gtp logo

Location information

Listed 37 sub titles with search on: Various locations  for wider area of: "MARMARA Region TURKEY" .

Various locations (37)

Ancient place-names

Ascania lake

ASCANIA (Ancient area) MYSIA
  Ascania lacus or Ascanius (Askania: Isnik), a large lake in Bithynia, at the east extremity of which was the city of Nicaea. (Strab. p. 5 65, &c.) Apollodorus, quoted by Strabo (p. 681), says that there was a place called Ascania on the lake. The lake is about 10 miles long and 4 wide, surrounded on three sides by steep woody slopes, behind which rise the snowy summits of the Olympus range. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 7.) Cramer refers to Aristotle (Mirab. Ausc. c. 54) and Pliny (xxxi. 10), to show that the waters of this lake are impregnated with nitre; but Aristotle and Pliny mean another Ascania. This lake is fresh; a river flows into it, and runs out into the bay of Cios. This river is the Ascanius of Pliny (v. 32) and Strabo.
  The Ascanius of Homer (Il. ii. 862) is supposed to be about this lake of Strabo (p. 566), who attempts to explain this passage of the Iliad. The country around the lake was called Ascania. (Steph. s. v. Askania.) The salt lake Ascania, to which Aristotle and Pliny refer, is a lake of Pisidia, the lake of Buldur or Burdur.
  The salt lake Ascania of Arrian (Anab. i. 29) is a different lake [Anaya].

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Satnioeis River

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
Satnioeis (Satnioeis: Tuzlia or Tusla), a small river in the southern part of Troas, having its sources in Mount Ida, and flowing in a western direction between Hamaxitus and Larissa, discharges itself into the Aegean. It owes its celebrity entirely to the Homeric poems. (Il. vi. 34, xiv. 445, xxi. 87; Strab. xiii. who states that at a later time it was called Saphnioeis.)


A group of small islands off the coast of Troy, to the north of Tenedos (Plin. v. 38; comp. Eustath. ad Hom. Il. ii. p. 306). Their modern name is Taochan Adassi.



Rhyndacus river

  Rhyndacus (Rhundakos), an important river in the province of Hellespontus, which has its sources at the foot of Mount Olympus in Phrygia Epictetus, near the town of Azani. (Scylax, p. 35; Plin. v. 40; Pomp. Mela, i. 19; Strab. xii. p. 576.) According to Pliny, it was at one time called Lycus, and had its origin in the lake of Miletopolis ; but this notion is incorrect. The river flows at first in a north-western direction, forming the boundary between Mysia and Bithynia, through the lake of Apollonia, and in the neighbourhood of Miletopolis receives the river Megistus, and discharges itself into the Propontis opposite the island of Besbicus. The Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius (i. 1165) states that in later times the Rhyndacus, after receiving the waters of the Megistus, was itself called Megistus; but Eustathius (ad Horn. Il. xiii. 771) assures us that in his time it still bore the name of Rhyndacus. According to Valerius Flaccus (iii. 35) its yellow waters were discernible in the sea at a great distance from its mouth. In B.C. 73 Lucullus gained a victory over Mitlhridates on the banks of this river. (Plut. Luc. 11; comp. Polyb. v. 17; Ptol. v. 1. § § 4, 8; Steph. B. s. v.) The Rhyndacus is now called Lupad, and after its union with the Megistus (Susughirli) it bears the name of Mohalidsh or Micalitza. (See Hamilton's Researches, i. p. 83, &c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Stentoris lacus

ENOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
Stentoris lacus (Stentoris limne, Herod. vii. 58; Acropol. p. 64), a lake on the south-east coast of Thrace, formed by the Hebrus, and opening into the Aegean near the town of Aenos. Pliny (iv. 11. s. 18) incorrectly places on it a Stentoris Portus; and Mannert conjectures that perhaps the right reading in Herodotus (l. c.) is limena, not limnen.

Aesepus river

KYZIKOS (Ancient city) TURKEY
The river flows into the Propontis near Cyzicus and is mentioned by Homer (Il. 2.825, 12.21).


MYSIA (Ancient country) TURKEY
(Mandakada), a place in Mysia, which is not mentioned till the time of Hierocles (p. 663), though it must have existed before, as Pliny (v. 32) mentions Cilices Mandacadeni in the northern part of Mysia on the Hellespont.

Olympus mountain

  Olympus (Olumpos). A mountain range of Mysia, extending eastward as far as the river Sangarius, and dividing Phrygia from Bithynia. To distinguish it from other mountains of the same name, it often is called the Mysian Olympus. Its height rises towards the west, and that part which is of the greatest height, is the highest mountain in all Asia Minor. The country around this mountain was well peopled, but its heights were thickly clad with wood, and contained many safe retreats for robbers, bands of whom, under a regular leader, often rendered the country unsafe. (Strab. xii. p. 574, comp. x. p. 470, xii. p. 571; Herod. i. 36, vii. 74; Ptol. v. 1. § 10; Steph. B. s. >v.; Plin. v. 40, 43; Pomp. Mela, i. 19; Amm. Marc. xxvi. 9; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 598.) The lower regions of this great mountain are still covered with extensive forests; but the summit is rocky, devoid of vegetation, and during the greater part of the year covered with snow. The Turks generally call it Anadoli Dagh, though the western or highest parts also bear the name of Keshish Dagh, that is, the Monk's Mountain, and the eastern Toumandji or Domoun Dagh. The Byzantine historians mention several fortresses to defend the passes of Olympus, such as Pitheca (Nicet. Chon. p. 35; B. Cinnam. p. 21), Acrunum, and Calogroea (B. Cinnam. l. c.; Cedren. p. 553; Anna Comn. p. 441; comp. Brown, in Walpole's Turkey, tom, ii. pp. 109, foil.; Pococke, Travels iii. p. 178).

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Tarsius river

  Tarsius (Tarsios), a river of Mysia in the neighbourhood of the town of Zeleia, which had its source in Mount Temnus, and flowed in a northeastern direction through the lake of Miletopolis, and, issuing from it, continued its north-eastern course till it joined the Macestus. (Strab. xiii. p. p. 587.) Strabo indeed states that the river flowed in numerous windings not far from Zeleia; but he can scarcely mean any other river than the one now bearing the name Balikesri, and which the Turks still call Tarza. Hamilton (Researches, vol. ii. p. 106) identifies it with the Kara Su or Kara Dere Su, which flows into Lake Maniyas.

Sardene mountain


Pelecas (Pelekas), a mountain in Mysia, which lay between the Apian plain and the river Megistus. (Polyb. v. 77.) It is probably the continuation of Mt. Temnus, separating the valley of the Aesepus from that of the Megistus. It has been remarked by Forbiger that there is a striking similarity between this name and that of the woody mountain Plakos mentioned by Homer, at whose foot Thebe is said to have stood, but the position of which was subsequently unknown. (Hom. Il. vi. 397, vii. 396. 425, xxii. 479; Strab. xiii. p. 614.)

Leuce Acte

PAKTYI (Ancient city) TURKEY
Leuce Acte (Leuke akte), a port on the coast of Thrace, between Pactye and Teiristasis, which is mentioned only by Scylax of Caryanda (p. 28).

Ophiussa island


Pityodes island

  Pityodes (Pituodes), a small island in the Propontis off the coast of Bithynia, near Cape Hyris, and 110 stadia to the north of Cape Acritas. (Plin. v. 44; Steph. B. s. v. Pituoussai, who speaks of several islands of this name, which is the same as Pituodeis.) The island is probably the one now called Bojuk Ada, where Pococke (vol. iii. p. 147) found remains of an ancient town.

Xerogypsus river

(Xerogupsos, Anna Comn. vii. 11, p. 378, Bonn), a small river in the SE. of Thrace, which falls into the Propontis, not far from Perinthus. In some maps it is called the Erginus, upon the authority of Mela (ii. 2).


(Linos), a place on the coast of Mysia, on the Propontis, between Priapus and Parium ; it is noticed only by Strabo (xiii. p. 588), as the spot where the best snails (kochliai) were found.

Granicus river

TROAS (Ancient country) TURKEY
  Granicus (Granikos), a river in Troas which had its source in Mount Cotylus, a branch of Ida, and flowing through the Adrastian plain emptied itself into the Propontis. (Hom. Il. xii. 21; Strab. xiii. pp. 582, 587, 602; Mela, i. 19; Plin. v. 40; Ptol. v. 2. § 2.) This little stream is celebrated in history on account of the signal victory gained on its banks by Alexander the Great over the Persians in B.C. 334, and another gained by Lucullus over Mithridates (Arrian, Anab. i. 13; Diod. Sic. xvii. 19; Plut. Alex. 24, Lucull. 11; Flor. iii. 5.) Some travellers identify the Granicus with the Dimotico (Chishull, Travels in Turkey, p. 60), and others with the Kodsha-su.

Thymbrius river

TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY
  Thymbrius (Thumbrios), a small river of Troas in the neighbourhood of Ilium; it was a tributary of the Scamander, and on its banks stood the town of Thymbra (Strab. xiii. p. 598; Eustath. ad Hom. Il. x. 430.) There still exists in that district a small river called Timbrek, which, however, does not flow into the Scamander, but into a bay of the sea; if this be the ancient Thymbrius, the plain of Thymbra must have been at a considerable distance from> Ilium. For this reason, Col. Leake is inclined to identify the Thymbrius rather with the Kamara Su, which still is a tributary of the Scamander or Hendere Su (Asia Minor, p. 289.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Artanes river

VITHYNIA (Ancient country) TURKEY
Artanes, also written Artannes and Artanos, a small river of Bithynia, placed by Arrian (p. 13) 150 stadia east of Cape Melaena, with a haven and temple of Venus at the mouth of the river.


Lillium or Lilleum (Lillin, Ligeon), a commercial place (emporium) on the coast of Bithynia, 40 stadia to the east of Dia; but no particulars are known about it. (Arrian, Peripl. p. 13; Anonym. Peripl. 3.) It is possible that the place may have derived its name from the Lilaeus, which Pliny (H. N. v. 43) mentions among the rivers of Bithynia.

Cales river

  Cales (Kales, Kalles), a river of Bithynia, 120 stadia east of Elaeus. (Arrian, p. 14; and Marc. p. 70.) This seems to be the river which Thucydides (iv. 75) calls Calex (Kalex), at the mouth of which Lamachus lost his ships, which were anchored there, owing to a sudden rise of the river. Thucydides places the Calex in the Heracleotis, which agrees very well with the position of the Cales. Lamachus and his troops were compelled to walk along the coast to Chalcedon. Pliny (v. 32) mentions a river Alces in Bithynia, which it has been conjectured, may be a corruption of Calex. There was on the river Cales also an emporium or trading place called Cales.

Sunonensis lacus

  Sunonensis Lacus a lake in Bithynia, between the Ascania Lacus and the river Sangarius. (Amm. Marc. xxvi. S.) It is probably the same lake which is mentioned by Evagrius (Hist. Eccl. ii. 14) under the name of Boane limne in the neighbourhood of Nicomedeia, and which is at present known under the name of Shabanja. It seems, also, to be the same lake from which the younger Pliny (x. 50) proposed to cut a canal to the sea.

Calpe river

  Calpe (Kalpe), a river of Bithynia, the Chalpas of Strabo (p. 543). It lies between the Psilis, from which it is 210 stadia distant, and the Sangarius. There was also a port called the port of Calpe. Xenophon (Anab. vi. 4), who passed through the place on his retreat with the Ten Thousand, describes it as about half way between Byzantium and Heracleia: it is a promontory, and the part which projects into the sea is an abrupt precipice. The neck which connects the promontory with the mainland is only 400 feet wide. The port is under the rock to the west, and has a beach; and close to the sea there is a source of fresh water. The place is minutely described by Xenophon, and is easily identified on the maps, in some of which the port is marked Kirpe Limaz. Apollonius (Ary. ii. 661) calls the river Calpe deep flowing.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Libyssa town

  Libyssa (Libussa or Libissa, Ptol. v. 1. § 13: Eth. Libussaios), a town on the north coast of the Sinus Atacenus in Bithynia, on the road from Nicaea to Chalcedon. It was celebrated in antiquity as the place containing the tomb of the great Hannibal. (Plut. Flam. 20; Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. H.N. v. 43; Amm. Marc. xxii. 9 ; Eutrop. iv. 11 Itin. Ant. p. 139; Itin. Hier. p. 572.) In Pliny's time the town no longer existed, but the spot was noticed only because of the tumulus of Hannibal. According to Appian (Syr. 11), who evidently did not know the town of Libyssa, a river of Phrygia was called Libyssus, and he states that from it the surrounding country received the name of Libyssa. The slight resemblance between the name Libyssa and the modern Ghebse has led some geographers to regard the latter as the site of the ancient town; but Leake (Asia Minor, p. 9),. from an accurate: computation of distances, has shown that the modern Maldysem is much more likely to be the site of Libyssa.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Gallus river

  Gallus (Gallos: Lefke), a small river of Bithynia, having its sources near Modra in the north of Phrygia, and emptying itself into the Sangarius a little more than 300 stadia from Nicomedeia, (Strab. xii. p. 543.) Ammianus Marcellinus describes its course as very winding (xxvi. 8). Martianus Capella (6. § 687, ed. Kopp) confounds this river with another of the same name in Galatia, which seems likewise to have been a tributary of the Sangarius, and on the banks of which Pessinus is said to have been situated. From the river Gallus in Galatia the Galli, or priests of Cybele, were said by some to have derived their name, because its water made those who drank of it mad. (Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. v. 42, vi. 1, xxxi. 5; Herodian, i. 11; Ov. Fast. iv. 364.)

Hypius river

  Hypius (Hupios: Karasu), a river of Bithynia not far westward from the Sangarius. The rive itself is very small; but at its mouth it is so broad that the greater part of the fleet of Mithridates wa enabled to take up its winter quarters in it. (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 795; Scylax, p. 34; Marcian. Heracl. p. 70; Steph. B. s. v.; Arrian, Peripl. p. 13, who calls it Hyppius; Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 44.) According to Scylax, this river formed the boundary between the territories of the Bithyni and the Mariandyni.


Sarpedonium prom

Sarpedonium prom (Sarpedonie akre, Herod, vii. 58), the NW. extremity of the gulf of Melas, and due north of the eastern end of the island of Imbros, now Cape Paxi.


MYSIA (Ancient country) TURKEY


SIGION (Ancient city) TROAS
Mastusia (Mastousia akra: Capo Greco), the promontory at the southern extremity of the Thracian Chersonesus, opposite to Sigeum. A little to the east of it was the town of Elaeus. (Ptol. iii. 12. § 1; Plin. iv. 18; Mela, ii. 21; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 534, where it is called Maxousia.) The mountain in Ionia, at the foot of which Smyrna was built, likewise bore the name of Mastusia. (Plin. v. 31.)


VITHYNIA (Ancient country) TURKEY
  Melaena (Melaina). A promontory of Bithynia, on the right hand on sailing through the Bosporus into the Euxine, between the rivers Rheba and Artane. (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 651; Orph. Argon. 716; Arrian, Peripl. p. 13; Marcian, p. 69.) In the anonymous Periplus of the Euxine (p. 2), it is called Kallinakron, and Ptolemy (v. 1. § 5) calls it simply Bithunias akron. Its modern name is Tshili.



NIKEA (Ancient city) TURKEY
  Leucas (Leukas), a place in Bithynia, on the river Gallus, in the south of Nicaea, is mentioned only by Anna Comnena (p. 470), but can be easily identified, as its name Lefke is still borne by a neat little town in the middle of the beautiful valley of the Gallus. (Leake, Asia Minor, pp. 12, 13.)

Place-names according to Homer


TROAS (Ancient country) TURKEY
  Rhodius (Rhodios), a river of Troas, having its sources in Mount Ida, a little above the town of Astyra; it flows in a north western direction, and after passing by Astyra and Cremaste, discharges itself into the Hellespont between Dardanus and Abydus. (Hom. Il. xii. 20, xx. 215; Hesiod, Theog. 341; Strab. xii. p. 554, xiii. pp. 595, 603; Plin. v. 33.) Strabo (xiii. p. 595) states that some regarded the Rhodius as a tributary of the Aesepus; but they must have been mistaken, as the river is mentioned on the coins of Dardanus. (Sestini, Geog. Numis. p. 39.) Pliny (l. c.) states that this ancient river no longer existed; and some modern writers identify it with the Pydius mentioned by Thucydides (viii. 106; comp. Hesych. and Phavorin. s. v. Pudion). Richter (Wallfahrten, p. 457) describes its present condition as that of a brook flowing into the Dardanelles by many mouths and marshes.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

  Scamander (Skamandros: Mendere Su, or the river of Bunarbaschi), a famous little stream in the plain of Troy, which according to Homer (II. xx. 74) was called Xanthus by the gods and Scamander by men; though it probably owed the name Xanthus to the yellow or brownish colour of its water (comp. Il. vi. 4, xxi. 8). Notwithstanding this distinct declaration of the poet that the two names belonged to the same river, Pliny (v. 33) mentions the Xanthus and Scamander as two distinct rivers, and describes the former as flowing into the Portus Achaeorum, after having joined the Simoeis. In regard to the colour of the water, it was believed to have even the power of dyeing the wool of sheep which drank of it. (Aristot. Hist. Anim. iii. 12; Aelian, Hist. Anim. viii. 21; Plin. ii. 106; Vitruv. viii. 3,14.) Homer (Il. xxii. 147, &c.) states that the river had two sources close to the city of Ilion, one sending forth hot water and the other cold, and that near these springs the Trojan women used to wash their clothes. Strabo (xiii. p. 602) remarks that in his time no hot spring existed in those districts; he further asserts that the river had only one source; that this was far away from Troy in Mount Ida; and lastly that the notion of its rising near Troy arose from the circumstance of its flowing for some time under ground and reappearing in the neighbourhood of Ilion. Homer describes the Scamander as a large and deep river (Il. xx. 73, xxi. 15, xxii. 148), and states that the Sirmoeis flowed into the Scamander, which after the junction still retained the name of Scamander (Il. v. 774, xxi. 124; comp. Plin. ii. 106; Herod. v. 65; Strab. xiii. p. 595). Although Homer describes the river as large and deep, Herodotus (vii.42) states that its waters were not sufficient to afford drink to the army of Xerxes. The Scamander after being joined by the Simoeis has still a course of about 20 stadia eastward, before it reaches the sea, on the east of Cape Sigeum, the modern Kum Kale. Ptolemy (v. 2. § 3), and apparently Pomp. Mela (i. 18), assign to each river its own mouth, the Siinoeis discharging itself into the sea at a point north of the mouth of the Scamander. To account for these discrepancies, it must be assumed that even at that time the physical changes in the aspect of the country arising from the muddy deposits of the Scamander had produced these effects, or else that Ptolemy mistook a canal for the Scamander. Even in the time of Strabo the Scamander reached the sea only at those seasons when it was swollen byrains, and at other times it was lost in marshes and sand. It was from this circumstance, that, even before its junction with the Simoeis, a canal was dug, which flowed in a western direction into the sea, south of Sigeum, so that the two rivers joined each other only at times when their waters were high. Pliny, who calls the Scamander a navigable river, is in all probability thinking of the same canal, which is still navigable for small barges. The point at which the two rivers reach the sea is now greatly changed, for owing to the deposits at the mouth, the coast has made great advances into the sea, and the Portus Achaeorum, probably a considerable bay, has altogether disappeared. (Comp. Leake, Asia Minor, p. 289, foll., and the various works and treatises on the site and plain of ancient Troy.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Synonymous locations

Miletopolitis Lacus

  Miletopolitis Lacus (Miletoupolitis limne), a lake in the north-west of Mysia, deriving its name from the town of Miletopolis, near its western shore. (Strab. xii. pp. 575, 576.) According to Pliny (v. 40) the lake also bore the name Artynia, and probably confounding the river Tarsius with the Rhyndacus, he erroneously describes the latter river as having its origin in the lake, whereas, in fact, the Rhyndacus enters the lake in the south, and issues from it in the north. It now bears the name of the lake of Maniyas (Hamilton, Researches, &c., vol. ii. p. 105, &c.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited August 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".

GTP Headlines

Receive our daily Newsletter with all the latest updates on the Greek Travel industry.

Subscribe now!
Greek Travel Pages: A bible for Tourism professionals. Buy online

Ferry Departures