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Listed 81 sub titles with search on: Ancient literary sources for wider area of: "ILIA Prefecture WEST GREECE" .


Ancient literary sources (81)

Aristophanes

PISSA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Pisa

"To Pisa Pelops, son of Tantalus, Borne on swift coursers" (Aristophanes, Frogs)


Bacchylides

Euripides

Homeric Hymns

CHALKIS (Ancient city) ILIA

Chalkis - Homeric Hymns

So the ship ran on its course and came to Arena and lovely Argyphea and Thryon, the ford of Alpheus, and well placed Aepy and sandy Pylos and the men of Pylos;past Cruni it went and Chalcis and past Dyme and fair Elis, where the Epei rule.


KROUNI (Village) ILIA

Crouni

So the ship ran on its course and came to Arena and lovely Argyphea and Thryon, the ford of Alpheus, and well placed Aepy and sandy Pylos and the men of Pylos;past Cruni it went and Chalcis and past Dyme and fair Elis, where the Epei rule.


Pausanias

ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Aliphera

Aliphera has continued to be regarded as a city from the beginning to the present day.


ILIS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pausanias Description of Elis (6.23.6 - 6.26.3


THISSOA (Ancient city) ANDRITSENA

There is a place on Mount Lycaeus called Cretea, on the left of the grove of Apollo surnamed Parrhasian. The Arcadians claim that the Crete, where the Cretan story has it that Zeus was reared, was this place and not the island. The nymphs, by whom they say that Zeus was reared, they call Theisoa, Neda and Hagno. After Theisoa was named a city in Parrhasia; Theisoa to-day is a village in the district of Megalopolis. From Neda the river Neda takes its name; from Hagno a spring on Mount Lycaeus, which like the Danube flows with an equal volume of water in winter just as in the season of summer. Should a drought persist for a long time, and the seeds in the earth and the trees wither, then the priest of Lycaean Zeus, after praying towards the water and making the usual sacrifices, lowers an oak branch to the surface of the spring, not letting it sink deep. When the water has been stirred up there rises a vapor, like mist; after a time the mist becomes cloud, gathers to itself other clouds, and makes rain fall on the land of the Arcadians.


Perseus Encyclopedia

ALFIOS (River) ILIA

Alpheus

River, sources and upper course, often vanishes under ground, tributaries, dearest of rivers to Zeus, ashes of victims kneaded with its water, wild olive first grew on its banks, women forbidden to cross it on certain days, loves Arethusa, flows through Adriatic to Ortygia, loves Artemis, images, altars, Leucippus keeps hair long for, Apollo at the, diverted by Herakles into the cattleyard of Augeas.


ALIFIRA (Ancient city) ILIA

Aliphera or Alipheira

Town of Arcadia.


ARINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Arene

City in Messenia, founded by Aphareus, mentioned by Homer, perhaps identical with Samicum.


ARPINA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Harpina

City of Elis.


BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

Bassae

Place in territory of Phigalia.


DYSPONTION (Ancient city) PYRGOS

Dyspontium


EPION (Ancient city) ILIA

Epium

A town in the western Peloponnese, founded by the Minyae.


FIGALIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Phigalia

A city of Arcadia, a seer from it, for a time called Phialia, captured by Lacedaemonians, Lepreus killed at, wizards at.


FOLOE (Mountain) ILIA

Pholoe

Mountain in Arcadia, Herakles entertained by the centaur Pholus at.


FRIZA (Ancient city) SKILOUNTA

Phrixa

City of Elis.


HERAKLIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Heraclea (Herakleia)

Elean village.


KYLLINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Cyllene

Port of Elis.


LAMBIA (Mountain) ILIA

Lampea

Mountain of Arcadia.


LAPITHAS (Mountain) OLYMPIA

Lapithus

Mountain in Arcadia.


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum (also Lepreus)

A town in Elis, founded by the Minyae, its contingent at Plataea.


LETRINI (Ancient city) PYRGOS

Letrini

Town of Elis.


MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Macistus

Town of Triphylia in the west of the Peloponnese, founded by the Minyae, inhabitants revolt against Eleans.


PINIOS (River) ILIA

Peneus

River of Elis, diverted by Herakles into the cattleyard of Augeas.


PISSA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Pisa

A town in Elis, its distance from Athens, dear to Zeus, founded by Pisus, ruled by Oenomaus, acquired by Pelops, Pelops returns to, spared by Herakles, boundary, territory, bone of Pelops brought from Pisa to Troy, Pantaleon tyrant of, people of Pisa contend with Arcadians and Eleans for presidency of Olympic games, hold Olympic games, at war with Eleans, Pisa destroyed by Eleans, its site occupied by vineyards, statue of Herakles made by Daedalus at.


PYLOS ILIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pylos

City of Elis, founded by Pylas, mentioned by Homer, its people fight Arcadians at Phea and help Eleans against Herakles, Pylos captured and destroyed by Herakles, rebuilt by Eleans, its ruins, Pylians, descendants of Nestor of Pylos, Pisistratus of that family, Caucones called Pylians.


SAMIKON (Ancient city) ILIA

Samia

City of Elis.


SKILLOUS (Ancient city) ILIA

Skillous (Scillus)

City of Triphylia, revolts against Elis, destroyed by Eleans, given by Lacedaemonians to Xenophon, people of Scillus build temple of Hera at Olympia.


THISSOA (Ancient city) ANDRITSENA

Thisoa

On Mt. Lycaeus, city of Arcadia, in Pausanias's time a village belonging to Megalopolis, its district.


YRMINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Hyrmina

City of Elis.


Pindar

PISSA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Polybius

ILIA (Ancient country) GREECE

The Wealth of Elis


Strabo

ALFIOS (River) ILIA

Alpheius river

Alpheius, is distant two hundred and eighty stadia from Chelonatas, and five hundred and forty five from Araxus. It flows from the same regions as the Eurotas, that is, from a place called Asea, a village in the territory of Megalopolis, where there are two springs near one another from which the rivers in question flow. They sink and flow beneath the earth for many stadia and then rise again; and then they flow down, one into Laconia and the other into Pisatis. The stream of the Eurotas reappears where the district called Bleminatis begins, and then flows past Sparta itself, traverses a long glen near Helus (a place mentioned by the poet), and empties between Gythium, the naval station of Sparta, and Acraea. But the Alpheius, after receiving the waters of the Ladon, the Erymanthus, and other rivers of less significance, flows through Phrixa, Pisatis, and Triphylia past Olympia itself to the Sicilian Sea, into which it empties between Pheia and Epitalium.


ALISSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Aleisium

   Aleisium is the present Alesiaeum, a territory in the neighborhood of Amphidolis, in which the people of the surrounding country hold a monthly market. It is situated on the mountain road that runs from Elis to Olympia. In earlier times it was a city of Pisatis, for the boundaries have varied at different times on account of the change of rulers. The poet also calls Aleisium "Hill of Aleisium," when he says:"until we caused our horses to set foot on Buprasium, rich in wheat, and on the Olenian Rock, and of Aleisium where is the place called Hill". (we must interpret the words as a case of hyperbaton, that is, as equivalent to "and where is the place called Hill of Aleisium"). Some writers point also to a river Aleisius.


AMFIDOLIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Amphidolia

As for "well-built Aepy," some raise the question which of the two words is the epithet and which is the city, and whether it is the Margalae of today, in Amphidolia.


Aleisium is the present Alesiaeum, a territory in the neighborhood of Amphidolis


ARINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Arene

... perhaps Samicum was the acropolis of Arene, which the poet mentions in the Catalogue: "And those who dwelt in Pylus and lovely Arene." For while they cannot with certainty discover Arene anywhere, they prefer to conjecture that this is its site; and the neighboring River Anigrus, formerly called Minyeius, gives no slight indication of the truth of the conjecture, for the poet says: "And there is a River Minyeius which falls into the sea near Arene." For near the cave of the nymphs called Anigriades is a spring which makes the region that lies below it swampy and marshy. The greater part of the water is received by the Anigrus, a river so deep and so sluggish that it forms a marsh; and since the region is muddy, it emits an offensive odor for a distance of twenty stadia, and makes the fish unfit to eat.
    In the mythical accounts, however, this is attributed by some writers to the fact that certain of the Centaurs here washed off the poison they got from the Hydra, and by others to the fact that Melampus used these cleansing waters for the purification of the Proetides.80 The bathing-water from here cures leprosy, elephantiasis, and scabies. It is said, also, that the Alpheius was so named from its being a cure for leprosy. At any rate, since both the sluggishness of the Anigrus and the backwash from the sea give fixity rather than current to its waters, it was called the "Minyeius" in earlier times, so it is said, though some have perverted the name and made it "Minteius" instead.
    But the word has other sources of derivation, either from the people who went forth with Chloris, the mother of Nestor, from the Minyeian Orchomenus, or from the Minyans, who, being descendants of the Argonauts, were first driven out of Lemnos into Lacedaemon, and thence into Triphylia, and took up their abode about Arene in the country which is now called Hypaesia, though it no longer has the settlements of the Minyans. Some of these Minyans sailed with Theras, the son of Autesion, who was a descendant of Polyneices, to the island which is situated between Cyrenaea and Crete ("Calliste its earlier name, but Thera its later," as Callimachus says), and founded Thera, the mother-city of Cyrene, and designated the island by the same name as the city.


ARPINA (Ancient city) ANCIENT OLYMPIA

Arpina

Near Olympia is Arpina, also one of the eight cities, through which flows the River Parthenias, on the road that leads up to Pheraea.


CHALKIS (Ancient city) ILIA

Chalkis

   At any rate, if one should conceive the notion that the Eleian Pylus is the Pylus of Nestor, the poet could not appropriately say that the ship, after putting to sea from there, was carried past Cruni and Chalcis before sunset, then drew near to Phea by night, and then sailed past Eleia; for these places are to the south of Eleia: first, Phea, then Chalcis, then Cruni, and then the Triphylian Pylus and Samicum. & Then comes the mountain of Triphylia that separates Macistia from Pisatis; then another river called Chalcis, and a spring called Cruni, and a settlement called Chalcis, and, after these, Samicum, where is the most highly revered temple of the Samian Poseidon.


DYSPONTION (Ancient city) PYRGOS

Dyspontium

Here, too, is Cicysium, one of the eight cities; and also Dyspontium, which is situated in a plain and on the road that leads from Elis to Olympia; but it was destroyed, and most of its inhabitants emigrated to Epidamnus and Apollonia.


EFYRA ILIAKI (Ancient city) ILIA

Ephyra

   On the Selleeis is situated a city Ephyra, which is to be distinguished from the Thesprotian, Thessalian, and Corinthian Ephyras; it is a fourth Ephyra, and is situated on the road that leads to Lasion, being either the same city as Boenoa (for thus Oenoe is usually called), or else near that city, at a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia from the city of the Eleians. This, apparently, is the Ephyra which Homer calls the home of the mother of Tlepolemus the son of Heracles.


ELOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Helus

   Helus, some call it a territory in the neighborhood of the Alpheius, while others go on to call it a city, as they do the Laconian Helus: "and Helus, a city near the sea;" but others call it a marsh, the marsh in the neighborhood of Alorium, where is the temple of the Heleian Artemis, whose worship was under the management of the Arcadians, for this people had the priesthood.


EPII LAND (Ancient country) ILIA

Epeians

   But Hecataeus of Miletus says that the Epeians are a different people from the Eleians; that, at any rate, the Epeians joined Heracles in his expedition against Augeas and helped him to destroy both Augeas and Elis. And he says, further, that Dyme is an Epeian and an Achaean city. However, the early historians say many things that are not true, because they were accustomed to falsehoods on account of the use of myths in their writings; and on this account, too, they do not agree with one another concerning the same things. Yet it is not incredible that the Epeians, even if they were once at variance with the Eleians and belonged to a different race, later became united with the Eleians as the result of prevailing over them, and with them formed one common state; and that they prevailed even as far as Dyme.


EPITALION (Ancient city) ILIA

Epitalium

   The city which the poet (Homer) now calls Thryum he elsewhere calls Thryoessa: "There is a certain city, Thryoessa, a steep hill, far away on the Alpheius." He calls it "fording-place of the Alpheius" because the river could be crossed on foot, as it seems, at this place. But it is now called Epitalium (a small place in Macistia) ..
Thryum, or Thryoessa, they say, is Epitalium, because the whole of this country is full of rushes, particularly the rivers; and this is still more conspicuous at the fordable places of the stream. But perhaps, they say, Homer called the ford "Thryum" and called Epitalium "well-built Aepy"; for Epitalium is fortified by nature. And in fact he speaks of a "steep hill" in other places:
   "There is a certain city, Thryoessa, a steep hill, far away on the Alpheius, last city of sandy Pylus."


EPY (Ancient city) ILIA

Aepy

As for "well-built Aepy," some raise the question which of the two words is the epithet and which is the city, and whether it is the Margalae of today, in Amphidolia.


FIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pheia

   After Chelonatas comes the long seashore of the Pisatans; and then Cape Pheia. And there was also a small town called Pheia: "beside the walls of Pheia, about the streams of Iardanus,"for there is also a small river nearby. According to some, Pheia is the beginning of Pisatis. Off Pheia lie a little island and a harbor, from which the nearest distance from the sea to Olympia is one hundred and twenty stadia. Then comes another cape, Ichthys, which, like Chelonatas, projects for a considerable distance towards the west; and from it the distance to Cephallenia is again one hundred and twenty stadia. Then comes the mouth of the Alpheius which is distant two hundred and eighty stadia from Chelonatas, and five hundred and forty five from Araxus.


FOLOE (Mountain) ILIA

Pholoe

Pholoe, an Arcadian mountain, is also situated above Olympia, and very close to it, so that its foothills are in Pisatis. Both the whole of Pisatis and most parts of Triphylia border on Arcadia; and on this account most of the Pylian districts mentioned in the Catalogue are thought to be Arcadian; the well-informed, however, deny this, for they say that the Erymanthus, one of the rivers that empty into the Alpheius, forms a boundary of Arcadia and that the districts in question are situated outside that river.(8.3.32)
At the present time the whole of the seaboard that lies between the countries of the Achaeans and the Messenians, and extends inland to the Arcadian districts of Pholoe, of the Azanes, and of the Parrhasians, is called the Eleian country.(8.3.1)


HERAKLIA (Ancient city) ILIA

Heracleia

Near Salmone is Heracleia, which is also one of the eight cities; it is about forty stadia distant from Olympia and is situated on the Cytherius River, where is the temple of the Ioniades Nymphs, who have been believed to cure diseases with their waters.


ILIA (Ancient country) GREECE

Eleian country

Strabo mentions that the Eleian country occupied the seabord between Achaea and Messenia and extended inland to Arcadia. In ancient times it was divided into several domains but afterwards into two, the land of the Epeans and the land of Nestor. Homer calls the land of the Epeans by the name of Elis (Od. 15.298) and the land of Nestor Pylos, where the Alpheus river flows (Il. 5.545, Od. 3.4, Strab. 8,3,1).
These districts (that were under Nestor and had passed into Eleians possession) were Pisatis (of which Olympia was a part), Triphylia, and the country of the Cauconians. The Triphylians were so called from the fact that three tribes ( "Tri," three, and "phyla," tribes) of people had come together in that country--that of the Epeians, who were there at the outset, and that of the Minyans, who later settled there, and that of the Eleians, who last dominated the country. But some name the Arcadians in the place of the Minyans, since the Arcadians had often disputed the possession of the country; and hence the same Pylus was called both Arcadian Pylus and Triphylian Pylus.


ILIS (Ancient city) ILIA

Elis

What is now the city of Elis had not yet been founded in Homer's time; in fact, the people of the country lived only in villages. And the country was called Coele5 Elis from the fact in the case, for the most and best of it was "Coele." It was only relatively late, after the Persian wars, that people came together from many communities into what is now the city of Elis.(Strabo 8.3.2)


INOI (Ancient city) ILIA

Oenoe

...being either the same city as Boenoa (for thus Oenoe is usually called)


KATAKOLO (Village) ILIA

Katakolo

He refers the cape by the name Ichthys (8,3,12).


KIKYSSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Cicysium

A spring, now called Pisa, near Cicysium, the largest of the eight cities.


KROUNI (Village) ILIA

Cruni

At any rate, if one should conceive the notion that the Eleian Pylus is the Pylus of Nestor, the poet could not appropriately say that the ship, after putting to sea from there, was carried past Cruni and Chalcis before sunset


Then comes the mountain of Triphylia that separates Macistia from Pisatis; then another river called Chalcis, and a spring called Cruni, and a settlement called Chalcis


KYLLINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Cyllene

   After this cape (Araxos), as one proceeds towards the west, one comes to the naval station of the Eleians, Cyllene, from which there is a road leading inland to the present city Elis, a distance of one hundred and twenty stadia. Homer, too, mentions this Cyllene when he says, "Otus, a Cyllenian, a chief of the Epeians," for he would not have represented a chieftain of the Epeians as being from the Arcadian mountain.10 Cyllene is a village of moderate size; and it has the Asclepius made by Colotes--an ivory image that is wonderful to behold. After Cyllene one comes to the promontory Chelonatas, the most westerly point of the Peloponnesus. Off Chelonatas lies an isle, and also some shallows that are on the common boundary between Coele Elis and the country of the Pisatae; and from here the voyage to Cephallenia is not more than eighty stadia. Somewhere in this neighborhood, on the aforesaid boundary line, there also flows the River Elison or Elisa.


LAMBIA (Mountain) ILIA

Lampeia mountain

The Olenian Rock is surmised to be what is now called Scollis; for we are obliged to state what is merely probable, because both the places and the names have undergone changes, and because in many cases the poet does not make himself very clear. Scollis is a rocky mountain common to the territories of the Dymaeans, the Tritaeans, and the Eleians, and borders on another Arcadian mountain called Lampeia, which is one hundred and thirty stadia distant from Elis, one hundred from Tritaea, and the same from Dyme; the last two are Achaean cities.


LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum

   To the south of Pylus is Lepreum. This city, too, was situated above the sea, at a distance of forty stadia; and between Lepreum and the Annius is the temple of the Samian Poseidon, at a distance of one hundred stadia from each. This is the temple at which the poet says Telemachus found the Pylians performing the sacrifice: "And they came to Pylus, the well-built city of Neleus; and the people were doing sacrifice on the seashore, slaying bulls that were black all over, to the dark-haired Earth-shaker." Now it is indeed allowable for the poet even to fabricate what is not true, but when practicable he should adapt his words to what is true and preserve his narrative; but the more appropriate thing was to abstain from what was not true. The Lepreatans held a fertile territory; and that of the Cyparissians bordered on it. Both these districts were taken and held by the Cauconians.


MAKISTOS (Ancient city) ILIA

Macistus

The Lepreatans held a fertile territory; and that of the Cyparissians bordered on it. Both these districts were taken and held by the Cauconians; and so was the Macistus (by some called Platanistus). The name of the town is the same as that of the territory.


MINTHI (Mountain) ILIA

Minthe mountain

Near Pylus, towards the east, is a mountain named after Minthe, who, according to myth, became the concubine of Hades, was trampled under foot by Core, and was transformed into garden-mint, the plant which some call Hedyosmos. Furthermore, near the mountain is a precinct sacred to Hades, which is revered by the Macistians too, and also a grove sacred to Demeter, which is situated above the Pylian plain. This plain is fertile; it borders on the sea and stretches along the whole distance between Samicum and the River Neda. But the shore of the sea is narrow and sandy, so that one could not refuse to believe that Pylus got its epithet "emathoeis" therefrom.


MYRSINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Myrsinus, Myrtuntium

Hyrmine and Myrsinus belong to the Eleian country .. Myrsinus is the present Myrtuntium, a settlement that extends down to the sea, and is situated on the road which runs from Dyme into Elis, and is seventy stadia distant from the city of the Eleians.


PISSATIS (Ancient area) ILIA

Pisatis

   Pisatis first became widely famous on account of its rulers, who were most powerful: they were Oenomaus, and Pelops who succeeded him, and the numerous sons of the latter. And Salmoneus, too, is said to have reigned there; at any rate, one of the eight cities into which Pisatis is divided is called Salmone. So for these reasons, as well as on account of the temple at Olympia, the country has gained wide repute. But one should listen to the old accounts with reserve, knowing that they are not very commonly accepted; for the later writers hold new views about many things and even tell the opposite of the old accounts, as when they say that Augeas ruled over Pisatis, but Oenomaus and Salmoneus over Eleia; and some writers combine the two tribes into one. But in general one should follow only what is commonly accepted.
    Indeed, the writers do not even agree as to the derivation of the name Pisatis; for some derive it from a city Pisa, which bears the same name as the spring; the spring, they say, was called "Pisa," the equivalent of "pistra," that is "potistra"; and they point out the site of the city on a lofty place between Ossa and Olympus, two mountains that bear the same name as those in Thessaly. But some say that there was no city by the name of Pisa (for if there had been, it would have been one of the eight cities), but only a spring, now called Pisa, near Cicysium, the largest of the eight cities;


PYLOS ILIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Pylus

It was between the outlets of the Peneius and the Selleeis, near the Scollium, that Pylus was situated; not the city of Nestor, but another Pylus which has nothing in common with the Alpheius, nor with the Pamisus (or Amathus, if we should call it that). Yet there are some who do violence to Homer's words, seeking to win for themselves the fame and noble lineage of Nestor; for, since history mentions three Pyluses in the Peloponnesus (as is stated in this verse: "There is a Pylus in front of Pylus; yea, and there is still another Pylus," the Pylus in question, the Lepreatic Pylus in Triphylia and Pisatis, and a third, the Messenian Pylus near Coryphasium, the inhabitants of each try to show that the Pylus in their own country is "emathoeis" and declare that it is the native place of Nestor.


However, the writers from Coele Elis have not only supported their own Pylus with a similar zeal, but have also attached to it tokens of recognition, pointing out a place called Gerenus, a river called Geron, and another river called Geranius, and then confidently asserting that Homer's epithet for Nestor, "Gerenian," was derived from these. But the Messenians have done the selfsame thing, and their argument appears at least more plausible; for they say that their own Gerena is better known, and that it was once a populous place. Such, then, is the present state of affairs as regards Coele Elis.


PYLOS TRIFYLIAS (Ancient city) ILIA

Triphylian Pylus

Triphylian Pylus, also called the Lepreatic Pylus, which Homer calls emathoeis and transmits to posterity as the fatherland of Nestor, as one might infer from his words, whether it be that the river that flows past Pylus towards the north now called Mamaus, or Arcadicus was called Amathus in earlier times, so that Pylus got its epithet emathoeis from Amathus, or that this river was called Pamisus, the same as two rivers in Messenia, and that the derivation of the epithet of the city is uncertain; for it is false, they say, that either the river or the country about it is amathodes.


.. most of the more recent writers, both historians and poets, say that Nestor was a Messenian, thus adding their support to the Pylus which has been preserved down to their own times. But the writers who follow the words of Homer more closely say that the Pylus of Nestor is the Pylus through whose territory the Alpheius flows. And the Alpheius flows through Pisatis and Triphylia.


SALMONI (Ancient city) ILIA

Salmone

   Salmone is situated near the spring of that name from which flows the Enipeus River. The river empties into the Alpheius, and is now called the Barnichius.It is said that Tyro fell in love with Enipeus:
   "She loved a river, the divine Enipeus." For there, it is said, her father Salmoneus reigned, just as Euripides also says in his Aeolus. Some write the name of the river in Thessaly "Eniseus"; it flows from Mount Othrys, and receives the Apidanus, which flows down out of Pharsalus.


SAMIKON (Ancient city) ILIA

Samos

Samicum is now only a fortress, though formerly there was also a city which was called Samus, perhaps because of its lofty situation; for they used to call lofty places "Samoi." .. Between the Anigrus and the mountain from which it flows are to be seen the meadow and tomb of Iardanus, and also the Achaeae, which are abrupt cliffs of that same mountain above which, as I was saying the city Samus was situated. However, Samus is not mentioned at all by the writers of the Circumnavigations perhaps because it had long since been torn down and perhaps also because of its position; for the Poseidium is a sacred precinct, as I have said, near the sea, and above it is situated a lofty hill which is in front of the Samicum of today, on the site of which Samus once stood, and therefore Samus was not visible from the sea. Here, too, is a plain called Samicum; and from this one might get more conclusive proof that there was once a city called Samus.


SKOLLIS (Mountain) ACHAIA

Olenian Rock

The Olenian Rock is surmised to be what is now called Scollis; for we are obliged to state what is merely probable, because both the places and the names have undergone changes, and because in many cases the poet does not make himself very clear. Scollis is a rocky mountain common to the territories of the Dymaeans, the Tritaeans, and the Eleians, and borders on another Arcadian mountain called Lampeia


THRYON (Ancient city) GREECE

Thryum

The city which the poet (Homer) now calls Thryum he elsewhere calls Thryoessa: "There is a certain city, Thryoessa, a steep hill, far away on the Alpheius." He calls it "fording-place of the Alpheius" because the river could be crossed on foot, as it seems, at this place. But it is now called Epitalium (a small place in Macistia) (Strab. 8.3.24).


TYPANEES (Ancient city) ILIA

Tympaneae

   Towards the north, on the borders of Pylus, were two little Triphylian cities, Hypana and Tympaneae; the former of these was incorporated into Elis, whereas the latter remained as it was. And further, two rivers flow near these places, the Dalion and the Acheron, both of them emptying into the Alpheius. The Acheron has been so named by virtue of its close relation to Hades; for, as we know, not only the temples of Demeter and Core have been held in very high honor there, but also those of Hades, perhaps because of "the contrariness of the soil," to use the phrase of Demetrius of Scepsis. For while Triphylia brings forth good fruit, it breeds red-rust and produces rush; and therefore in this region it is often the case that instead of a large crop there is no crop at all.


VOUPRASSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Buprasium

Buprasium now appears to have been a territory of the Eleian country, having in it a settlement of the same name, which was also a part of Elis .. It seems likely that at one time there was a considerable settlement by the name of Buprasium in the Eleian country which is no longer in existence (indeed, only that territory which is on the road that leads to Dyme from the present city of Elis is now so called); and one might suppose that at that time Buprasium had a certain preeminence as compared with Elis, just as the Epeians had in comparison with the Eleians; but later on the people were called Eleians instead of Epeians.(8.3.8-10, 8.3.28, 8.3.32).


YPANA (Ancient small town) ILIA

Hypana

   Towards the north, on the borders of Pylus, were two little Triphylian cities, Hypana and Tympaneae; the former of these was incorporated into Elis, whereas the latter remained as it was. And further, two rivers flow near these places, the Dalion and the Acheron, both of them emptying into the Alpheius. The Acheron has been so named by virtue of its close relation to Hades; for, as we know, not only the temples of Demeter and Core have been held in very high honor there, but also those of Hades, perhaps because of "the contrariness of the soil," to use the phrase of Demetrius of Scepsis. For while Triphylia brings forth good fruit, it breeds red-rust and produces rush; and therefore in this region it is often the case that instead of a large crop there is no crop at all.


YRMINI (Ancient city) ILIA

Hyrmine

..Hyrmine and Myrsinus belong to the Eleian country .. Now Hyrmine was a small town. It is no longer in existence, but near Cyllene there is a mountain promontory called Hormina or Hyrmina.


Thucydides

LEPREON (Ancient city) ILIA

Lepreum during the Peloponnesean war

Immediately afterwards an Elean embassy arrived, and first making an alliance with Corinth went on from thence to Argos, according to their instructions, and became allies of the Argives, their country being just then at enmity with Lacedaemon and Lepreum.



Xenophon

EPION (Ancient city) ILIA

Epeum

The Eleans, however, claimed the right to hold Epeum, the town between Heraea and Macistus; for they said that they had bought the whole territory for thirty talents from the people to whom the town at that time belonged, and had paid the money.


LASSION (Ancient city) ILIA

Lasion

Not long after this the Eleans seized Lasion, which in ancient times had been theirs, but at present belonged to the Arcadian League


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