Celaenae, Peltae, and Ceramon Agora. The march from Celaenae to Peltae is 10 parasangs; from Peltae to Ceramon Agora, 12 parasangs; and from Ceramon Agora to the plain of Cayster, which Xenophon calls an inhabited city, was 30 parasangs. From the plain of Cayster, Cyrus marched 10 parasangs to Thymbrium, then 10 to Tyraeum, and then 20 to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia in the direction of his march; for after leaving Iconium, he entered Cappadocia. Iconium is Koniyeh, a position well known. Celaenae is also well known, being at Deenair, on the Maeander. Now the march of Cyrus from Celaenae to Iconium was 92 parasangs, or 2760 stadia, according to Greek computation, if the numbers are right in the Greek text. Cyrus, therefore, did not march direct from Celaenae to Iconium. He made a great bend to the north, for the Ceramon Agora was the nearest town in Phrygia to Mysia. The direct distance from Celaenae to Iconium is about 125 English miles. The distance by the route of Cyrus was 276 geog. miles, if the Greek value of the parasang is true, as given by Xenophon and Herodotus; but it may be less.
  The supposition that the plain of Cayster is the plain through which the Cayster flows cannot be admitted; and as Cyrus seems for some reason to have directed his march northwards from Celaenae till he came near the borders of Mysia, his route to Iconium would be greatly lengthened. Two recent attempts have been made to fix the places between Celaenae and Iconium, one by Mr. Hamilton (Researches, &c., vol. ii. p. 198, &c.), and another by Mr. Ainsworth (Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand, &c., p. 24, &c.). The examination of these two explanations cannot be made here for want of space. But it is impossible to identify with certainty positions on a line of road where distances only are given, and we find no corresponding names to guide us. Mr. Hamilton supposes that the Caystri Campus may be near the village of Chai Kieui, and near the banks of the Eber Ghieul in the extensive plain between that village and Polybotum. Chai Kieui is in about 38° 40? N. lat. Mr. Ainsworth places the Caystri Campus further west at a place called Surmeneh, a high and arid upland, as its ancient name designates, which is traversed by an insignificant tributary to the Eber Gol, Mr. Hamilton's Eber Ghieul. The neighbourhood of Surmeneh abounds in ancient remains; but Chai Kieui is an insignificant place, without ruins. Both Mr. Hamilton and Mr. Ainsworth, however, agree in fixing the Caystri Campus in the basin of this river, the Eber Ghieul, and so far the conclusion may be accepted as probable. But the exact site of the place cannot be determined without further evidence. Cyrus stayed at Caystri Campus five days, and he certainly would not stay with his troops five days in a high and arid upland. As the plain was called the Plain of Cayster, we may assume that there was a river Cayster where Cyrus halted. One of Mr. Ainsworth's objections to Mr. Hamilton's conclusion is altogether unfounded. He says that the plain which Mr. Hamilton chooses as the site of the Caystri Campus is an extensive plain, but very marshy, being in one part occupied by a perpetual and large lake, called Eber Gol, and most unlikely at any season of the year to present the arid and burnt appearance which could have led the Greeks to call it Caustron or Caystrus, the burnt or barren plain. But the word Caystrus could not mean burnt, and Stephanus is guilty of originating this mistake. It means no more a burnt plain here than it does when applied to the plain above Ephesus. Both were watery places; one we know to be so; and the other we may with great probability conclude to be. The medals with the epigraph KaustriaWoW may belong to this place, and not to a city in the valley of the Lydian Cayster.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Myonnesus cape & island

Myonnesus (Muonnesos or Muonesos), a promontory on the south-west of Lebedus, on the coast of Ionia, at the northern extremity of the bay of Ephesus. It is celebrated in history for the naval victory there gained by the Romans under L. Aemilius over Antiochus the Great, in B.C. 190. (Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. xiv. p. 643; Thucyd. iii. 42; Liv. xxxvii. 27.) Livy describes the promontory as situated between Samos and Teos, and as rising from a broad basis to a pointed summit. There was an approach to it on the land side by a narrow path; while on the sea side it was girt by rocks, so much worn by the waves, that in some parts the over-hanging cliffs extended further into the sea than the ships stationed under them. On this promontory there also was a small town of the name of Myonnesus [p. 387] (Steplh. B., Strab ll. cc.), which belonged to Teos. The rocks of Myonnesus are now called Hypsilibounos.
Pliny (H. N. v. 37) mentions a small island of the name of Myonnesus near Ephesus, which, together with two others, Anthinae and Diarrheusa, formed a group called Pisistrati Insulae.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Selinusia lake

After the outlet of the Cayster River comes a lake that runs inland from the sea, called Selinusia; and next comes another lake that is confluent with it, both affording great revenues. Of these revenues, though sacred, the kings deprived the goddess, but the Romans gave them back; and again the tax-gatherers forcibly converted the tolls to their own use; but when Artemidorus was sent on an embassy, as he says, he got the lakes back for the goddess, and he also won the decision over Heracleotis, which was in revolt, his case being decided at Rome; and in return for this the city erected in the temple a golden image of him. In the innermost recess of the lake there is a temple of a king, which is said to have been built by Agamemnon.

Selenusiae (Selenousiai) or Selennuetes, two lakes formed by the sea, north of the mouth of the Caystrus, and not far from the temple of the Ephesian Artemis. These two lakes, which communicated with each other, were extremely rich in fish, and formed part of the revenue of the temple of Artemis, though they were on several occasions wrested from it. (Strab. xiv. p. 642; Plin. v. 31.) The name of the lakes, derived from Selene, the moon-goddess, or Artemis, probably arose from their connection with the great goddess of Ephesus. (Comp. Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 162.)

Phyrites tributary

Phyrites, a small tributary of the Caystrus, having its origin in the western branch of Mount Tmolus, and flowing in a southern direction through the Pegasean marsh (Stagnum Pegaseum), discharges itself into the Caystrus some distance above Ephesus. (Plin. v. 31.)

Pegaseum Stagnum

Pegaseum Stagnum a small lake in the Caystrian plain near Ephesus, from which issues the little river Phyrites, a tributary of the Caystrus. (Plin. v. 31.) The district surrounding the lake is at present an extensive morass. (Comp. Arundell, Seven Churches, p. 23, &c.)

Ortygia grove

Ortygia, a grove near Ephesus, in which the Ephesians pretended that Apollo and Artemis were born. Hence the Cayster, which flowed near Ephesus, is called Ortygius Cayster.


Coresus (Koressos). A lofty mountain in Ionia, four miles from Ephesus, with a place of the same name at its foot.

Pion Mountain

Mountain near Ephesus.

Panormus port

Panormus The port of Ephesus formed by the mouth of the Caystrus, near which stood the celebrated temple of the Ephesian Artemis. (Strab. xiv. p. 639; comp. Liv. xxx<*> i. 10, foll., especially 14. 15)


Priapus. An island near Ephesus, Plin. 5, 31, 38, § 137.


Solmissus (Solmissos), a hill near Ephesus, rising above the grove of Leto, where the Curetes, by the loud noise of their arms, prevented Hera from hearing the cries of Leto when she gave birth to her twins. (Strab. xiv. p. 640.)

ENOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Stentoris lacus

Stentoris lacus (Stentoris limne, Herod. vii. 58; Acropol. p. 64), a lake on the south-east coast of Thrace, formed by the Hebrus, and opening into the Aegean near the town of Aenos. Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) incorrectly places on it a Stentoris Portus; and Mannert conjectures that perhaps the right reading in Herodotus (l. c.) is limena, not limnen.

ERYTHRES (Ancient city) TURKEY


District belonging to Erythrae.

After Mt. Corycus one comes to Halonnesos, a small island. Then to Argennum, a promontory of the Erythraean territory; it is very close to the Poseidium of the Chians, which latter forms a strait about sixty stadia in width. Between Erythrae and Hypocremnus lies Mimas, a lofty mountain, which is well supplied with game and well wooded. Then one comes to a village Cybelia, and to a promontory Melaena, as it is called, which has a millstone quarry.

Argennum promontory

Argennum (Argennon, Arginon, Thucyd. viii. 34), a promontory of the territory of Erythrae, the nearest point of the mainland to Posidium in Chios, and distant 60 stadia from it. The modern name is said to be called Cap Blanc.

FASILIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Solyma mountain

  Solyma (ta Soluma), a high mountain near Phaselis in Lycia. (Strab. xiv. p. 666.) As the mountain is not mentioned by any other writer, it is probably only another name for the Chimaera Mons, the Olympus, or the mountains of the Solymi, mentioned by Homer. (Od. v. 283.) In the Stadiasmus it is simply called the oros mega: it extends about 70 miles northward from Phaselis, and its highest point, now called Taghtalu, rises immediately above the ruins of Phaselis, which exactly corresponds with the statement of Strabo. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 189.)

FAZIMON (Ancient city) TURKEY

Thermai Phazemoniton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

FRYGIA (Ancient country) TURKEY


Cave in Phrygia, sacred to the Mother.


River of Phrygia.


Alander a river of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii. 15, 18), which is twice mentioned by Livy, in his account of the march of Cn. Manlius. It was probably a branch of the Sangarius, as Hamilton (Researches in Asia Minor, vol. i. pp. 458, 467) conjectures, and the stream which flows in the valley of Beiad; but he gives no modern name

Obrimas river

  A river of Phrygia, an eastern tributary of the Maeander, had its sources, according to Livy (xxxviii. 15), on the eastern side of Mount Cadmus, near the town of Asporidos, and flowed in the neighbourhood of Apamea Cibotus (Plin. v. 29.) This is all the direct information we possess about it; but from Livy's account of the expedition of Manlius, who had pitched his camp there, when he was visited by Seleucus from Apamea, we may gather some further particulars, which enable us to identify the Obrimas with the Sandukli Chai. Manlius had marched direct from Sagalassus, and must have led his army through the plains of Dombai, passing in the rear of Apamea. Thus Seleucus would easily hear of the consul being in his neighbourhood, and, in his desire to propitiate him, would have started after him and overtaken him the next day (postero die.) Manlius, moreover, at the sources of the Obrimas required guides, because he found himself hemmed in by mountains and unable to find his way to the plain of Metropolis. All this agrees perfectly well with the supposition that the ancient Obrimas is the modern Sandukli Chai (Hamilton, Researches, ii. p. 172, &e.). Franz (Funf Inschriften, p. 37), on the other hand, supposes the Kodsha Chai to correspond with the Obrimas. Arundell (Discov. in Asia Min. i. p. 231), again, believes that Livy has confounded the sources of the Marsyas and Maeander with those of the Obrimas.

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Tymandus (Tumandos: Eth. TumandeWos), a place in Phrygia, between Philomelium and Sozopolis. (Cone. Chalked. pp. 244, and 247: in this passage the reading Mandenon pogis is corrupt; Hierocl. p. 673, where the name is miswritten Tumandros.) It is possible that Tymandus may be the same as the Dymas mentioned by Livy (xxxviii. 15), for which some MSS. have Dimas or Dinias.

Gygaeus Lacus

  Gygaeus Lacus (Gugaia Limnm: Mermere), a lake in Phrygia, on the road from Thyatira to Sardes, between the rivers Hermus and Hyllus. (Hom. Il. ii. 864, xx. 391; Herod. i. 93; Strab. xiii. p. 626; Plin. v. 30.) This lake was afterwards called Coloe, and near it was the necropolis of Sardes. It was said to have been made by human hands, to receive the waters which inundated the plain. (Comp. Hamilton's Researches, vol. i. p. 145.)


Tymbres a tributary of the Sangarius, in the north of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii. 18), is in all probability the same river as the one called by Pliny (vi. 1) Tembrogius, which joined the Sangarius, as Livy says, on the borders of Phrygia and Galatia, and, flowing in the plain of Dorylaeum, separated Phrygia Epictetus from Phrygia Salutaris. It seems also to be the same river as the Thyaris and Bathys mentioned in Byzantine writers. (Cinnamus, v. 1. p. 1ll; Richter, Wallfahrten, p. 522, foll.)

GALATIA (Ancient country) TURKEY


Trocmada (Trokmada), a place of uncertain site in Galatia, which probably derived its name from the tribe of the Trocmi, is mentioned only by late Christian writers (Conc. Chalced. pp. 125, 309, 663; Conc. Constant. iii. p. 672; Conc. Nicaen. ii. p. 355, where its name is Troknada; Hierocl. p. 698, where it is miswritten Pegetnakade.)



  Lycus (Lukos), is the name of a great many rivers, especially in Asia, and seems to have originated in the impression made upon the mind of the beholder by a torrent rushing down the side of a hill, which suggested the idea of a wolf rushing at his prey. The following rivers of this name occur in Asia Minor:
1. The Lycus of Bithynia: it flows in the east of Bithynia in a western direction, and empties itself into the Euxine a little to the south of Heracleia Pontica, which was twenty stadia distant from it. The breadth of the river is stated to have been two plethra, and the plain near its mouth bore the name of Campus Lycaeus. (Scylax, p. 34; Orph. Argon. 720; Arrian, Peripl. p. 14; Anonym. Peripl. p. 3; Xenoph. Anab. vi. 2. § 3; Ov. Epist. ex Pont. x. 47; Memnon, ap. Phot. 51; Plin. vi. 1, who erroneously states that Heracleia was situated on (appositum) the river.

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IONIA (Ancient country) TURKEY

Mykale (Mycale)

An Ionian promontory opposite Samos; Panionium there, flight of Chians thither after Lade, defeat of Persians by Greeks at Mycale, mountain in Ionia.


Perseus Project Index. Total results on 30/5/2001: 85 for Mykale, 125 for Mycale.


Promontory opposite Chios, some of the Greeks sail to, after the sack of Ilium, Alexander attempts to dig through it.


  Mimas (ho Mimas), a mountain range in Ionia, traversing the peninsula of Erythrae from south to north. It still bears its ancient name, under which it is mentioned in the Odyssey (iii. 172.) It is, properly speaking, only a branch of Mount Tmolus, and was celebrated in ancient times for its abundance of wood and game (Strab. xiv. pp. 613, 645.) The neck at the south-western extremity of the peninsula formed by Mount Mimas, a little to the north of Teos, is only about 7 Roman miles broad, and Alexander the Great intended to cut a canal through the isthmus, so as to connect the Caystrian and Hermaean bays; but it was one of the few undertakings in which he did not succeed. (Plin. v. 31; Paus. ii. 1. § 5; comp. vii. 4. § 1; Thucyd. viii. 34; Ov. Met. ii. 222; Amm. Marc. xxxi. 42; Callim. Hymn. in Del. 157; Sil. Ital. ii. 494.)
  Mount Mimas forms three promontories in the peninsula; in the south Coryceum (Koraka or Kurko), in the west Argennum (Cape Blanco), and in the north Melaena (Kara Burnu). Chandler (Travels, p. 213) describes the shores of Mount Mimas as covered with pines and shrubs, and garnished with flowers. He passed many small pleasant spots, well watered, and green with corn or with myrtles and shrubs. The summit of the mountain commands a magnificent view, extending over the bays of Smyrna, Clazomenae, and Erythrae, the islands of Samos, Chios, and several others.

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Perseus Project Index. Total results on 30/5/2001: 36 for Mimas.

KAPADOKIA (Ancient country) TURKEY

Mocisus fort

  Mocisus or Mocisum (Mokesos, Mokison) a fort in the north western part of Cappadocia, which the Emperor Justinian, at the time when he divided the country into three provinces, raised to the rank of the capital of Cappadocia III. On that occasion the place was considerably enlarged, and its name was changed into Justinianopolis. (Procop. de Aed. v. 4; Hierocl. p. 701, where it is miswritten Pegekoukousos, for Pegemoukisos; Const. Porph. de Them. i. 2; Steph. B. s. v. Moukissos; Conc. Const. ii. p. 96.) It modern name is Kir Shehr.

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A district in the northwest of Cappadocia, comprising both banks of the river Halys, is said to have been fit only for pasture land, to have had scarcely any fruit-trees, and to have abounded in wild asses. (Strab. xii. pp. 534, 537, 539, 540; Plin. H. N. vi. 3.) The Romans regarded it as a part of Galatia, whence Ptolemy (v. 6) does not mention it among the districts of Cappadocia.

Pyramus river

  Pyramus (Puramos,), one of the great rivers of Asia Minor, which has its sources in Cataonia near the town of Arabissus. (Strab. i. p. 53, xiv. p. 675.) For a time it passes under ground, but then comes forward again as a navigable river, and forces its way through a glen of Mount Taurus, which in some parts is so narrow that a god can leap across it. (Strab. xii. p. 536.) Its course, which until then had been south, now turns to the south-west, and reaches the sea st Mallus in Cilicia. This river is deep and rapid (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 440); its average breadth was 1 stadium (Xenoph. Anab. i. 4. § 1), but it carried with it such a quantity of mud, that, according to an ancient oracle, its deposits were one day to reach the island of Cyprus, and thus unite it with the mainland. (Strab. l. c.; Eustath. ad Dionys, 867.) Stephanus B. (s. v.) states that formerly this river had been called Leucosyrus. (Comp. Scylax, p. 40; Ptol. v. 8. § 4; Plin. v. 22; Pomp. Mela, i. 13; Curtius, iii. 7; Arrian, Anab. ii. 5. § 8.) Its modern name is Seihun or Jechun.

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Sargarausene, a district of Cappadocia, on the east of Commagene and near the frontiers of Pontus, containing, according to Ptolemy (v. 6. § 13), the towns of Phiara, Sadagena, Gauraena, Sabalassus, Ariarathira, and Maroga. (Strab. xii. pp. 534, 537; Plin. vi. 3.)


Soanda or Soandum (Soanda or Soandon), a castle of Cappadocia, between Therma and Sacoena. (Strab. xiv. p. 663; It. Ant. p. 202.) The same place seems to be alluded to by Frontinus (iii. 2. § 9), who calls it Suenda. Hamilton (Researches, ii. p. 286, foil.) identifies it with Ssoghanli Dere, a place situated on a rock, about 8 miles on the south-west of Karahissar, but other geopraphers place it in a different locality.

KARIA (Ancient country) TURKEY

Carura town

   Carura (Ta Karoura), a town which was on the north-eastern limit of Caria (Strab. p. 663); its position east of the range of Cadmus assigns it to Phrygia, under which country Strabo describes it. It was on the south side of the Maeander, 20 M. P. west of Laodiceia, according to the Table, and on the great road along the valley of the Maeander from Laodiceia to Ephesus. The place is identified by the hot springs, about 12 miles NW. of Denizli, which have been described by Pococke and Chandler. Strabo (p. 578) observes that Carura contained many inns (pandocheia), which is explained by the fact of its being on a line of great traffic, by which the wool and other products of the interior were taken down to the coast. He adds that it has hot springs, some in the Maeander, and some on the banks of the river. All this tract is subject to earthquakes; and there was a story, reported by Strabo, that as a brothel keeper was lodging in the inns with a great number of his women, they were all swallowed up one night by the earth opening. Chandler (Asia Minor, c. 65) observed on the spot a jet of hot water, which sprung up several inches from the ground; and also the remains of an ancient bridge over the river. On the road between Carura and Laodiceia was the temple of Men Carus, a Carian deity; and in the time of Strabo there was a noted school of medicine here, under the presidency of Zeuxis. This school was of the sect of Herophilus. (Strab. p. 580.) Chandler discovered some remains on the road to Laodiceia, which, he supposes, may be the traces of this temple; but he states nothing that confirms the conjecture.
  Herodotus (vii. 30) mentions a place called Cydrara, to which Xerxes came on his road from Colossae to Sardes. It was the limit of Lydia and Phrygia, and King Croesus fixed a stele there with an inscription on it, which declared the boundary. Leake (Asia Minor, &c. p. 251) thinks that the Cydrara of Herodotus may be Carura. It could not be far off; but the boundary between Lydia and Phrygia would perhaps not be placed south of the Maeander in these parts.

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Aphrodisias promontory

Aphrodisias, a promontory on the SW. coast of Caria (Mela, i. 16; Plin. v. 28), between the gulfs of Schoenus and Thymnias. The modern name is not mentioned by Hamilton, who passed round it (Researches, vol. ii. p. 72). It has sometimes been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, which is Cape Volpo.


  Arconnesus (Arkonnesos), a small island of Caria, near to the mainland, and south of Halicarnassus. It is now called Orak Ada. When Alexander besieged Halicarnassus, some of the inhabitants fled to this island. (Arrian, Anab. i. 23; Strabo, p. 656; Chart of the Prom. of Halicarnassus, &c., in Beaufort's Karamania; Hamilton, Researches, ii. 34.)
  Strabo (p. 643) mentions an island, Aspis, between Teos and Lebedus, and he adds that it was also called Arconnesus. Chandler, who saw the island from the mainland, says that it is called Carabash. Barbie du Bocage (Translation of Chandler's Travels, i. p. 422) says that it is called in the charts Sainte-Euphnemie. This seems to be the island Macris of Livy (xxxvii. 28), for he describes it as opposite to the promontory on which Myonnesus was situated. Cramer (Asia Minor, vol. i. p. 355) takes Macris to be a different island from Aspis.

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  Lethaeus (Lethaios), a small river of Caria, which has its sources in Mount Pactyes, and after a short course from north to south discharges itself into the Maeander, a little to the south-east of Magnesia. (Strab. xii. p. 554, xiv. p. 647; Athen. xv. p. 683.) Arundell (Seven Churches, p. 57) describes the river which he identifies with the ancient Lethaeus, as a torrent rushing along over rocky ground, and forming many waterfalls.

Attuda town

  Attuda (Attouda: Eth. Attoudeus), a town of Caria, or of Phrygia, as some suppose, noticed only by Hierocles and the later authorities. But there are coins of the place with the epigraph Hiera Boule Attoudeon, of the time of Augustus and later. The coins show that the Men Carus was worshipped there. An inscription is said to show that the site is that of Ypsili Hissar, south-east of Aphrodisias in Caria. (Cramer, Asia Minor, vol. ii. p. 55; Forbiger, vol. ii. p. 235.)

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Suagela town

Suagela (Souagela), a town of Caria, in which was shown the tomb of Car, the ancestor of all the Carians; the place was in fact believed to have received its name from this circumstance, for in Carian soua signified a tomb, and gelas a king. (Steph. B. s. v.) Strabo, who calls the place Syangela (xiii. p. 611), states that this town and Myndus were preserved at the time when Mausolus united six other towns to form Halicarnassus.

KAVNOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Calbis river

Imbrus hill



(Melania), a place on the coast of Cilicia, a little to the west of Celenderis, perhaps on the site of the modern Kizliman. (Strab. xiv. p. 670.) From another passage of Strabo (xvi. p. 760), compared with Stephanus B. (s. v. Melainai), it would seem that the place was also called Melaenae.

KERAMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Cerameicus bay

  Cerameicus (Kerameikos kolpos), a bay in Caria (Herod. i. 174), now the gulf of Boudroun, so called from a town Ceramus (Keramos), which is on the gulf. Strabo places Ceramus and Bargasa near the sea, between Cnidus and Halicarnassus, and Ceramus comes next after Cnidus. D'Anville identifies Ceramus with a place called Keramo, but this place does not appear to be known. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 225.) Ptolemy seems to place Ceramus on the south side of the bay. Some modern maps place it on the north side; but this cannot be true, particularly if Bargasa is rightly determined. There are medals which are assigned to Ceramus by some numismatists.
  Pliny mentions a Doridis Sinus. Now, as Doris is the country occupied by the Dorian colonies, this name is more appropriate to the Cerameicus, on the north side of which is Halicarnassus, and at the entrance is the island of Cos. Pliny's words are clear, though they have been generally misunderstood; for, after mentioning the bay of Schoenus and the Regio Bubassus, he mentions Cnidus, and he says that Doris begins at Cnidus. Again, he says that Halicarnassus is between the Cerameicus and the Iasius: the Cerameicus of Pliny, then, is either different from the Sinus Doridis, or it is one of the bays included in the Sinus Doridis, and so called from the town of Ceramus. But Pliny places in the Doridis Sinus, Leucopolis, Hamaxitus, Elaeus, and Euthene; and Mela (i. 16) places Euthane, as he calls it, in a bay between Cnidus and the Cerameicus Sinus: from which it clearly appears that Euthane is in the Sinus Doridis of Pliny, and that Mela's Cerameicus is a smaller bay in the Sinus Doridis. Mela's Littus Leuca is between Halicarnassus and Myndus; and if this is Pliny's Leucopolis, as we may assume, the identity of the Cerameicus and the Sinus Doridis of Pliny is clearly established.

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Aretias island

  Aretias (Aretias), a small island on the coast of Pontus, 30 stadia east of Pharnacia (Kerasunt), called Areos nesos by Scymnus (Steph. B. s. v. Areos nesos) and Scylax. Here (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 384) the two queens of the Amazons, Otrere and Antiope, built a temple to Ares. Mela (ii. 7) mentions this place, under the name of Area or Aria, an island dedicated to Mars, in the neighbourhood of Colchis. Aretias appears to be the rocky islet called by the Turks Kerasunt Ada, which is between 3 and 4 miles from Kerasunt. The rock is a black volcanic breccia, with imbedded fragments of trap, and is covered in many places with broken oystershells brought by gulls and sea-birds. (Hamilton, Researches, i. 262.) This may explain the legend of the terrible birds that frequented this spot. Pliny (vi. 12) gives to the island also the name of Chalceritis.

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KESSARIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Argaeus mountain

  Argaeus (Argaios: Argish, or Erjish Dagh), a lofty mountain in Cappadocia, at the foot of which was Mazaca. It is, says Strabo (p. 538), always covered with snow on the summit, and those who ascend it (and they are few) say that on a clear day they can see from the top both the Euxine and the hay of Issus. Cappadocia, he adds, is a woodless country, but there are forests round the base of Argaeus. It is mentioned by Claudian. (In Ruf. ii. 30.) It has been doubted if the summit of the mountain can be reached; but Hamilton (Researches, ii. 274) reached the highest attainable point, above which is a mass of rock with steep perpendicular sides,rising to a height of 20 or 25 feet above the ridge, on which he stood. The state of the weather did not enable him to verify Strabo's remark about the two seas, but he doubts if they can be seen, on account of the high mountains which intervene to the N. and the S. He estimates the height above the sea-level at about 13,000 feet. Argaeus is a volcanic mountain. It is the culminating point in Asia Minor of the range of Taurus, or rather of that part which is called Antitaurus.

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KILIKIA (Ancient country) TURKEY

Cilician Sea

   Cilicium Mare (he Kilikia Thalassa). The northeastern portion of the Mediterranean, between Cilicia and Cyprus, as far as the Gulf of Issus.

Kilikios Avlon

A part of Kilikian Sea (Ptol. E. 7.1)

Cilician Gates

   Ciliciae Pylae (hai Pulai tes Kilikias) or Portae. The chief pass between Cappadocia and Cilicia, through the Taurus, on the road from Tyana to Tarsus.

Cilician Gates : Perseus Project index

Appia town

Appia (Appia: Eth. Appianus), a town of Phrygia, which, according to Pliny (v. 29), belonged to the conventus of Synnada. Cicero (ad Fam. iii. 7) speaks of an application being made to him by the Appiani, when he was governor of Cilicia, about the taxes with which they were burdened, and about some matter of building in their town. At this time then it was included in the Province of Cilicia. The site does not seem to be known.


(Lakanitis), the name of a district in Cilicia Proper, above Tarsus, between the rivers Cydnus and Sarus, and containing the town of Irenopolis. (Ptol. v. 8. § 6.)

Calycadnus river

  Calycadnus (Kalukadnos), one of the largest rivers of Cilicia. (Strab. p. 670.) It rises in the range of Taurus, and after a general eastern course between the range of Taurus and the high land which borders this part of the coast of Cilicia, it passes Selefkieh, the remains of Seleuceia, and enters the Mediterranean north-east of the promontory of Sarpedon. The most fertile and the only extensive level in (Cilicia) Tracheiotis is the valley of the Calycadnus, a district which was sometimes called Citis (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 116.) The Calycadnus is about 180 feet wide, opposite to Seleuceia, where there is a bridge of six arches. The river is now called the Ghiuk-Su. It enters the sea through a low sandy beach. In the treaty between Antiochus and the Romans (Polyb. xxii. 26) the Syrian king was not to navigate west of the promontory Calycadnum, except in certain cases. Livy (xxxviii. 38) mentions the same terms, but he speaks both of Calycadnum and the Sarpedon (promontoria); and Appian (Syr. 39) also mentions the two promontories Calycadnum and Sarpedonium, and in the same order. Now if the Sarpedon of Strabo were the lofty promontory of Cape Cavaliere, as Beaufort supposed (Karamania, p. 235), the Calycadnum, which we may fairly infer to be near Sarpedon, and near the river, might be the long sandy point of Lissan el Kahpeh, which is between Cape Cavaliere, and the mouth of the river Calycadnus. Beaufort supposes this long sandy point to be the Zephyrium of Strabo. It is correctly described in the Stadiasmus as a sandy narrow spit, 80 stadia from the Calycadnus, which is about the true distance; but in the Stadiasmus it is called Sarpedonia. According to the Stadiasmus then the cape called Calycadnum must be, as Leake supposes, the projection of the sandy coast at the mouth of the Calycadnus. This identification of Sarpedon with Lissan el Kahpeh, and the position of Zephyrium at the mouth of the Calycadnus, agree very well with Strabo's words; and the Zephyrium of Strabo and Calycadnum of Livy and Polybius and Appian, may be the same. Ptolemy going from west to east mentions Sarpedon, the river Calycadnus and Zephyrium; but his Zephyrium may still be at the mouth of the Calycadnus.

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  Poecile (Poikile), a rock on the coast of Cilicia, near the mouth of the Calycadnus, and on the east of Cape Sarpedon, across which a flight of steps cut in the rock led from Cape Zephyrium to Seleuceia. (Strab. xiv, p. 670 ; Stadiasm. Mar. M. § 161.) Its distance of 40 stadia from the Calycadnus will place it about Pershendi. Instead of any steps in the rock, Beaufort here found extensive ruins of a walled town, with temples, arcades, aqueducts, and tombs, built round a small level, which had some appearance of having once been a harbour with a narrow opening to the sea. An inscription copied by Beaufort from a tablet over the eastern gate of the ruins accounts for the omission of any notice of this town by Strabo and others ; for the inscription states it to have been entirely built by Fluranius, archon of the eparchia of Isauria, in the reigns of Valentinian, Valens, and Gratian.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


    Lalasis (Lalasis, Ptol. v. 8. § 6, where some MSS. have Dalasis), a district in Cilicia, extending along Mount Taurus, above the district called Selentis. Pliny (v. 23) also mentions a town Lalasis in Isauria, and this town accordingly seems to have been the capital of the district Lalasis, which may have extended to the north of Mount Taurus. It is probable, moreover, that the Isaurian town of Lalisanda, mentioned by Stephanus B., and which, he says, was in his day called Dalisanda, is the same as Lalasis ; and if so, it is identical with the Dalisanda of Hierocles (p. 710). Basilius of Seleucia informs us that the town stood on a lofty height, but was well provided with water, and not destitute of other advantages. (Wesseling, ad Hierocl. l. c.). From all these circumstances, we might be inclined to consider the reading Dalasis in Ptolemy the correct one, were it not that the coins of the place all bear the inscription Lalasseon. (Sestini, p. 96.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Anchiale town

Anchiale, a daughter of Japetus and mother of Cydnus, who was believed to have founded the town of Anchiale in Cilicia. (Steph. Byz. s. v.) Another personage of this name occurs in Apollon. Rhod. i. 1130.

KIVYRA (Ancient city) TURKEY


A fortress on the river Indus in Caria, not far from Cibyra. (Liv. xxxviii. 14.)

KOLOFON (Ancient city) TURKEY


Place near Colophon.


River at Colophon, coldest river of Ionia.

Coracius mountain

After Colophon one comes to the mountain Coracius and to an isle sacred to Artemis, whither deer, it has been believed, swim across and give birth to their young.

Coracius Mons

  Coracius Mons (to Korakion oros) is placed by Strabo between Colophon and Lebedus. As the word Korakion is an adjective, the name of the mountain may be Corax. When Strabo speaks of a mountain between Colophon and Lebedus, he means that some high land is crossed in going from one place to the other; but this high land runs north, and occupies the tract that extends from Colophon and Lebedus north, towards the gulf of Smyrna. Chandler therefore may be right when he gives the name Corax to the mountains which were on his left hand as he passed from Smyrna to Vourla, near the site of Clazomenae. (Asia Minor, c. 23.)

KOMANA (Ancient city) TURKEY


A place mentioned in the Peuting. Table in Pontus Polemoniacus, on the road from Comana to Nicopolis, at a distance of 21 miles from, the former city. There can be no doubt but that it is the same place as Megalula (Megaloula) mentioned by Ptolemy (v. 6. § 10); but its exact site cannot be ascertained.


Olympus mountain

  Olympus (Olumpos). A volcanic mountain in the east of Lycia, a little to the north-east of Corydalla. It also bore the name of Phoenicus, and near it was a large town, likewise bearing the name Olympus. (Strab. xiv. p. 666.) In another passage (xiv. p. 671) Strabo speaks of a mountain Olympus and a stronghold of the same name in Cilicia, from which the whole of Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia could be surveyed, and which was in his time taken possession of by the Isaurian robber Zenicetas. It is, however, generally supposed that this Cilician Olympus is no other than the Lycian, and that the geographer was led into his mistake by the fact that a town of the name of Corycus existed both in Lycia and Cilicia. On the Lycian Olympus stood a temple of Hephaestus. (Comp. Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. § 205; Ptol. v. 3. § 3.) Scylax (39) does not mention Olympus, but his Siderus is evidently no other place. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 189; Fellows, Lycia, pp. 212, foll.; Spratt and Forbes, Travels in Lycia, i. p. 192.) Mount Olympus now bears the name Janar Dagh, and the town that of Deliktash; in the latter place, which was first identified by Beaufort, some ancient remains still exist; but it does not appear ever to have been a large town, as Strabo calls it.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

KYZIKOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Aesepus river

The river flows into the Propontis near Cyzicus and is mentioned by Homer (Il. 2.825, 12.21).


Latmicus Sinus

Latmicus Sinus (ho Latmikos kolpos), a bay on the western coast of Caria, deriving its name from Mount Latmus, which rises at the head of the gulf. It was formed by the mouth of the river Maeander which flowed into it from the north-east. Its breadth, between Miletus, on the southern head-land, and Pyrrha in the north, amounted to 30 stadia, and its whole length, from Miletus to Heracleia, 100 stadia. (Strab. xiv. p. 635.) The bay now exists only as an inland lake, its mouth having been closed up by the deposits brought down by the Maeander, a circumstance which has misled some modern travellers in those parts to confound the lake of Baffi the ancient Latmic gulf, with the lake of Myus. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 239 ; Chandler, c. 53.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

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