Ancient literary sources EPIRUS (Region) GREECE - GTP + Greek Travel Pages

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Ancient literary sources (39)

Identified with the location:

Homeric Ephyra

KICHYROS (Ancient city) EPIRUS
Ephure. Probably an Aeolic form of Ephora (ephorao, ephoroi), and equivalent to Epope, 'a watchtower.' This descriptive name was naturally applicable to many places; and we find no less than eleven of the name enumerated (Pape, Dict.s.v.). But of these there are but three, or at most four, that come into the Homeric poems.
(1) The city afterwards called Corinth, Il.2. 570; 6. 152, which of course is not intended in the present passage:
(2) A town in Thessaly, known in later times as Crannon, cp. Il.13. 301, with the interpretation of Strabo (9. 442). But for the Ephyra in the Odyssey the question lies only between
(3) a town in Thesprotia, called later Kichuros ( Il.2. 659), and
(4) an old Pelasgic town in Elis on the river Selleis (Strabo 7. 328; 8. 338).
  Nitzsch declares in favour of (3), because in this passage Athena, in the character of Mentes king of the Taphians, represents Odysseus as having touched at Taphos on his return (anionta) from Ephyra to Ithaca; and in a direct line Taphos lies between Thesprotia and Ithaca; but a ship sailing round the Leucadian promontory to Ithaca would avoid Taphos altogether, and Leucas had not yet been made into an island by the channel dug across the neck, for Homer calls it akte epeiroio Od.24. 378.But if, following the Schol. on Ap. Rhod.1. 747, we place the Taphian isles among the Echinades and so much further S. , we shall get an equally good argument in favour of the Eleian Ephyra, as Taphos would then lie between Ephyra and Ithaca. Another argument in favour of the Eleian town is the mention ( Il.11. 741) of Agamede, daughter of Augeias king of Elis, as a sorceress, he tosa pharmaka eide hosa trephei eureia chthon, which suits well with the description here of the androphonon pharmakon and thumophthora pharmaka in Od.2. 329.In the latter passage, Ephyra is named along with Pylos and Sparta, as if all three places were in the Peloponnese.
  Again, in Il.3. 627, Meges son of Phyleus is said to have been the leader of the contingent from Dulichium and the Echinades, hai naiousi peren halos Elidos anta, and in Il.15. 530, Phyleus is described as having bought a corslet, ex Ephures potamou apo Selleentos. The statement of the Scholiast that Ilus son of Mermerus was great grandson of Jason and Medea, and was king of Thesprotia, is given on the authority of Apollodorus. Eustath. also mentions a story which makes Medea to have lived for a while in Elis; either story doubtless being invented or acknowledged by those who maintained the claims of the Thesprotian or Eleian Ephyra respectively. See Buchholz, Hom. Real. 1. 1. p. 90.

Pausanias

The oak in Dodona

DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA
If I am to base my calculations on the accounts of the Greeks in fixing the relative ages of such trees as are still preserved and flourish, the oldest of them is the withy growing in the Samian sanctuary of Hera, after which come the oak in Dodona, the olive on the Acropolis and the olive in Delos.

Perseus Encyclopedia

Acheron

ACHERON (River) EPIRUS
A river of N.W. Greece, river of Thesprotis, river of hell, its glen supposed to be a passage to the world of the dead, Cerberus at the gates of.

Acherusian

ACHERUSIA (Lake) EPIRUS
Lake in Thesprotis.

Ambracia & Ambraciots

AMVRAKIA (Ancient city) EPIRUS

Dodona

DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA
Sanctuary of Zeus in NW Greece,oracle consulted, story suggesting a connexion between Egypt and Dodona, Hyperborean offerings at Dodona, the sacred oak of, Peleae at, soothsayer of.

The Doves at Dodoni

In hand of Demeter, oracular doves at Dodona, let fly between the Clashing Rocks.

Abantis

EPIRUS (Ancient country) GREECE
District of Thesprotian Epirus.

Glycys Limen

GLYKOS LIMIN (Ancient port) EPIRUS
Epirus has two harbors, one at Buthrotum and the other at Glycys Limen (at Acheron's mouth). (Perseus Encyclopedia Site Text)

Cichyrus

KICHYROS (Ancient city) EPIRUS
In Thesprotia (Paus. 1.17.4)

Ephyrians

Cocytus

KOKYTOS (River) THESPROTIA
River in Thesprotis and hell.

Molossians

MOLOSSIA (Ancient area) IOANNINA
Perseus Encyclopedia

Nikopolis (Nicopolis)

NIKOPOLIS (Archaeological site) EPIRUS
Near Actium, founded by Augustus, belongs to Amphictyonic League.

Thesprotis

THESPROTIA (Ancient country) EPIRUS
District of Epirus, Ambraciots of, river Aous in, Ephyrians of, white poplar brought by Herakles to Greece from, Pyrrhus restored by Ptolemy to, raid of Theseus and Pirithous into, rivers of, its scenery furnished Homer with his descriptions of hell.

Perseus Project

Acherusia Limne

ACHERUSIA (Lake) EPIRUS
Acherusia (Acherousia limne or Acherousis), a name given by the ancients to several lakes or swamps, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to be connected with the lower world, until at last the Acherusia came to be considered to be in the lower world itself. The lake to which this belief seems to have been first attached was the Acherusia in Thesprotia, through which the river Acheron flowed (Thuc. i. 46; Strab. vii.). Other lakes or swamps of the same name, and believed to be in connexion with the lower world, were near Hermione in Argolis (Paus. ii. 35.7), near Heraclea in Bithynia (Xen. Anab. vi. 2.2; Diod. xiv. 31), bettween Cumae and cape Misenum in Campania (Plin. H. N. iii. 5; Strab. v.), and lastly in Egypt, near Memphis (Diod. i. 96).

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Sep 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Oraculum (Manteion), Oracle

DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA

Plato

The oak in Dodona

Phaedrus (by Plato)
Socrates: They used to say, my friend, that the words of the oak in the holy place of Zeus at Dodona were the first prophetic utterances. The people of that time, not being so wise as you young folks, were content in their simplicity to hear an oak

Strabo

Ambracia

AMVRAKIA (Ancient city) EPIRUS
As for cities, those of the Acarnanians are .. also other cities, Palaerus, Alyzia, Leucas, Argos Amphilochicum, and Ambracia, most of which, or rather all, have become dependencies of Nicopolis.

Athamanes

ATHAMANIA (Ancient area) EPIRUS
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Atintanes

ATINTANES (Ancient country) EPIRUS
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Oracle - founded by Pelasgi

DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA
This oracle, according to Ephorus, was founded by the Pelasgi. And the Pelasgi are called the earliest of all peoples who have held dominion in Greece.

Dodona

In ancient times, then, Dodona was under the rule of the Thesprotians; and so was Mount Tomarus, or Tmarus (for it is called both ways), at the base of which the temple is situated. And both the tragic poets and Pindar have called Dodona "Thesprotian Dodona." But later on it came under the rule of the Molossi.

The oracle at Dodona

Now as for the Epeirotes, there are fourteen tribes of them, according to Theopompus, but of these the Chaones and the Molossi are the most famous, because of the fact that they once ruled over the whole of the Epeirote country—the Chaones earlier and later the Molossi; and the Molossi grew to still greater power, partly because of the kinship of their kings, who belonged to the family of the Aeacidae, and partly because of the fact that the oracle at Dodona was in their country, an oracle both ancient and renowned.

Elatria

ELATRIA (Ancient city) EPIRUS
Near Cichyrus is Buchetium, a small town of the Cassopaeans, which is only a short distance above the sea; also Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae, which are in the interior, though their territory reaches down as far as the gulf (Strab. 7,7,5)..

Aethices

ETHIKIA (Ancient area) IOANNINA
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Thesprotian Ephyri

KICHYROS (Ancient city) EPIRUS
Thesprotian Ephyri of Cichyrus, which in earlier times was called Ephyra (Strabo 8.3.5)

Molossi

MOLOSSIA (Ancient area) IOANNINA
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Paroraei

PAROREI (Ancient country) EPIRUS
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Tmarus

TOMAROS (Mountain) DODONI
In ancient times, then, Dodona was under the rule of the Thesprotians; and so was Mount Tomarus, or Tmarus for it is called both ways, at the base of which the temple is situated. (Perseus Project - Strabo, Geography 7.7.11)

Tymphaei

TYMFEI (Ancient country) EPIRUS
The Amphilochians are Epeirotes; and so are the peoples who are situated above them and border on the Illyrian mountains, inhabiting a rugged country--I mean the Molossi, the Athamanes, the Aethices, the Tymphaei, the Orestae, and also the Paroraei and the Atintanes, some of them being nearer to the Macedonians and others to the Ionian Gulf.

Batiae

VATIES (Ancient city) PREVEZA
Also Elatria, Pandosia, and Batiae, which are in the interior, though their territory reaches down as far as the gulf (Strab. 7,7,5).

Buchetium

VOUCHETION (Ancient city) PREVEZA
Near Cichyrus is Buchetium, a small town of the Cassopaeans, which is only a short distance above the sea.

Thucydides

Ambraciots & the Peloponnesean war

AMVRAKIA (Ancient city) EPIRUS
The Ambraciots participated in the Peloponnesean war (431-404 BC). They were allies of the Lacedaemonians and they fought against the Atheneans and their supporters.

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