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Listed 100 (total found 872) sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for wider area of: "GREECE Country EUROPE" .

Archaeological sites (872)

Editor's remarks

SAMOS (Ancient city) SAMOS

Visit also Heraion http://www.gtp.gr/HeraionSamos the great all over the ancient world sanctuary of Samos and today the celebrated archaelogical site.


CHANIA (Prefecture) CRETE

  Except for the excavations of the Minoan Kydonia on the hill of Kastelli in the region of Chania, there are also artifacts from ancient civilizations both in the North & in the South. One of the most important ancient cities of Western Crete is Aptera where parts of the temple of Dimitra have been saved, imposing walls & huge arched tanks of Roman Years. Also, the acropolis of Polyrrinia in Kissamos, as well as the ancient town Falassarna, which had in the post-Minoan years a closed & safe post, which connected the sea with a canal. The Asklipieio of Lissos in the south, as well as the ancient sites in Irtakina, Syia, Kadros, Tarra, Aradin and Anopolis in the region of Sfakia.
(text: Roula Kastrinaki)
This text (extract) is cited February 2004 from the Chania Prefecture Tourism Committee tourist pamphlet.

LAPPEI (Municipality) RETHYMNO

  From the excavations, which are conducted till now, in the village Argiroupoli, many archeological findings have bee unearthed which are now located in the museum of Rethymno and Heraklion. Some of them include the "Goat legged God Pan" and the "Goddess Venus". Recently a mosaic of roman times was discovered while in many parts of the village remnants of ancient Lappa can be seen. North-east of the village pagan graves of the Greek-roman period are carved on the surrounding rocks.
This text (extract) is cited February 2004 from the Municipality of Lappes tourist pamphlet.

Ancient acropoles

ASSEA (Ancient city) VALTETSI

AVDIRA (Ancient city) XANTHI

Polystylon (Abdera)

AXOS (Ancient city) KOULOUKONA

Acropolis of Axos

  The acropolis of the ancient city is above the village, near the cemetery church of Agios Ioannis. Excavations have revealed a large temple platform, possibly of Aphrodite, a statue of Dimitra and several other finds including the excellent bronze helmet displayed in the Iraklion Museum (Room 18). In Axos, Zeus and Apollon were also believed to be worshipped.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains image.


The Acropolis of Bassas

At the hillock of Bassas there developed, first, a settlement of the Greek Middle Ages. Around the area were found tombs with remarkable objects. Because of the natural fortification, it survived during Mycenaean times. It is surrounded with blocks of stones, but only those at the south site have been saved. Some people guess that it was the capital of some small kingdom. Significant is the fact that there are still tracks from the corrugations that were on the carriage roads, impressed where the wheels of the carriages went deep.

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Municipality of Epidavros URL below.

EGIALI (Ancient city) AMORGOS

Vigla, Ancient Aegiali' s Acropolis

Opposite the village Tholaria., on Vigla hill ridge, overlooking the small bay of Mikri Glyfada., was the acropolis of ancient Aegialis.The biggest sculpture of the Cycladic Age was found at this area.


Kastellas location

Acropolis Pothia


Acropolis of Poseidion (Vounos)



The hill on top of the village is called Koraki, where the acropolis of ancient Karpathos is found.


To the north of Feres (at the abandoned village Koila) a castled position from the post- bronze ages and the early iron ages were discovered.

KORISSIA (Ancient city) KEA

There are four ancient towers on the S slope of the hill of Agios Savas.


At Pelekito site


Gortsouli hill

  Κοντά στον αρχαιολογικό χώρο της αρχαίας Μαντινείας βρίσκεται λόφος χαρακτηριστικού σχήματος, ο λόφος Γκορτσούλι και ο αρχαιολογικός του χώρος. Στούς πρόποδες του λόφου υπάρχει μικρός οικισμός, ενώ ένας χωμάτινος δρόμος οδηγεί στην κορυφή του. Σύμφωνα με τους αρχαιολόγους στη θέση αυτή υπήρχε εκτεταμένος οικισμός και ακρόπολη των Πρωτοελλαδικών χρόνων. Στους αρχαϊκούς χρόνους η πόλη μεταφέρθηκε στον επίπεδο χώρο, δηλαδή στη θέση του αρχαιολογικού χώρου της αρχαίας Μαντινείας. Στην κορυφή του λόφου, όπου και ο ναός της Ζωοδόχου Πηγής, βρέθηκαν σε ανασκαφές του Θ. Σπυρόπουλου μυκηναϊκά όστρακα και ένα ναϊκό κτίσμα ορθογωνίου σχήματος στο εσωτερικό του οποίου αποκαλύφθηκαν πολλοί σφαιρικοί αρύβαλλοι και άλλα ευρήματα των όψιμων αρχαϊκών χρόνων. Λείψανα ναϊκού κτίσματος ανακαλύφθηκαν επίσης και στον κοντινό λόφο Τριπήχι, όπου βρέθηκαν χαρακτηριστικά λατρευτικά πήλινα εδώλια κάποιας θεότητας, τα οποία εκτίθενται στο Αρχαιολογικό Μουσείο Τρίπολης.

Το κείμενο παρατίθεται τον Μάρτιο 2003 από την ακόλουθη ιστοσελίδα, με φωτογραφία, του ARCADIA website, του Πανεπιστημίου Πατρών


Akropolis Embola

Megalithic prehistoric monuments

At the surroundings of the community of Nipsa, which is located 20-km northeast of Alexandroupoli, recently a number of prehistoric megalithic monuments from the early Iron Age were discovered.
This area is part of a Thracian tribe named Kekones this tribe was known even to Homer and Herodutus.
Not far away to the northwest of the village an Acropolis (citadel) was found with ceramics from the 9th- 8th century BC this Acropolis was controlling the paths of Rodopis in-land. A carved tomb was also found at the northwestern part of the yard. At the position, which is to the west of Nipsa and is called 'Dremos' carved solar symbols, three level altar, a holly sacrificial rock and many carved cavities that present stellar formations were found.
Around of the villages’ area to the northwest, you can see geometric and anthropomorphic designs carved on rocks. All the megalithic monuments are to found in the wooded area around the village and according to the opinion of the scientist the place used to by a 'holly forest'. According to Homer the oracle of the Kekones, Maronas lived in this forest.

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Development Company of Alexandroupolis URL below, which contains images.


There are remains from the fortification walls. The Monastery of Panagia Olympiotissa is found in the acropolis.

Mycenaean centre

PAROS (Ancient city) KYKLADES

The Castle

The hillock of the Acropolis of Parikia, on which all the sanctuaries were built, is only 10 metres above sea-level and was called "To Kastro" ever since the Duke of Paros erected his castle on the foundations of the acropolis, in 1260 A.C.

PELLANA (Mycenean settlement) PELANA


The acropolis of Platania

POLI (Settlement) KASSOS

Ancient Poli



  Polirinia is the site of remains from the sixth century B.C., Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Venetian eras. It was a powerful city, built on the natural fortifications of the rock at the top of the mountain. One of its harbours was at Falasarna, the other was Kastelli (Kissamos). The remains that are visible now are mostly from the second Byzantine and the Venetian periods. A particularly interesting set of remains is in the Archaeological Museum of Agios Nikolaos; the unique exhibit of an athlete's skull with a gold leaf crown found in a 1 A.D. cemetery near Agios Nikolaos and a coin from Polirinia in his mouth. As you walk up from the base of the hill you will see holes or caves carved in the rock, they are graves from the Roman period. Cisterns carved in rock are visible on the top.

This text is cited Oct 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


SAMI (Ancient city) KEFALLONIA

Sami Castle

  Ancient Sami was among the four most important city-states of antiquity. From the ancient acropolis "Kyatis", nearby, the inhabitants resisted the Roman seize in 189 AD.
This text (extract) is cited January 2004 from the Assoc. of Local Authorities of Kefalonia & Ithaca tourist pamphlet.

SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

TIRYNS (Mycenean palace) ARGOLIS

Wall (Murus, Teichos)

Murus or Moenia (teichos). A wall surrounding an unroofed enclosure, as opposed to paries (toichos), the wall of a building. The word maceria denotes a boundary wall, fence-wall. Cities were enclosed by walls at a very early period of Greek history, as is shown by the epithet used by Homer "well-walled" of Tiryns, Mycenae, etc., and the massive remains of those cities have also demonstrated the fact So vast, in truth, are some of these structures as to have induced a belief among the ancients that they were the work of Cyclopes. (See Cyclopes.)
  The following principal species of city walls are to be distinguished: (a) those in which the masses of stone are of irregular shape and put together loosely, the interstices being filled by smaller stones, as in the wall at Tiryns; (b) those in which polygonal stones are carefully fitted together, and their faces cut so as to give the whole a comparatively smooth surface, as in the walls at Larissa and at Cenchreae; and (c) those in which the blocks are laid in horizontal courses more or less regular with the vertical joints either perpendicular or oblique, and are more or less accurately fitted together, as in the walls beside the "Lion Gate" at Mycenae.
  Brick was largely used in Egypt, Assyria, and Chaldaea, and also in Greece and Italy; but was often defended against the weather by an outer casing of stone, when the bricks were sun-dried instead of burned (See Fictile). After the first Persian War the Athenians began to use marble for their finest buildings, as in the Propylaea and the Parthenon. A century later marble was also used for facing walls of brick. Less important structures were made of smaller stones, rough or square, flints, or bricks.
  At Rome there were several kinds of masonry (See Caementum). (a) Blocks of stone were laid in alternate conrses, lengthwise in one course and crosswise in the next. (b) The stones in each course were laid alternately along and across. (c) The stones were laid all lengthwise. (d) The stones entirely crosswise. (e) The courses were alternately higher and lower than each other. The earliest walls at Rome, largely of Etruscan origin, were built of huge quadrangular stones, hewn, and placed together without cement. Such were the Carcer Mamertinus (see Carcer), the Cloaca Maxima (see Cloaca), and the Servian Walls (see Etruria). The Romans also used small rough stones, not laid in courses, but held together by mortar (opus incertum) and courses of flat tiles. Tiles were also introduced in the stone and brick walls. Brick covered with painted stucco was a very common material at Rome, and even columns were so constructed.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited June 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


The most important sights of the area are the Acropolis of Vigla and Likythos, with ancient ruins and Byzantine castles as well as the ruins of early Christian temples (5th c AD).


Prehistoric Acropolis (1200-900 B.C.)

The Acropolis is found on the Kremastos Vrachos hill (Assar-Tepe).

Ancient aqueducts

APTERA (Ancient city) SOUDA

Vaulted Roman cisterns

In the site there are very large, well-preserved, domed water reservoirs built during Roman times. There are also ruins from a Roman theatre in the extensive, mostly unexcavated site of Aptera. Recently further Hellenistic ruins have been located near the theatre.

CHALKIS (Ancient city) EVIA


The Tunnel of Eupalinos

Ancient bridge


The ancient bridge

The ancient bridge, which was made of wood, is a unique finding. Between the fortified gate and Strymon's bank hundreds of piles were found. Under those piles, in a deeper layer, there were found about 100 piles which were supporting the bridge of the classic period. This bridge must be the same as the one Thucydides mentioned that the Spartian General Vrasidas occupied in 424 B.C

Ancient fortresses

Kasnetsi Castle


Remains of a fortress dating to classical-hellenistic period.


Drakano Fortress

  One of the best preserved examples of Athenian military watchtowers from the Hellenistic period, Drakano Fortress and its fortifications were built during the time of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. This 44-foot high limestone tower served as an observation point for Aegean Sea traffic sailing the channel between Ikaria and Samos. The tower was part of a larger garrison and eventual Ikarian city that was noted for its wine production. In 1827 the tower was damaged by Greek naval forces who used it for target practice. Near the tower stands the solitary Church of St. George, and below the church is the remote sandy beach of St. Giorgis. Access to Drakano is via a dirt road leading from the seaside village of Faros. The road ends where a footpath begins, and visitors must then hike about 15 minutes north to the fortress area.
  This extract is cited October 2004 from the Ikarian Enterprises URL below, which contains image

EGOSTHENA (Ancient fortress) ATTICA, WEST


  In the Megarian sphere, Aigosthena was situated on the slopes of the Kithairon in a deep inlet of the Gulf of Corinth, on the road between Boiotia and the Peloponnesos.
  Xenophon recorded the battles that took place here in 378 B.C. and the presence of the army of Archidamos, and mentioned the inaccessibility of the site (Hell. 5.4.18; 6.4.26). The fort is also mentioned by Pausanias (1.44.5). Along with Megara, Aigosthena formed part of the Achaian League in 244, was then ceded to Boiotia for a brief time, and re-entered the League after the second Macedonian war. The interior circuit protecting the acropolis and the entire encircling wall of the city are among the best examples of Greek military architecture. The acropolis is to the E, defended by a mighty polygon of wall which is well preserved, particularly on the E and NE sides. Eight large square towers in the wall served as bulwarks. There was an entrance to the W and a rear entrance to the E. Each tower consisted of two rooms and could be entered from the circuit wall by means of a stairway. The N and S sides of the fortification walls extend, toward the sea, into the two arms. Large square towers defend the curtain wall here also. On the N side there are eight additional towers, while the wall and the towers on the S side have mostly disappeared.
  The whole fortification system is built of hard local limestone (a quarry is identifiable inside the city walls) and in conglomerate rock, and shows two different techniques. One is an irregular trapezoidal technique with a squared face, datable to the 5th c.; the other is regular isodomic with the face perfectly squared, datable to the 4th c. (several scholars, however, attribute the latter to the beginning of the Hellenistic age). The few Roman constructions on the inside of the city walls did not alter the fortifications.
  Very few monumental remains have been discovered in the area of the city. A small Byzantine church was built on an apsidal Early Christian basilica (25.15 x 20.38 m) with three large aisles. Against the S side of the basilica was a quadrangular baptistery.

N. Bonacasa, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Oct 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.



The remains of a pyramid

  At the distance of about a mile from the Erasinus, and about half a mile to the right of the road, the remains of a pyramid are found, occupying the summit of a rocky eminence among the lower declivities of Mt. Chaon. Its site corresponds to that of the sepulchral monuments of the Argives, mentioned by Pausanias (ii. 24.7); but its style of architecture would lead us to assign to it an early date. The masonry of this edifice is of an intermediate style between the Cyclopian and polygonal, consisting of large irregular blocks, with a tendency, however, to quadrangular forms and horizontal courses; the inequalities being, as usual, filled up with smaller pieces. The largest stones may be from four to five feet in length, and from two to three in thickness. There are traces of mortar between the stones, which ought, perhaps, to be assigned rather to subsequent repairs than to the original workmanship. The symmetry of the structure is not strictly preserved, being interrupted by a rectangular recess cutting off one corner of the building. In this angle there is a doorway, consisting of two perpendicular side walls, surmounted by an open gable or Gothic arch, formed by horizontal layers of masonry converging into an apex, as in the triangular opening above the Gate of Lions and Treasury of Atreus. This door gives access to a passage between two walls. At its extremity on the right hand is another doorway, of which little or nothing of the masonry is preserved, opening into the interior chamber or vault (Mure, vol. ii. p. 196) This was not the only pyramid in the Argeia. A second, no longer existing, is mentioned by Pausanias (ii. 25.7) on the road between Argos and Tiryns; a third, of which remains exist, is described by Gell (Itinerary of Greece, p. 102), on the road between Nauplia and Epidaurus; and there was probably a fourth to the S. of Lerna, since that part of the coast, where Danaus is said to have landed, was called Pyramia. (Plut. Pyrrh. 32; Paus. ii.38.4). It is a curious circumstance that pyramids are found in the Argeia, and in no other part of Greece, especially when taken in connection with the story of the Aegyptian colony of Danaus.

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


In two crowns of the Itamos mountain, SW of Pyli, the ruins of two fortresses of the Hellenistic times, are saved.From there all the passing of Agrafa and Pindos, are controlled. The fortresses in question,have been taken up by Philip the 5th of Macedonia in 189 B.C. and were destroyed by Julius Caesar in 46 B.C. In that area the ancient town Atheneon is situated.

KALYVA (Settlement) XANTHI


A Mycenean fort


Castle of Aerikon

The Kastro hill (formelry called Kales, h. 614 m) is located to the west of the Nestos river, 800m to the west of the ruins of the village of Aerikon (Drenova) and 3km to the NE of the village of Myrtoussa. The castle on the hill dates to the beginning of the 3rd cent. B.C.


Castle of Eleftherochori

The castle is located to the NE of the city of Paramythia, where many paleolithic findings were brought to light.


In place of Pyrgos

Ancien fortress.


Byzantine Castle of Syme

The castle was built on a rocky ridge west to the village, during the byzantine period, over the ruins of the ancient citadel. It was reinforced during the frankish conquest.
On his exterior gate, to the east, on sees the blazon of the Grand Master d' Amboise with the date 1507.

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below.

Ancient gymnasium


The Gymnasium

The Gymnasium is the most important public building in Amfipolis. It is situated in the S.E. part of the ancient city, between the exterior and interior surrounding walls and it is dated back to the 4th century B.C. up to the 1st century A.C. The arena occupies a central position. In the same position there are the indoor baths with water providing systems made of lead and clay pipes and a large sewerage pipe. The staircase that leads to the Gymnasium is very impressive, too. Also, another impressive thing is the stoic building used for training during bad weather. In front of this building there is an open-air area used for training when the weather was good. There has also been discovered a place of worship to Hermes and Hercules, protectors of the Gymnasiums, an altar for sacrifices and outdoor baths.

Ancient harbours


Archaeological Site of Phalasarna

Tel: +30 28210 44418, Fax: +30 28210 44418

Ancient Diolkos of Corinth

  The Diolkos is a paved road which was used for the transport of boats by land on a platform ("puller of boats").
  Its western section was excavated to a length of 255m. on the Peloponnesos side of the Isthmus and of 204 m. on the Sterea Hellas side, in the precinct of the School of Engineering.
  Its width is 3,40 - 6,00m. It is paved with square blocks of poros and carried two grooves in the middle, at a distance of 1,50 m. from each other. On its western side it ended on a paved quay.
  It became necessary to built the "diolkos" in order to provide a quick passage for the boats between the Saronic Gulf and the Corinthian Bay. It was constructed during the 6th century B.C., probably during the tyranny of Periandros in Corinth. Its westren end was reconstructed at the beginning of the 4th century B.C. It was used for the transport of small boats, mostly warships, up to the 9th century A.D. as is confirmed by various sources.
  The monument was excavated during the years 1956-1959 by the Greek Archaeological Service (under the direction of N.Verdelis).   Supplementary investigations were undertaken in 1960 and 1963 by the archaeologist with funds from the Archaeological Society.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below.

Kotsinas (older name Kotsinos or Kotzinos) was Hephaestia's seaport. His growth is believed to have contributed to the decline of Hephaestias at the Byzantine years. Indeed it was reported also as capital of the island at the later Byzantine years and was fortified with castle probably manufactured by the Venetians. Today minimal traces of the castle are rescued and the church of Zoodohos Pigi with the "holy water", spring of water in the depth of the rock.

Ancient monuments

EGES (Ancient city) IMATHIA

The 'heroon' at Aigai

  South-east of the Tomb of Philip and next to the Tomb of Persephone, were found the foundations and part of the marble superstructure of a small, possibly temple-plan building dedicated to the worship of illustrious members of the royal family. The 'heroon' was built shortly after Philip's tomb, outside the original tumulus, and may have contained the cult statue of Philip. It appears that the 'heroon' was destroyed in 274/3 BC, when it and the Tomb of Persephone were plundered by the Gaulish mercenaries of Pyrrhos.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Oct 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.

MEGARA (Ancient city) GREECE

Theagenes' Spring

The fountain was built in ca. 500 B.C. The front side of the building was occupied by a portico with five Doric columns, and at the back of this was a narrow cistern for the drawing up of water. Two more large cisterns, separated by a parapet, were used for the collection of water. The roof was supported by 35 octagonal columns made of poros stone, while the walls were built of large limestone blocks in the isodomic system.
  The site of the spring was located in 1898 and partly uncovered in 1900. The excavation of the monument was carried out in 1957 and 1958 by J. Papademetriou. After 1959, the water-tight plastering on the walls of the cisterns, was consolidated.

This text is cited Sept 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Culture URL below, which also contains image.

Ancient oracles

DODONI (Ancient city) IOANNINA

  The Oracle of Dodona is the oldest oracle in the entire Hellenistic world, constructed approximately 1000 B.C. As Hesiodus mentions, Zeus himself claimed the Oracle as belonging to him. The Selloi comprised the priests and the prophets of Dodona, at Zeus' service, who remained the divine authority over the sacred area. The Goddes Gaea, upon appearing as Zeus' Deity, assumed another shape and was renamed Dione. The Oracle of Dodona differed from the Delphi Oracle since it provided prophecies derived by a different method. Pythia did not whisper prophecies; with the breezing air and the soaring birds that would form nests within the sacred oaktree's branches, the God's prophecies would be conveyed to the sacred oaktree. Later on, the sounds made from beating a copper vessel that was placed on tripods, assisted even more. Odysseus, Kreontas, even the God Dionysus, entrusted their hopes to the swaying air.
  The Athletic Games in honor of Naia Zeus took place annually upon the sacred Dodona grounds. These Games included drama competitions, music competitions, chariot games and wrestling.
  During the period of King Pyrrus' reign, the Temple of Zeus was reconstructed. In the 2nd century A.D., the Romans proceeded in causing great catastrophes and set fire to the Dodona Temple. In 219 B.C., following the attack and looting of the Dodona Temple by the Aetolians, a period of decline begins. The area was ravaged once again, this time by the Mithradates and Thracians. Thus, at the end of the 4th century A.D., the final end to the Oracle's operation came as a result of the dissemination and establishment of Christianity. The first excavations of the sacred land of Dodona began in 1875 by Mr. K. Karapanos. Mr. S. Dakaris and D. Evagelides, who continued these excavations during the periods 1929 - 1933 and 1950 - 1981. From 1981 onward, excavations are being executed under the auspice of the Archaeology Service.   Dodona's archaeological site is comprised of the following monuments: The Temple of Zeus or Sacred House that was originally located outdoors (near the Sacred Oaktree), the Vouleuterion, the Prytaneion (this is where Zeus' priests lived), the Acropolis, the Stadium (this has not been completely excavated) and the Theatre.
  The Theatre of Dodona is one of the largest theatres in Greece (18.000 seats) and was built during the 3rd century B.C. It is comprised, as all ancient theatres, of a koilon (spectators' seats), a stage, an orchestra whilst there was also a Doric colonnade. There may possibly also have been a wooden construction in front of the stage. Its walls extend 21 meters in height and are supported by strong towers. Under Roman Rule, the structure was transformed into an arena for animal fights. In the early 60s, the theatre was rebuilt and today comprises a significant visitors' attraction point, which is used to perform theatrical plays primarily during the summer months.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs URL below.


Sanctuary of Apollo Koropaios

Ancient palaces

ARCHANES (Ancient city) CRETE

Minoan Palace

  Excavations are being performed in the area under the direction of E. Sakellarakis. Palatial-style buildings were discovered in the location of Turkogitonia within the village of Arhanes (200m east of the clock-tower). The excavations brought to light major discoveries including a large rectangular altar fresco and numerous artefacts. The buildings had an extraordinarily sophisticated architecture and the site is considered to be comparable to the other known Minoan palaces.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.

EGES (Ancient city) IMATHIA

The Palace at Aigai

  The most imposing palace to have been located in Macedonia was the residence of the Macedonian kings when they returned to their old capital for official ceremonies. The layout reproduces on a grand scale the plan of the ancient Greek 'oikia' (house) with an inner peristyle (columned courtyard) surrounded by rooms.
  The east wing included a monumental entrance, the 'Tholos' (probably a place of worship), and other rooms of unknown purpose. The south wing held the residential rooms proper as well as banqueting halls decorated with mosaic floors. The west wing also contained banqueting halls.
  On the lower north slope there extended a long and narrow veranda in front of the chambers. The building is dated to the second half of the 4th century BC.
The 'tholos' of the palace
The most significant part of the palace at Vergina was the 'Tholos', a circular chamber circumscribed by a square, in the east wing of the building. The 'Tholos' was used as shrine; by extention, it may be regarded as the "Throne Room", since we know that the Macedonian kings held also the position of high-priest. Its ceremonial character is confirmed by a valuable inscription found in it; it read "Heraklei Patroioi" (to Herakles Patroos), and referred to Herakles, mythical progenitor of the Argead dynasty.
The 'oikos' of the palace
The 'oikos', an impressive succession of rooms which constitute the "royal suite", stands out in the south wing of the palace at Vergina. The central chamber opens onto the peristyle and leads to the 'andron' (men's apartments), which is suitable for banquets. These private apartments were decorated with admirable mosaics, only one of which has survived. It is a composition of plants and other decorative motifs radiating from a central flower, and intertwined with symmetric grace. In the corners of the mosaic four female figures are depicted, each carrying a basket on her head. The mosaic is composed of river pebbles in many varying shades of black, white, grey, red and yellow.
The 'andron' of the palace
The greatest part of the west wing of the palace at Vergina consists of three square rooms of equal size opening onto the peristyle; these form the 'andron', the men's appartments in the palace. Their floors are composed of carefully-finished marble inlay surrounded by a slightly raised narrow mosaic border, on which most probably stood couches for banquets. The manner of roofing these very large rooms without using supporting props is very impressive and demonstrates the high degree of knowledge and level of technical expertise of the builders of the palace.
The veranda of the palace
The north wing of the palace at Vergina, now destroyed, consisted of a row of square chambers. Along the entire length of the north wall of this wing there ran a narrow open veranda fronted by a low protecting parapet. This extension added a novel feature to the traditional plan of the closed ancient Greek house by opening it outward. It also constituted a model which was to figure prominently in the history of architecture. The balcony offered the occupants of the building an enchanting view over the entire region of the lower Haliakmon, and the vast Macedonian plain with the cities of Pella in the north and Beroia in the west.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Oct 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains images.

The small palace at Aigai

  The foundations of a large building, consisting of a columned courtyard and rooms opening on the north and west side, were discovered adjacent to the palace at Aigai, abutting on its west side. The building has been repeatedly interfered with, and the few remains which have survived do not permit dating it with exactitude. Archaeologists today believe that it must be the old palace of the city, which the kings preserved out of respect for their past history

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Oct 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.

PYLOS (Ancient city) MESSINIA

The palace of Nestor

The palace of Nestoras, son of Neleas, was discovered and searched in 1939 by Konstantinos Kourouniotis and excavated by the American Karl Blegen and is found in the region «Eglianos» 4 km south of the borough of Chora. It is a piece of work dating back to the 13th century B.C. and was built by the Dynasty of Neliedon. It consists of five main buildings which take up such a large area that it can only be compared, in terms of size and arrangement of indoor space, to the palaces of Mycaenae and Tiryntha. In two small rooms of the central building there have been found 1250 signs with writing in Grammiki B, one of the oldest kinds of Greek writing, which has been decoded by the architect Michael Ventris, while in the rooms of Kylikeio and the storage rooms there have been found cups and pots and pans.
n an 80 m distance in the north of the palace, there has been found a magnificent domed tomb ascribed to Nestoras and his successor Thrasymides. The palace was destroyed by fire at the end of the ceramic of style IIIB (1200 B.C approximately), when the palaces of Mycaenae and Tiryntha were burnt down too, for unknown reasons. At the same time, in about 1120 B.C. the Dories descended in Messinia due to the weakening of the powerful Kingdoms of the area. The extended area around the hill of Eglianos which was taken up by the palace of Nestoras as well as the royal domed tomb has been formed and welcomes the visits of many tourists.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Messenia Prefecture Tourism Promotion Commission URL below, which contains image.

Ancient sacred caves


The Cave in Arkalochori

Diktaion Antron

  The cave of Psychro is one of the most important cult places of Minoan Crete. The use of caves as cult places was one of the basic characteristics of the religious beliefs of the ancient Cretans. Cult practice probably begins in the Early Minoan period (2800-2300 BC) - although in the antechamber are preserved traces of an even earlier occupation - but the most important finds date from the Middle Minoan period (1800 BC) and later, as it was used for many centuries, until the Geometric (8th century BC) and the Orientalising-Archaic period (7th-6th century BC). The finds prove that it was visited until as late as the Roman period. Pilgrims dedicated many offerings, such as figurines of humans, gods, animals, double axes etc. The excavators and several scholars identify the cave as the famous "Diktaian Cave", where Zeus was born and brought up with the aid of Amaltheia and the Kouretes, and which is connected with myths as this of the seer Epimenides who "slept" here, or the coupling of Zeus with Europa.
  In the last decades of the 19th century, inhabitants of the area found ancient items inside the cave; this fact led in 1886 the archaeologists Joseph Chatzidakis and F. Halbherr to the site, where they conducted an excavation, but not on a large scale. The cave was also investigated by A. Evans in 1897, by J. Demargne, and by G. Hogarth in 1899, but systematic excavation has not taken place yet. The finds uncovered during legal and illegal excavations were almost all published in 1961 by J. Boardman.
  At 1,025 m. a.s.l., a steep path leads up to a plateau in front of the narrow entrance to the cave. On the right side is an antechamber (42 x 19 m.) with a rectangular altar, 1m. high, built of field stones; this area yielded Neolithic potsherds, Early Minoan burials (2800-2200 BC), and offerings of the Middle Minoan period (2200-1550 BC). In the northern part of the antechamber, at a lower level, a chamber is formed, which included an irregular enclosure with patches of roughly paved floor, forming a sort of a temenos.
  The large hall (84 x 38 m.) has an inclined floor and a small chamber opening to the left end; one of its niches is called the "cradle" of Zeus. A larger chamber (25 x 12 m.) formed on the right side is divided into two parts: one has a small pool, and the other a very impressive stalactite, known as "the mantle of Zeus". Inside the main chamber had been deposited many offerings, mostly bronze figurines and sheets, daggers, arrowheads, and double axes.

Spileo Dikteon Andron

  On the north side of Mount Dikte, in the Lassithi Plateau is the Dikteon Andron Cave, the legendary birthplace of Zeus. The cave entrance is reached either by walking or by a donkey ride. Good shoes with a non-slip tread are necessary. A local man will provide a ride up and down and will give a tour of the cave with a flashlight. Most of the guides speak only Greek. The cave entrance is reached after a 20-minute walk up a stony path. The entrance is at 1,025 metres above sea level and is 14.8 metres wide.
The cave of Dikteon Andron became more important than the cave of Trapeza (also in the Lassithi Plateau) during the Prepalatial Period (2000-1700 B.C.). Its fame continued throughout the Greek times (about 700 B.C.) when it lost its importance to the Ideon Andron Cave in Rethimnon. Many bronze figurines, double axes, rings and broaches have been found and are shown in the Iraklion Museum.
The cave consists of two parts: the antechamber is flat and has a length of 42 metres, a width of 19 metres and a height of 6.5 metres. An altar was here and around it were tables for offerings which indicates that the cave was a cult centre from the Minoan Period on. The second part is the main cave and slopes downward leading to the lake and the four chambers at its end.
According to the legend, Zeus' father, Kronos, had sworn to devour all his children to avoid losing his kingdom. Rhea tricked him by giving him a stone to swallow and left Zeus in the Dikteon Cave. Here the goat nymph Amalthia nurtured him and the Kuretes (5 Cretans) protected him. They banged their shields to drown out the baby's crying.

This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


Ideon Andron Cave

  According to legends, the Ideon Cave was the birthplace of Zeus. In the myth, Rhea brought the infant Zeus to the Ideon cave to protect him from his father, Kronos, who would have swallowed him alive, as he had previously done with his brothers and sisters. Here he was nursed by the goat nymph, Amalthia. He was protected by the Kuretes (5 Cretans) who danced and clashed their weapons to cover the cries of the baby Zeus. This myth will be disputed by those that believe that Zeus was raised in the Dikteon Andron in the plateau of Lassithi.
In another variation of the myth, the baby Zeus was born in the Dikteon Andron Cave, while the infant Zeus grew up in the Ideon Andron among the shepherds of the Nida Plateau. Zeus is often called “Cretagenis”, e.g. born in Crete. According to Cretans, Zeus was not immortal, in contrast to the Classical Greek belief; he died and was reborn every year. The head of the dead Zeus can be seen in the outline of Mount Youktas, outside Iraklion. This belief of Cretans, continues traditions of the old Minoan religion (in which the Young God died and was reborn every year) to the Greek religion.
Historically, it is clear that both the caves in the Lassithi Plateau and the cave in Nida were sanctuaries during Minoan and early Greek times. The cave of Trapeza in Lassithi was used very early in Minoan times, but later it lost its significance to the cave of Dikteon Andron, also in the Lassithi Plateau, and the latter seems also to have been replaced in importance by the cave of Ideon Andron in Nida during Greek and Roman times.
Excavations in the cave uncovered finds dating as far back as late Neolithic times. During Minoan times, the cave was a place of worship of the fertility goddess. Later it became the place of worship for the cult of Zeus.
The cave is 1,540 metres above sea level. It contains a large chamber at the opening and two horizontal chambers that open to the inner sanctum of the cave. Excavations are in progress and the cave is now closed to the public.
The original excavations were done by Professor Marinatos and revealed the Greek and Roman use of the cave. The recent excavations in the cave are concerned with the finds of the lower deposits in the cave. The cave is known to have been used in the Neolithic Age. Recently, a superb bronze shield was found intact.

This text is cited Dec 2002 from the Crete TOURnet URL below, which contains images.


Corycian cave

Οn Mt. Parnassus, a refuge for the Delphians, sacred to nymphs and Pan, named after Corycia.

  Above Delphi was the celebrated cave called Corycium (to Korukion antron), distant, according to Leake, about 7 miles from the city, to the northeastward, and about the same distance to the north-west of Arakhova. The usual way from Kastri to the heights of Parnassus leads past the Stadium, and then turns more to the west than the ancient path, which ascended the mountain immediately above the city. The ancient way was an astonishing work. It was a zigzag path, consisting of more than a thousand steps cut out of the hard rock, and forming an uninterrupted flight of steps to the highlands above. There are still considerable remains of it, but it is now seldom used, as the modern path is easier. It takes about two hours to reach the highlands of Parnassus, which are divided by hills and mountain-summits into a number of larger and smaller valleys and ravines, partly covered with forests of pine and fir, and partly cultivated as arable and pasture land. This district extends about 16 miles in a westerly direction from the foot of the highest summit. It formed the most valuable part of the territory of Delphi. Leake describes it as a country of pasture, interspersed with firs, and peopled with shepherds and their flocks, and remarks that he occasionally passed fields of wheat, barley, and oats all yet green, though it was the 27th of July, and the harvest in the plains of Boeotia had been completed a month before.
  The Corycian cave is situated in the mountain on the northern side of the valley. It is thus described by Leake: - We ascended more. than half-way to its summit, when a small triangular entrance presented itself, conducting into the great chamber of the cavern, which is upwards of 200 feet in length, and about 40 high in the middle. Drops of water from the roof had formed large calcareous crystallizations rising at. the bottom, and others were suspended from every part of the roof and sides. The inner part of this great hall is rugged and irregular; but after climbing over some. rocks, we arrived at another small opening leading into a second chamber, the length of which is near 100 feet, and has a direction nearly at a right angle with the outer cavern. In this inner apartment there is again a narrow opening, but inaccessible without a ladder; at the foot of the ascent to it is a small natural opening. Pausanias says (x. 32. § 2) that there were 60 stadia from Delphi to a brazen statue, from whence it was: easier to ascend to the cavern on foot than on a horse and mule; and, accordingly, Leake supposes the statue to have stood at the foot of the mountain, since the distance from thence to Delphi is nearly that mentioned by Pausanias. The latter writer remarks that this cave is larger than any of the other celebrated caverns which he had seen, and that a person can proceed a very long way through it even without a torch. He adds that it was sacred to Pan and the Nymphs, which is also attested by other ancient writers, and is confirmed by an inscription found in the cave. (Strab. ix. p. 417; Aesch. Eum. 22; Bockh, Inscr. No. 1728; Raikes, in Walpole's Collection, vol. i. p. 314.). Pan and the Nymphs were regarded as the companions of Dionysus, whose orgies were celebrated upon these heights. When the Persiras were marching upon Delphi, the inhabitants took refuge in this cave (Herod. viii. 36), and it has been used for the same purpose by the inhabitants of Arakhova in recent times.
  According to Ulrichs, the Corycian cave is now called Sarantauli by the peasants, from its being supposed to contain 40 chambers (from saranta, tessarakonta aulai).

This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

This grotto on Mt. Parnassos (altitude 1360 m), 2 1/2 hours' walk from Delphi, owed its name to its "knapsack" shape (korykos). Described by Pausanias (10.32.2), it was sacred to Pan and the nymphs (dedication of a peripolarkos of Ambrysos engraved on the rock to the right of the entrance) and no doubt also to Dionysos (mention of the Thyads, the Delphic bacchantes, in a second, barely legible, rock inscription), whose biennial festival (Trieteris) was celebrated by torchlight by the Thyads of Delphi and Athens on the plateau close by. Excavations by the French School of Athens (1970) have shown that the grotto, which had two chambers (the first some 70 m long), was consecrated to the cult from the Neolithic Age. Another Korykian Cave was in Cilicia, near the town of Korykos.

G. Roux, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Jan 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

  On the way from Delphi to the summit of Parnassus, about sixty stades distant from Delphi, there is a bronze image. The ascent to the Corycian cave is easier for an active walker than it is for mules or horses. I mentioned a little earlier in my narrative1 that this cave was named after a nymph called Corycia, and of all the caves I have ever seen this seemed to me the best worth seeing (Paus. 10.32.2)...
... But the Corycian cave exceeds in size those I have mentioned, and it is possible to make one's way through the greater part of it even without lights. The roof stands at a sufficient height from the floor, and water, rising in part from springs but still more dripping from the roof, has made clearly visible the marks of drops on the floor throughout the cave. The dwellers around Parnassus believe it to be sacred to the Corycian nymphs, and especially to Pan. From the Corycian cave it is difficult even for an active walker to reach the heights of Parnassus. The heights are above the clouds, and the Thyiad women rave there in honor of Dionysus and Apollo (Paus. 10.32.7).

Ancient sanctuaries

ALYKI (Settlement) THASSOS



Temple of Apollo

On the foot of Kalamos Mount.

ARCHANES (Ancient city) CRETE

Archaeological Site at Anemospelia

Tel: +30 2810 752712, Fax: +30 2810 241515

  Rectangular building with three narrow chambers, each opening into a long corridor to the north, which extends along the whole width of the building.
  The area is enclosed with a stone wall and the whole structure has been interpreted as a shrine; in the central room was found a "xoanon" (statue) of the deity worshiped here. In the west room, where the altar stood, was uncovered, according to the excavator, the first human sacrifice to have ever taken place in Minoan times.
  The building at Anemospelia was used for only half a century, as it was suddenly destroyed by an earthquake in the middle of the 17th century BC.
  The site was excavated in the summer of 1979 by John Sakellarakis.

Minoan Shrine

  In the location of Anemospilia (signposted at the main square), a Minoan shrine was discovered. The shrine was destroyed in the large earthquake of 1700 B.C. that destroyed the old palaces. The archaeologists believe that a human sacrifice was taking place at the time of the disaster, probably attempting to avert the danger of the quakes.


Recently a ritual clay figurine of the Mid-Minoan period was fortuitously unearthed on a peak close to the village. The remains of a large building belonging to a peak sanctuary have been excavated at Amygdalokefalo to the NE of the village.


The Sanctum of Asklepios: Asklipiio Epidavros

In the picturesque valley with a magical environment, where there were natural and healing sources, the sanctum of Asklepios was built in ancient times. It developed, over the years, to become the famous therapeutic center where many of the patients came from everywhere to the god "Deliverer", as they called him. Symbols of the Asklepios were the snake, the stick and the pot of therapeutic fluid. In the valley, at first, appeared a prehistoric settlement. The king of Epidavros "Malo" built then the first sanctuary in honor of Apollo of Maleata.
According to the local tradition, Asklepios was son of Apollo and Koronidos, daughter of the Thessaly king, Flegia. Askelpios was born at the Tithio rock, where his mother left him because she feared the anger of her father Flegia. So she left the child and a goat found and suckled the baby and the dog from the flock notified the shepherd, who found the infant. Then the first mountain was named Tithio in honor of the goat and the next mountain named "Kinos" in honor of the dog that found him. The influence and the brilliancy of Asklepios as the most important therapeutic god, brought huge economic power to the sanctuary during the 4th and 3rd century b.c, and the large group of buildings in the area materialized. Under the cover of these monumental buildings, the whole worship took place.

This text is cited Jan 2003 from the Municipality of Epidavros URL below, which contains image.

Sanctuary of Asklepios

  The Sanctuary of Epidavros is one of the most significant religious and therapeutic centers of Ancient Greece. The sanctuary was dedicated to worshipping the God, Asklepios, whose adoration brought him from Thessaly to the city of Epidavros in the 6th century B.C. A hospital was gradually appended to the sanctuary for the ill in addition to a Spa. Every four years (nine days following the Isthmia celebration) gymnastics and drama competitions took place in this area in order to honor Asklepios. Asklepios' splendor lasted throughout, the course of Ancient Times approximately. It did, however, undergo a second prosperous phase during the 2nd century B.C. upon, Pausanias' visit, a traveler. The excavations within the Epidavros area began in 1879 and continue today within various sections of the area. Until now, the archaeological mattock has discovered a plethora of structures: the Tholos, the Gymnasium, the Palaestra, the Stadium, the «Katagogeion» Hotel, the Thermae, and the Temple of Artemis . The structures however, that stand out within the area are the Temple of Asklepios and the Ancient Epidavros Theatre.
  The Doric Temple of Asklepios was built during the period 380 - 375 B.C. by the Architect Theodotus. In its construction, Corinthian poros stone was utilized, excluding of course the sculptures and the decorated areas as well as the waterspouts, which are made of marble. A trench tracing the length of the wall was located on its right side, which was not unusual to the hospitals treating the ill whilst it was also a significant instrument in the ritual for advice. Later, they filled it with dirt. The Temple's interior contained an ivory and gold statue of Asklepios that was the work of artist from Paros, Thrasimides. In 1988, UNESCO enlisted the monument in its World Heritage List of Monuments.
  The Epidavros Theatre was built in the 4th century B.C. by the Architect and Sculptor, Polikleitos Junior. He is renowned for his exceptional - practically perfect - acoustics, exhibited by the Theatre. He is also famous for the actors' dialogues and the Chorus that played in the orchestra. The Orchestra is clearly heard from the highest Theatre seats above. The Orchestra, along with the Chorus as was usual in those days, is similar to all other theatres in that it is circular and was constructed from dirt (a characterizing trait of theatres of the Hellenistic Period). Also, the Orchestra's basis contained a drainage trench (2 meters in width) that assisted in collecting rainwater. It is the only theatre in which the Orchestra has been preserved and is in such excellent condition. The Altar, however, has not been preserved, which was located in the center of the Orchestra. The koilon (its right side has been rebuilt) maintains an occupancy rate of 14.000 spectators. The 34 rows of seats, which are located at the lower end of the Theatre, have not been replaced and were constructed by following their original structure. On the contrary, the 21 rows located in the upper section of the Theatre were added later during the Roman years. The Stage was located behind the Orchestra and exactly opposite the Koilon. This was the area the actors used to change costumes and is referred to as the Proscenium. Only ruins are evident now. Access to the Orchestra was available from the two parodoses (on the right and left sides), which maintained monumental gates that were only recently reconstructed. Today, the Epidavros Theatre continues to give ancient drama performances, which comprise the most significant art and cultural events of the summer season.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs URL below.


Temple of Artemis

Perseus Project, Illustration of Temple of Artemis

BASSAE (Ancient sanctuary) ILIA

Temple of Epicurean Apollo

The Temple of Epicurean Apollo

  The temple is situated on a slope of Mount Lykaeo and was designed by Iktinos, the architect of the Parthenon, during the Peloponnesean War at the end of the 5th century (410 B.C.) to thank god Apollo for his help and to induce him to banish evil from the area, when great famine had plagued the area. Iktinos' genius and his refusal to conform to the architectular norms made him combine the three ancient architectural styles in the most harmonious way; the doric with the outside pillars, the Ionian with the semipillars and the Corinthian with the two pillars for the north entrance and the two for the south. On the famous zoeforos of sculptor Alkamenous dear themes from mythology were reproduced, and it is placed in the niche of the temple on the top part of the semipillars which supported the top in contrast with the other temples.
  Until 555 A.D. the temple maintained its glamour when an earthquake and the spreading of Christianity led it to obscurity which was completed in the Byzantine Years. It was discovered by the French traveller BOUCHET in 1765 A.D. and it was immediately looted by foreign as well as Turkish smugglers of antiquities. The English Gropus in cooperation with Veli pasha, governor, then, of Morias, stripped the temple of all the archaeological remains in 1812. He sold those in auctions to the rich of the West like the Ionian zoeforos which was bought by the King of England, George the 4th.

This text is cited Jan 2003 from the Messenia Prefecture Tourism Promotion Commission URL below, which contains image.

Sanctuary of Apollo


Le site de Delos

  Delos was the birthplace of the God Apollo and the Goddess Artemidos, both were children born to Zeus and Leto. According to Greek Mythology, Leto was searching all over Greece to find a place at which she could give birth to the God Apollo, since Hera threatened every land that would accept Leto with severe punishments. Leto finally reached the small and infertile island of Delos (Ortygia). The Goddess promised the island fame and wealth, which would be brought by Apollo's followers. The island gave its consent under the condition that Leto would promise to build her first temple in Delos. Thus, the exceptional sanctuary to Apollo and Artemidos was built upon the island of Delos. It comprised one of the most significant sanctuaries of ancient times, which, by the way, was a center of worship during the Mycenaean period, prior to it being officially declared an adoration to Apollo and Artemidos. The first excavations on Delos began in 1872 with the excavation of the Cynthos Cave. The French Archaeology School first organized and executed systematic excavations within the site, which to date, still continue.
  The visitor that came upon the archaeological site of Delos confronted its entire ancient city, practically, which continues to be evocative. Within its structural land plan, the visitor reincarnates the course and the way of life that was, once upon a time, natural and vivid. The significant structures include Apollo's Sanctuary although many others are scattered across the area surrounding the Sacred Lake, the Mount Cynthos and the neighborhood surrounding the Theatre. The following structures surround the Temple of Apollo or are in the direction of the Temple: House of Naxians, Colonnade of Naxians, Competaliasts Agora and the Delians, the Stoa of Antigonos and Phillip, the Sacred Way, Dionysus' Sanctuary, the Keraton, the first and second Tombs of the Hyberborean Maidens, Taurus Monument. Surrounding the area of the Sacred Lake are : the Hellenistic Houses of Diadoumenos, Actors, the Tritons, the Hill, the Lake, Theophrastos' Agora and the Italians' Agora, the Hypostyle Hall, the Palaestra, the Lions' Terrace, the Institution of the Poseidoniasts. Included within the Mount Cynthos area and the Theatre's neighborhood are: the Theatre, the Serapeion, Aphrodite's Sanctuary, the Kaveirion, the House of Dolphins, the Masks, the Triaina, Cleopatra, Dionysus, Hermes, the Terrace of Foreign Gods, the Heraion.
  The Temple of Apollo is the last and the largest Temple of the three preceding temples. Its construction began by the Delians in 477 B.C., at approximately the same period that the Athenian Confederacy (League) with Delos was established. Its construction was interrupted when the Confederacy's Treasury was sent to Athens. The three Temple's ruins, which all maintained a western orientation facing the West are still preserved to date. The oldest of the three (dated 6th century B.C.) was built from limestone and contained a pronaos and Cella. An ancient statue of Apollo was contained within that was the work of Teuktaios and Aggelion. Athenians constructed the Temple that is located in the center between 425 - 417 B.C. Behind the three temples is a series of five structures (Treasuries) that were probably Houses. The Temple of Artemidos is located near the Temple of Apollo. It was built in 179 B.C. in the place of a preceding temple, which was constructed in the 7th century B.C. This is confirmed by the collection of objects found on its northeast side. The Temple's boundaries are determined by a hypothetical surrounding wall whilst the north and east sides are enclosed by an Ionic colonnade.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs URL below.

EGES (Ancient city) IMATHIA

The temple of Eukleia

  About 80 metres north of the theatre the foundations were uncovered of the 'prodomos' (entrance) and 'sekos' (shrine) of the small temple of Eukleia, dated to the Classical period. Two bases for statues, and sockets for the legs of a "sacred table" for offerings were found in the shrine. Around the temple there are more bases for votive statues, two of which bear the name of Eurydike (wife of Amyntas III and mother of Philip II), a statue of whom has also been uncovered.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Oct 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.

The sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods

  A double-chambered edifice (apparently for the initiation ceremonies of worshippers) has been uncovered near the theatre, containing hearths, pits, altars and ducts for libations. The structures which have so far been excavated were built of friable materials and contained votive offerings, clay implements of worship, and the head of a terracotta statue of the mother-goddess.

By kind permission of:Ekdotike Athenon
This text is cited Oct 2003 from the Macedonian Heritage URL below, which contains image.


The Temple of Apollo

In the innermost corner of the small bay of Xeropotamos, near the ancient fortress of Aegila, some of the stones used to tie ships in the harbor remain. In 1880, during excavations there, a marble statue dedicated to Apollo (now on display in the Athens Archaeological Museum) was discovered. On the base of the statue was an inscribed dedication to the gods from Aristomenis, the son of Aristomides, a Thessalian from Ferres and from Nikona, the son of Kifisodoros of Athens. The same archaeologists found parts of a temple to Apollo that once stood there. Round the ancient harbour, pieces of the wall that encircled the temple and the harbour have survived, together with steps carved into the rock that led to the castle.

This text is cited June 2005 from the Community of Antikythira URL below


Temple of Zeus Aenesius

Aeneius or Aenesius (Aineios or Ainesios), a surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped in the island of Cephalenia, where he had a temple on mount Aenos. (Hes. ap.. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 297)

Thracian sanctuary

Between Avandas and the next village that is called Eseme another hill is rising, in this area the hill is named Monastere or after the Turkish Chepel- Kagia. On the hills’ very difficult to reach top a Thracian sanctuary was discovered, the life span of it is starting from the prehistoric ages till the Hellenistic and Byzantine ages. In the yard of this sanctuary you can find chiseled constructions, like a temple, sinks, stairs, solar discs etc.

This extract is cited Mar 2003 from the Development Company of Alexandroupolis URL below.

FANE (Ancient city) CHIOS

FENEOS (Ancient city) FENEOS

Sanctuary of Demeter


HERAION (Ancient sanctuary) SAMOS

  According to Greek Mythology, this was Hera's birthplace as well as the place she grew up in and the location where she married Zeus. The Heraion is located in a place near the east riverbank of the Imbrassos River. Herodotus attributes its establishment to the Leleges. Hera accepted the adoration of the Goddess Gaea, which was officially accepted on the island along with the settlement of Ions. Heraion's fame and power enlarges in the middle of the 7th century. This is evident by the plethora of structures that were built around the Temple as well as the ex votoes (statues of Hera, huge vases and pithoi) that are offered by many Greek cities. For this reason, a large colonnade was built so they could be kept safe. South of the large altar, a series of stone foundations have been preserved, which supported the ship dedicated by Kolaeos to Hera in addition to the large bronze lebes. Nude Games and Music Competitions took place in Hera's honor, a celebration that took place twice a year (?eraia and Tonea). The area was looted and destroyed in the 3rd century A.D. Two centuries later, a Christian Church in the form of a three-aisle basilica will be constructed in its place. The excavations of the Heraion site begin in 1902 and continue periodically, until today.
  Three older Temples preceded the Heraion area : the Ekatompedon I and Ekatompedon II as well as the Temple of Rhoikos and Theodoros. The Temple of Hera was built upon the remains of the Temple previously mentioned, which was destroyed by a fire shortly after it was built. The Temple of Hera is still preserved today. It was built in 530 B.C. (within the same period of Polycrates' tyranny). Limestone was used to construct the Temple except in the case of the bases and capitals that were made from marble. Due to the Athenian domination, construction was never completed. The south columns were constructed during the Hellenistic times whilst the remaining single column that is preserved in its place today dates back to the same period. The Great Altar was built simultaneously with the Temple, in the original altar's place. The Altar had been restored seven times until then. It was a large, rectangular building (3 meters in height).
  A significant number of buildings were constructed around the Temple. Thus, in the beginning of the 6th century, the large Temple of Hermes and Aphrodite was built whilst during the 7th century, the sacred cisterns were built in addition to the large Ionic colonnade (70 meters in length) in the north. Ex votoes, statues and small temples were built periodically. A small staircase was built in the Roman Temple's facade during the 2nd century A.D. It was probably built to serve the needs of the Roman Temple, which had been built at that time. Gradually, during the same period, a settlement was created (the remains from a Roman home are preserved). The pavement of the Sacred Road is built in the 3rd century, which unites the Temple to the Pythagorean city and upon which they had placed ex votoes and statues.

This text is cited May 2003 from the Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs URL below.


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