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Listed 33 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for destination: "ATHENS Ancient city GREECE".


Archaeological sites (33)

Perseus Building Catalog

Athens, Altar of the 12 Gods

Site: Athens
Type: Altar
Summary: Altar enclosed in a peribolos wall; near the north end of the Agora.
Date: ca. 522 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Archaic/Classical

Plan:
Rectangular altar. Peribolos wall of stone posts and slabs supported by a poros sill. Entrances on east and west.

History:
Identified by an inscribed marble statue base found in situ on west side of the peribolos wall. Original altar was built in 522/21 B.C. by Peisistratos. Rebuilt ca. 425 B.C. to repair damage suffered in the Persian invasion of 480/79 B.C. The altar was used as the central point for measuring road distances. From the 5th century B.C., the altar became associated with the Goddess of Pity, probably because the enclosed area served as a place of asylum. A round marble altar of the 4th century B.C. may also have been in the sanctuary.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 9 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Arsenal

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Large rectangular building; north of the Temple of Hephaistos and Athena in the Agora, on the Kolonos Agoraios.
Date: ca. 320 B.C. - 280 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Rectangular with buttressed walls, door opening east. Inside there were 2 rows of 8 supports forming 3 aisles. Large cisterns under the foundations held run-off water from the roof.

History:
Probably used for storage, possibly of military equipment, thus the name "Arsenal." Construction dated to late 4th or early 3rd century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, East Building

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Rectangular building; in the southeastern section of the Agora, between the Middle Stoa to the north and the South Stoa II to the south.
Date: ca. 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Rectangular. Stoa-like colonnade opened to the east. Five rooms lined the west wall, all opening west at a lower level than the colonnaded hall. Middle of the 5 rooms had steps and was a passage from the South Square to the colonnaded hall. The 3 middle rooms may have had columns in antis. Southernmost room opened west into the South Stoa II. The East Building was the eastern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Enneakrounos (SE Fountainhouse)

Site: Athens
Type: Fountainhouse
Summary: Rectangular building; in the southeast corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 530 B.C. - 520 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Divided into 3 sections, a central large room with a rectangular basin at its west end and a rectangular area at its east end where water could be taken directly from a spout. Colonnaded entrance of 3 columns opening north.

History:
This building may have been the Enneakrounos, or nine-spouted fountainhouse, built by the Peisistratids. On literary evidence Camp locates the Enneakrounos south of the Acropolis, but agrees this is a fountain of the same period.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 10 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Eponymous Heroes

Site: Athens
Type: Statue Base
Summary: Rectangular statue base; in the Agora, 14 meters east of the Metroon and roughly parallel to it.
Date: ca. 350 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Supported 10 bronze statues, and had tripods at either end. Surrounded by a fence of stone posts and wooden rails.

History:
The Eponymous Heroes were the legendary heroes whose names identified the 10 tribes of Attica, into which the Attic population was officially grouped by Kleisthenes in 508 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 13 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Eschara

Site: Athens
Type: Altar
Summary: Ground altar; on the northern side of the Agora, to the south of the Altar of the 12 Gods.
Date: ca. 525 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Area bounded by a stone curb, surrounded by a paved area enclosed by a wall.

History:
This type of altar was often associated with a particular hero. May have served as a shrine to the Aeginetan hero Aiakos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Heliaia

Site: Athens
Type: Court
Summary: Large square enclosure; in the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 550 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Originally no internal divisions or rooms and no roof. Opening on the north side. Possibly a later inner colonnade and rooms.

History:
Originally the enclosure may have been a simple fence or rope. Early 5th century B.C. the boundary was changed to a stone wall, and small rooms, probably offices, were added on the south side, but the meeting place remaining unroofed. The Heliaia was the name of the largest court in Athens and this building was of appropriate size, date and type for its meetings, but the identification remains tentative. Travlos has suggested it was a precinct of Theseus, but the votives commonly excavated in such sanctuaries have not been found here.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, House of the Marbleworkers

Site: Athens
Type: House
Summary: Irregularly shaped building; just southwest of the Agora, and west of the Triangular Shrine.
Date: ca. 475 B.C. - 275 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan: A complex of several rooms. Two cisterns in the largest room.

History:
The house is referred to as the House of the Marbleworkers Mikion and Menon and was in use from 475 to 275 B.C. A bone tool inscribed with the name Mikion, ca. 475 B.C., and pottery dating to ca. 275 B.C. bearing the name Menon, were all found at this location. Excavation has revealed tools, marble dust and unfinished sculpture, supporting the belief that this area, just to the southwest of the Agora, was a location for marble working.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 12 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Kallirrhoe (SW Fountainhouse)

Site: Athens
Type: Fountainhouse
Summary: L-shaped building; in the southwest corner of the Agora, near the Heliaia.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 325 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
From a small square courtyard one entered the L-shaped colonnaded porch. A 2nd interior L-shaped colonnade divided the building into 2 parts: the L-shaped colonnaded porch and the L-shaped draw basin. Water was drawn from over a low wall which filled the spaces between the columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Law Courts

Site: Athens
Type: Hall
Summary: Halls, complex of 3 buildings; all in the Agora, beneath the Square Peristyle, beneath the Stoa of Attalos.
Date: ca. 420 B.C. - 380 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Group of 3 buildings around an open triangular space. Law court A, roofed colonnade; Law court B, rectangular hall; and Law court C, a rectangular hall. The northernmost building, Law court B, was a large rectangular hall with a door and 2 columned portico on the south side. Sharing Law court B's eastern wall was Law court A, an open colonnade of 11 columns opening south, with a door and 2 columned portico opening off its north eastern corner. Across from these buildings and to the south was Law court C, a rectangular Hall, probably opening north, with a line of basins at ground level on its north side.

History:
The excavated finds in this area of the Agora indicate the buildings' use as law courts. A ballot box containing dicasts' ballots was found near the eastern end of Law court B. Also in the area were found bronze jurors' identification tags, water clocks, juror payment tokens and other such court furnishings.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Law Court (Square Peristyle)

Site: Athens
Type: Court
Summary: Square roofed colonnade; in the Agora, beneath the Stoa of Attalos.
Date: ca. 338 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Walled square enclosure with entrances on east and west. Inner Doric colonnade of 14 x 14 columns.

History:
Size and location would have made this an appropriate meeting place for the law courts. Travlos dates this building to the time of Lykourgos, 338 - 326 B.C., and states the building was carefully constructed. Camp dates the building to 300 B.C. and considers its construction to have been "shoddy," with the west side unfinished.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Leokoreion

Site: Athens
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Small shrine surrounded by a wall and associated with a well to the north; in the northern part of the Agora, across from the south wing of the Stoa Basileios.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
An enclosing wall around an outcrop of native rock (a sacred area from earlier times). There was originally a door, perhaps with rail barrier, in the northern side of the wall.

History:
Named the Leokoreion after the daughters of Leos, who were sacrificed to save the city from a terrible plague. Votives (5th century B.C.), such as loom weights and jewelry, commonly associated with shrines of females were found here. Also known as the Crossroads Enclosure, because the date of ca. 400 B.C makes this shrine later than the Leokoreion of literature, which would have been in use in the 6th century B.C. The Leokoreion had a prominent position in the Agora and consequently was a noted landmark. Silted in by the 4th century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Metroon

Site: Athens
Type: Metroon
Summary: Chambered building, with front colonnade; on the west side of the Agora, north of the Tholos.
Date: ca. 150 B.C. - 125 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Four chambered building. Outer front colonnade of 14 Ionic columns linking the 4 chambers and opening to the Agora on the east. Southernmost chamber and the 2nd chamber from the south were equal in size. Second chamber from the south is believed to have been the Temple of the Mother of the Gods (Metroon) with a pronaos distyle in antis. Next chamber was slightly larger than the previous 2. Largest and northernmost chamber had a square inner colonnade of 12 columns with 2 others in antis at the entrance.

History:
Built over earlier Bouleuterion and earlier limestone foundations of Temple of the Mother of the Gods. The distinct units of the later Metroon would have accommodated the Sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods, a council house and state record storage. building including a temple

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 45 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Middle Stoa

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; approximately in the middle of the Agora and dividing it into north and south areas.
Date: ca. 175 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric, two-aisled stoa, completely surrounded by unfluted Doric columns. The center colonnade of 23 columns, may have been Ionic, and the center columns may have been connected by screens to divide the stoa into halves. The Middle Stoa was the northern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 7 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Mint

Site: Athens
Type: Mint
Summary: Large, square building; in the Agora, near the South Stoa I and west of the Enneakrounos.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Northern half was a courtyard. Furnaces located in a large room on the southwest corner. Two small rooms in the southeast corner were possibly used for storage.

History:
This building is identified on the basis of excavation finds which included coins and blank coins (flans), industrial debris, and the remains of furnaces and slag basins. In the 2nd century A.D., a temple and Nymphaion were built on the ruins of the Mint, and later, ca. 1000 A.D., a Christian church was built, which is still standing.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, North Houses

Site: Athens
Type: House
Summary: Irregular units sharing walls; on southern edge of the Agora, north of the Areopagus.
Date: ca. 450 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Groups of rooms organized around a courtyard (each house organized in a different fashion). The house forming the northeast corner is nearly square, with small rooms around a rectangular court. A chamber on the east side of the court had one column in its west opening forming a small portico. Large room on the south was probably the main living area, with smaller rooms for storage, weaving and other activities.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Prytanikon

Site: Athens
Type: Prytanikon
Summary: Irregularly shaped building; on the west side of the Agora, formed an architectural unit with the Old Bouleuterion.
Date: ca. 550 B.C. - 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Many internal irregularly shaped divisions, grouped around a colonnaded court. Two cooking pits on the north side.

History:
Also known as Building F, Camp postulates that it may have been a palace for the Peisistratids. Because the later Tholos was located on the same spot as the Prytanikon and included the same area in its enclosure, it has also been suggested that this structure served as a state dining hall.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, South Stoa I

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; on the south side of the Agora, between the Heliaia and the Enneakrounos (SE Fountainhouse).
Date: ca. 425 B.C. - 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Two-aisled stoa opening north, with a Doric outer colonnade, an inner colonnade of unknown order, and 16 rooms lining the southern wall. One narrow room, and 15 square rooms which served as dining rooms and places of relaxation. May have had a 2nd story.

History:
The 15 rooms apparently were outfitted as dining rooms and may have been used by the city officials who were fed at public expense. The building was in use until ca. 150 B.C., when it was displaced by South Stoa II.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, South Stoa II

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; on the southern edge of the Agora, on the approximate location of the South Stoa I, between the Heliaia, and the Middle Stoa.
Date: ca. 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric single-aisled stoa opening north. On the north, 30 columns in antis; walls on the south, west and east sides. East wall had door communicating with southern end of the East Building. Off-center in the south wall was a small rectangular niche, possibly an exedra or fountain. The South Stoa II was the southern side of the area known as the South Square.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, State Prison

Site: Athens
Type: Prison
Summary: Almost rectangular building; just off the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 450 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
A long hall that led back to a courtyard. Five almost square rooms off the west side of the hall and 3 off the east side. At the northeast corner near the entrance, was a group of 4 rooms, possibly with a 2nd story.

History:
The location of the building near the law courts, its plan of separate cells with an easily guarded single entrance, and its provisions for bathing provide all the necessities for an ancient prison. The excavation of a small statue of Socrates and a quantity of medicine bottles, likely vessels for the poisons used to execute prisoners, have led to the identification of this building as the State Prison, where Socrates was executed in 399 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 31 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa; in the northeast corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Small two-aisled stoa opening east, 8 Doric columns in antis on the east, 4 Doric interior columns.

History:
After construction ca. 525 B.C., much of the stoa was rebuilt in the 5th century, probably to repair damage suffered in the Persian invasion of 480/79 B.C. Ca. 300 B.C., 2 small prostyle wings were added. The stoa is named for the office of the king archon, who was responsible for many of the city's legal and religious matters, and copies of the law codes were displayed in the building. Immediately east of the building is the large, rectangular oath stone, 2.95 m x 0.95 m, where council members took an oath to guard the laws of the city.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Artemis Brauronia

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Stoa with wings; the south boundary of the Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia, on the Acropolis, southeast of the Propylaia, west of the Chalkotheke.
Date: ca. 440 B.C. - 430 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Four-part building. Main stoa, one-aisled opening north, running nearly parallel to the south wall of the Acropolis. Two small projecting wings on the west and east ends, with doors opening north. Both wings had 2 engaged columns on the walls which faced onto the sanctuary. There is slight evidence that later a small stoa was added on the northeast side, opening west and extending the line formed by the earlier eastern wing.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 11 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Attalos

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-storied stoa; on the eastern side of the Agora.
Date: ca. 159 B.C. - 138 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Doric lower outer colonnade, with Ionic lower inner colonnade. An upper outer colonnade of Ionic double half-columns, and an upper inner colonnade with palm capitals. Stairways to the 2nd story at each end of the stoa. Each story had 2 aisles and 21 rooms lining the western wall. The rooms of both stories were lighted and vented through doorways and small windows on the back wall.

History:
Identified by a dedicatory inscription on the architrave as built by Attalos II, ruler of Pergamon from 159 B.C. to 138 B.C. The building assumes particular importance in the study of ancient monuments because the reconstruction of 1952 - 1956 replicates the original form.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 31 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; in the northwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 425 B.C. - 410 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Doric exterior, Ionic interior with projecting wings at both ends. Opened to the east.

History:
Dedicated to Zeus Eleutherios (Freedom), a cult founded after the Persian War. It was unusual for a religious building to take the form of a stoa rather than a temple, and considering its central location it is likely that the building also served other civic purposes. Possibly one of the accomplishments of Mnesikles, the architect of the Propylaia.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 19 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Stoa Poikile (Painted)

Site: Athens
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; on the north side of the Agora
Date: ca. 475 B.C. - 450 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Doric outer colonnade and an Ionic inner colonnade, opening south.

History:
The building was originally known as the Peisianaktios, from its builder Peisianax. The name Poikile (Painted) is derived from its famous murals painted by artists such as Polygnotos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Apollo Patroos

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple, tetrastyle in antis; on the west side of the Agora between the Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) and the Metroon.
Date: ca. 338 B.C. - 326 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
A rectangular cella with a pronaos of 4 columns in antis on the east. An adyton projected from the north side and communicated with the cella. On the north, in the L formed by the adyton and connected to the Temple of Apollo by a wall was the small, slightly older Temple of Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria.

History:
Under this temple are the remains of a smaller, apsidal Temple of Apollo, dated to the 6th century B.C. The earlier temple was probably destroyed by the Persians in 480/79 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 14 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Hephaistos

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Peripteral temple; on the west side of the Agora, on the Kolonos Agoraios.
Date: ca. 449 B.C. - 444 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Doric peripteral temple, 6 x 13 columns. Cella with a pronaos and an opisthodomos, both distyle in antis. Interior with superimposed Doric colonnade along 3 of the cella walls, but the original number of columns is uncertain.

History:
Usually referred to as the Hephaisteion, the building was previously called the Theseion, a name still in common use. It has also been proposed that the temple was dedicated to Eukleia (Artemis). The temple was richly decorated. Planting pits dating from the 3rd century B.C. show that the temple grounds were fully landscaped. In the 7th century A.D. it was converted to a Christian church.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Temple of Zeus and Athena

Site: Athens
Type: Temple
Summary: Small temple; on the west side of the Agora, between the Stoa of Zeus (Eleutherios) and the Temple of Apollo Patroos.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 338 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Simple cella with small altar in front; joined by a small wall to the Temple of Apollo Patroos and forming and architectural unit with it.

History:
The temple is dedicated to Zeus Phratrios and Athena Phratria. In the 2nd century B.C. a small porch was added.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Tholos

Site: Athens
Type: Tholos
Summary: Circular building; on the west side of the Agora, south of the Bouleuterion.
Date: ca. 465 B.C.
Period: Early Classical

Plan:
Circular building. Six interior columns for additional support of the roof. On the north side was a small annex that served as a kitchen.

History:
Often called the Skias (a type of sun hat) because of its conical roof. The Tholos served as a state dining room for the Prytaneis of the Boule (Council), and is located on the ruins of the earlier Prytanikon.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Athens, Triangular Shrine

Site: Athens
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Triangle-shaped open air sanctuary; located just outside the southwest corner of the Agora.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Classical

History:
The shrine may be dedicated to Hekate, whose sanctuaries are commonly found at crossroads.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Theater

Site: Athens
Type: Well
Summary: Circular well surrounded by a curb; north of the Leokoreion at the north end of the Agora.
Date: ca. 400 B.C.
Period: Classical

History:
The public well came into use about the same time as the Leokoreion was built and may have been part of the shrine. It has also been associated with the Athenian cavalry corps of the 3rd century B.C. due to lead tablets, each bearing the name and description of a cavalry mount, found during excavation. Perhaps the Hipparcheion, or office of the cavalry, was near here.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 10 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Site Catalog

Athens

Region: Attica
Periods: Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Modern
Type: Fortified city
Summary: Fortified city and center of a major city-state.

Physical Description:
   
Located in the center of a large plain, enclosed on all but S side by mountains, Athens is ca. 7 km inland from its seaport at Piraeus. The site has been continuously inhabited from Neolithic times to the present. The plateau and the slopes of the Acropolis hill were the area of earliest settlement and later became the religious center of the ancient city. S of the Acropolis, in the Ilissos district, were many sanctuaries and athletic establishments. N of the Acropolis is the Agora, the civic and social center of the ancient city and N of the Agora is the Kerameikos (the potters' quarter), the Sacred Gate (opening toward Eleusis) and, beyond the city walls, the cemetery. W of the Acropolis are the hills of the Areopagus (site of the most ancient court of Athens), the Pnyx (meeting place of the popular assembly), and the Hills of the Muses and the Nymphs. The NW quarter of the city was occupied by artisans and tradesmen and farther W the Long Walls linked Athens to the harbor city of Piraeus.
   Description: The natural defenses of the Acropolis, with fresh water springs at its base and a vista of the plain and distant coast, was a focus for prehistoric settlement, and by the Late Bronze Age a Mycenaean citadel occupied the summit. This citadel was one of the few Mycenaean centers to survive the upheavals and destruction of the later 13th century B.C. and may have served as a refuge for those fleeing other parts of the collapsing empire. According to tradition, Theseus, the king of Athens at this time (or somewhat later) unified the towns of Attica in the synoecism (amalgamation) and founded the first city-state of Athens. Although the city does not seem to have had a circuit wall until the 6th century B.C. (when it was built by Solon or Peisistratos), the 13th century citadel continued to serve the city and, in fact, these defenses were still in use at the time of the Persian invasion in 480 B.C. The Acropolis began its transformation into a purely religious area in 566 B.C. when Peisistratos instituted the festival and games of the Great Panathenaia and the great ramp and 1st temples were built on the Acropolis. Religious constructions, although interrupted by the Persian invasion, continued from the 6th century through the Roman period. Numerous sanctuaries, shrines and other buildings of religious character were established on the Acropolis slopes (where prior to the 6th century, habitations, shops, and cemeteries had been located). The Agora of Theseus' time was located on the NW slope of the Acropolis while the later Agora of Solon was placed to the N of the Areopagus. In the mid 6th century the Agora shifted to its 3rd and final location. After the Persian destruction of Athens and the Acropolis in 480 B.C., major rebuilding began under the archonship of Themistocles. A new and much extended wall was built around the city and the fortification of the Piraeus which had been initiated in 493 B.C. were completed. Under the rule of Pericles in the 5th century, the masterworks of the classical age were created on the Acropolis, and in the lower city. The Athenian city walls were destroyed by the Spartans in 404 B.C., but again rebuilt by Konon in 394 B.C. In 86 B.C. the walls of Athens and Piraeus were demolished by Sulla and the city remained unwalled until the time of Valerian (253-260 A.D.). The new walls included the new city which had been built by Hadrian. Valerian also re fortified the Acropolis. In spite of Valerian's fortifications of the city, Athens suffered a devastation by the Herulians in 267 A.D. After the Herulian destruction a smaller circuit wall (known as the Late Roman Wall) was built to the N of the Acropolis. The outer ancient circuit wall was repaired in Justinian's time and in use up to 1204 A.D. In 529 A.D. Justinian closed the internationally famous philosophical schools of Athens, but it retained its reputation as an intellectual center throughout the Byzantine period.
Exploration:
   
Excavations began after Independence in 1833 and continue almost without interruption to the present under Greek and foreign auspices.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 671 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Ancient temples

Athens Temples


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