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Listed 22 sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for destination: "ELEFSIS Ancient city ATTICA, WEST".


Archaeological sites (22)

Perseus Site Catalog

Eleusis

Region: Attica
Periods: Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age, Dark Age, Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: Panhellenic sanctuary of Demeter and Kore and center for the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Physical Description:
   
The city of Eleusis (birthplace of Aeschylus) is located 22 km W of Athens on a ridge above the bay of Eleusis and at the S side of a large plain. The site has been occupied since the Early Bronze Age and the acropolis fortified at least as early as the Late Bronze Age. The location commands the land routes from Athens to the Peloponnese and NW Greece. The sanctuary of Demeter is located within the city walls of Eleusis, occupying the area between the E slope of the acropolis and the E fortification wall, and is isolated from the rest of the city by a separate cross-wall at the NE. Within the sanctuary another cross-wall, breached by the Lesser Propylaia divides the N area of the priests' dwellings and administration buildings from the sacred inner peribolos. The main architectural features of the inner sanctuary are the Kallichoron or sacred well, the cave of Pluto adjacent to a triangular court and the Telesterion of Demeter (an almost square building that could seat 3000) where the secret initiation rites were completed and entrance to the uninitiated was forbidden on pain of death. An anaktoron or separate shrine was maintained within the Telesterion. From the outer sanctuary the Greater Propylaia opened onto the grand Sacred Way which joined the sanctuary to Athens.
Description:
   
According to tradition, Mycenaean Eleusis was the home of an early cult of Demeter and one of the 12 Attic cities to unite in the Synoecism formed by Theseus of Athens. Although the association with Demeter is not definite, remains of a Mycenaean shrine have indeed been found under the later sanctuary of the goddess. In the Geometric period (at ca. 750 B.C.) the earliest Telesterion (the building where the mysteries were conducted) was built. At ca. 600 B.C. a larger Telesterion, known as the Solonian was built and the Eleusinian Mysteries became a Panhellenic cult. In the 2nd half of the 6th century B.C., under the influence of Peisistratos and his sons, the size of the sanctuary doubled and new walls and an enlarged Telesterion were constructed. The Peisistratean Telesterion was destroyed during the Persian War. Kimon initiated reconstruction in 470 B.C., but his plans were never completed. The new Telesterion was built during the Periklean age in the 2nd half of the 5th century B.C. and the sanctuary became one of the most renowned in Greece. The fame of the Mysteries spread beyond the Greek borders. During the Peloponnesian War (431-404) the sanctuary was respected by the warring states. In the 2nd half of the 4th century the sanctuary of Demeter and the city of Eleusis increased in size to attain its greatest extend. The Roman Emperors favored the sanctuary and the city of Eleusis. When the Kostovoks burned the Telesterion of Perikles in 170 B.C., it was rebuilt and slightly enlarged by Marcus Aurelius. Many Roman officials (including Hadrian in 125 A.D.) were initiated into the Mysteries. The destruction of the sanctuary by the Visigoths in 396 A.D. and the anti-pagan decree of Theodosius ca. 390 A.D. ended religious activity at the sanctuary.
Exploration:
   
G. Wheler reported on the site in 1676. In 1811 the Dilettanti Society carried out the first excavation. The Greek Archaeological Society has excavated from 1882 to present.

Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 47 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Perseus Building Catalog

Eleusis, Bouleuterion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Council building; on the southwest corner of the 4th century B.C. wall of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Three main rooms, with semi-circular area in middle room.

History:
Probably 2 columns within the semi-circular area. Hellenistic building with successive alterations through Roman times.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Eschara

Site: Eleusis
Type: Altar
Summary: Ground altar; to the northeast outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, near the northwest corner of the Temple of Artemis Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.
Date: ca. 600 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Wall enclosing a rectangular open space. Eschara was a brick-lined pit covered with a metal grid.

History:
The pit was used to burn sacrifices and although the visible remains are Roman, excavation has revealed 6th century B.C. remains at the same location.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Fountainhouse

Site: Eleusis
Type: Fountainhouse Summary: Rectangular fountain; to the northeast outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south of the Temple of Artemis, Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.
Date: ca. A.D. 50 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Approached from the north by 3 steps into a U-shaped building with 6 columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Greater Propylon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate building; northeastern gate to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. A.D. 170 - A.D. 180
Period: Roman

Plan:
Doric hexastyle amphiprostyle building approached by 6 steps on the east. Continuing from the east, an Ionic inner colonnade of 6 columns divided the building into 3 aisles. Beyond, was a cross wall pierced by 5 doorways. The central passage between the columns and through the doors was wider than the side passages.

History:
Probably built by Marcus Aurelius on the same site as an earlier gate from the time of Kimon. It copied the central form of the Mnesiklean Propylaia in Athens.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Hiera Oikia

Site: Eleusis
Type: House
Summary: Many roomed house; west and outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, within the Precinct of the Hiera Oikia.
Date: ca. 700 B.C. - 600 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Irregular shape with almost apsidal west end . Entrance in the center of the southern wall to a long narrow room or court. Five rooms lined the northwestern wall.

History:
The Sacred House was probably dedicated to a hero, and though the building was destroyed in the 7th century B.C., cult activity continued in the precinct.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Hiera Oikia Precinct Wall

Site: Eleusis
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Trapezoidal wall; enclosing an area west and outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, surrounding the Hiera Oikia.
Date: ca. 600 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Entrance in the northeast wall.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, House of the Heralds

Site: Eleusis
Type: House
Summary: Many-roomed house; west of the Greater Propylon, in the northeast section of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Roman house with numerous rooms, surrounded by a wall of earlier date.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Hypostyle Silo

Site: Eleusis
Type: Silo
Summary: Storage silo; east of the Telesterion and within the Periclean wall of the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore.
Date: ca. 450 B.C. - 425 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Triangular building with 12 interior pillars arranged irregularly.

History:
Built by Pericles, also known as the Siroi. The first fruits of the harvest would have been stored here.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Kallichoron Well

Site: Eleusis
Type: Well
Summary: Circular well; near the eastern corner of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. 600 B.C. - 500 B.C.
Period: Archaic

History:
This is the well around which dances to Demeter and Kore were once performed, hence the name meaning Well of the Fair Dances.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Lesser Propylon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate building; proper entrance to the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. 60 B.C. - 10 B.C.
Period: Roman

Plan:
Ionic attached columns along 2 parallel walls enclosing a passage. Antae extended forward of the doors on the south. Two Corinthian columns supported roof of long vestibule. Inner end divided into 3 by short walls, parallel to exterior walls. Inner portico 2 Caryatids.

History:
This gate replaced an earlier Peisistratid gate at the same location.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Peisistratid Grain Silo

Site: Eleusis
Type: Silo
Summary: Oblong structure; west of the Greater Propylon, northwest and the Lesser Propylon.
Date: ca. 550 B.C. - 510 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Rectangular shape. Entrance in center of the southeast side facing the Lesser Propylon.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Plutonian Sanctuary Wall

Site: Eleusis
Type: Peribolos Wall
Summary: Triangular wall; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, next to the Lesser Propylon, on its western side.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Peribolos wall and small temple with cella and pronaos opening east.

History:
Sanctuary to Pluto-Hades, the wall encloses a cave through which Pluto brought Kore back from the underworld. The small temple is ca. 328 B.C., displacing an earlier one on the same location.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Prytaneion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Prytaneion
Summary: Group of rooms; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, northwest of the Greater Propylon.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Groups of rooms around courtyards, of varying size and all roughly rectangular.

History:
Served as housing for pilgrims to the sanctuary. The northwest corner is older than the rest of the structure, dating ca. 475 B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Roman Temple (B)

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple
Summary: Small temple; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, on a platform north of the Telesterion.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Cella opening southeast onto a pronaos with 4 columns in antis.

History:
May have been a temple to Sabina, wife of Hadrian.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Stepped Platform

Site: Eleusis
Type: Platform
Summary: Platform (with later tetrastyle in antis building), with L-shaped stepped approach; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, south beyond the Plutonian.
Date: Unknown

Plan:
Rectangular area with L-shaped stepped approach.

History:
In the inner sanctuary and overlooking the Sacred Way, the platform may have served as a place to observe the beginning of the pageant. At its southern end, just beyond the Unknown Treasury, was a high rock used for dedications.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Stoa of the Great Forecourt

Site: Eleusis
Type: Stoa
Summary: L-shaped stoa with rooms; northeast of the Greater Propylon, outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, bounding east and west sides of a court.
Date: ca. A.D. 100 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
L-shaped stoa opening southeast and southwest. Northwestern wing had 12 columns, 6 rooms behind. Southeastern wing with 14 columns and open southern end.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Telesterion

Site: Eleusis
Type: Hall
Summary: Large, nearly square hall with many columns; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, at the end of the paved Sacred Way.
Date: ca. 435 B.C. - 421 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Eight tiers of seats on 4 sides divided by openings for 2 entrances on each of 3 sides. A total of 42 superimposed columns arranged in a 6 x 7 pattern supported the opaioned roof. Directly below the opaion was a rectangular chamber.

History:
Serving as the initiation Hall and Temple for the Eleusinian Mysteries, the Telesterion was located on the same spot through many building enlargements. The interior chamber housed the hiera (sacred objects) and was known as the Anaktoron (Palace). In all renovations after the Archaic period this area remained unaltered. The earliest building traces on the site are of a Mycenaean megaron opening east. This was replaced by a Geometric building, and by Solon's time (ca. 600 B.C.) a rectangular hall, probably columned, running southwest-northeast had been built to accommodate a larger number of participants. The Anaktoron may have been separated from the rest of the building. There were other additions under Peisistratos, ca. 550-510 B.C., and Kimon, ca. 479-461 B.C. The Classical building (ca. 435 B.C.) by the architect Koroibos, was designed to hold large groups, up to 3000, to witness the ceremonial proceedings. In the 4th century B.C. a colonnaded porch was added to the southeastern side of the building and was known as the Stoa of Philon.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 15 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Temple in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple
Summary: Temple; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, on the northern end of the terrace north above the Telesterion.
Date: Unknown
Period: Roman

Plan:
Distyle in antis cella opening southwest onto a pronaos with 6 columns in antis.

History:
May have been a temple to Faustina, wife of Antoninus Pius.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Temple of Artemis and Poseidon

Site: Eleusis
Type: Temple Summary: Amphiprostyle temple; outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, in the courtyard northeast of the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. A.D. 100 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Cella opening southeast onto a pronaos. Four Doric columns at each end. Stepped platform.

History:
This temple is dedicated to Artemis Propylaia and Poseidon Pater.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Triumphal Arches

Site: Eleusis
Type: Arch
Summary: Two arches of identical plan; outside the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, in the southeastern and southwestern corners of the forecourt outside the Greater Propylon.
Date: ca. A.D. 130 - A.D. 200
Period: Roman

Plan:
Copies of Hadrian's Arch in Athens. Single wide arch with 2nd story of columns and entablature above. Corinthian columns on piers to either side of the arch opening (front and rear).

History:
Built by Antoninus Pius: one marking the end of the road from the harbor, the other the end of the road from Megara.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Eleusis, Unnamed Treasury

Site: Eleusis
Type: Treasury
Summary: Small temple-like building; in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, adjoining the southern end of the Stepped Platform.
Date: ca. 350 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
Single cella opening east, possibly with interior dividing screen.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


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