EL
Greek Travel Pages

Location information

Listed 100 (total found 125) sub titles with search on: Archaeological sites for wider area of: "TURKEY Country EUROPE" .


Archaeological sites (125)

SIDI (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient bridge

ADANA (Ancient city) TURKEY

TARSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient sanctuaries

DIDYMA (Ancient sanctuary) TURKEY

Didyma


EVROMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Temple of Zeus


LAVRANDA (Ancient sanctuary) TURKEY

Labradeus

Labradeus. A surname of Zeus at Labranda near Mylassa in Caria. The name was derived, according to Plutarch, from labrus, the Lydian term for a hatchet, which the statue of Zeus held in its hand, and which had been offered up by Arselis of Mylassa from the spoils of Candaules, king of Lydia


PERGAMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

XANTHOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

The sanctuary of Leto (Letoon)


Ancient temples

ANGYRA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancyranum Monumentum

    The monument at Ancyra (now Angora), a marble wall, of which the greater part is preserved. It belonged to the temple of Augustus at Ancyra, and contained the Latin text of a Greek translation of the report drawn up by that emperor himself on the actions of his reign (index rerum a se gestarum). By the terms of his will this report, engraved in bronze, was set up in front of his mausoleum at Rome, and copies were made of it for other temples of Augustus in the provinces.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


DIOKESARIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

KEDRIES (Ancient city) TURKEY

Apollo Pythius & Cedrieus

There are only the foundations of the temples.


KERAMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Dias Chryssaoreas


PERGAMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

SIDI (Ancient city) TURKEY

TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient theatres

AFRODISIAS (Ancient city) AYDIN

Theater of Aphrodisias

The Greek Theater in Aphrodisias, large enough to seat an audience of 10,000.


ASPENDOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

KEDRIES (Ancient city) TURKEY


MILITOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient tombs

ALIKARNASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Mausoleum, (Mausoleion)

   A splendid sepulchre at Halicarnassus, built in honour of King Mausolus of Caria, who died B.C. 353, by his wife Artemisia, and reckoned by the ancients one of the seven wonders of the world. It consisted of an oblong substructure surrounded by thirty-six columns, with a circuit of 440 feet, crowned by a pyramid diminishing by twenty-four steps to its summit, on which stood a marble quadriga, the work of Pythis. The height of the whole building, gorgeous with the most varied colours, was 140 feet. Satyrus and Pythius were the architects, and the sculptures on the four sides were executed by Scopas, Bryaxis, Timotheus, and Leochares. In the twelfth century after Christ the work was still in a good state of preservation; in succeeding centuries it fell to pieces more and more, until the Knights of St. John used it as a quarry from the time when they built their castle on the site of the old Greek acropolis in 1402, down to the repair of their fortifications in 1522, when they made lime of its marble sculptures. In 1845, a number of reliefs were extracted from the walls of the castle and placed in the British Museum. In 1857 the site was discovered by Newton, acting under a commission from the English government, and the sculptures thus unearthed, including the statue of Mausolus and important fragments of the marble quadriga, were removed to the British Museum.
    The Romans gave the name of Mausoleum to all sepulchres which approached that of Mausolus in size and grandeur of execution, as, for instance, (1) that erected by Augustus for himself and his family, the magnificence of which is attested by the still extant walls inclosing it, on the Via de' Pontefici in Rome; and (2) the sepulchre of Hadrian, which is in part preserved in the Castle of S. Angelo, a circular building of 220 feet in diameter and 72 feet high, resting on a square base, the sides of which are almost 100 yards long. It was originally covered with Parian marble, and profusely ornamented with colonnades and statues, and probably had a pyramid on the top.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


BELEVI (Village) TURKEY

GORDION (Ancient city) TURKEY

LYKIA (Ancient country) TURKEY

SELEFKIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

TELMISSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient towns

ALIKARNASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

ANTIOCHIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

ASPENDOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

DIOKESARIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

EFESSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

GORDION (Ancient city) TURKEY

HARRAN (Town) TURKEY

INOANDA (Ancient city) TURKEY

ISSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

MILITOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

MITROPOLIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

MYRA (Ancient city) TURKEY

PESSINOUS (Ancient city) TURKEY

PRIINI (Ancient city) TURKEY

SARDIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

SYLLION (Ancient city) TURKEY

TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY

XANTHOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

ZEVGMA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ancient walls

KEDRIES (Ancient city) TURKEY


Bouleuterion

ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Bouleuterion

Square structure at the northeastern corner of the Agora. According to its architectural morphology and typology, the building was probably erected during the first half of the 2nd century BC, when the city of Assos belonged to the kingdom of Pergamos. The architecture followed the standards of the classical period. The main facade, facing the Agora, consisted of five pillars between ante. The main hall was a plain square room with wooden seats along the three walls. Four massive ionic colunms, also arranged in a square, supported the roof. The Bouleuterion at Assos, along with those at Miletus, Athens, and Heracleia belongs to an innovative group of buildings with wide inner space covered by roofs resting on a reduced number of columns. Τhe foundation, the northern column of the facade, the bases of the inner columns and part of the superstructure are still preserved on the site today.


PRIINI (Ancient city) TURKEY

Excavations

EFESSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Austrian Archaeological Institute

Tel: +43 1 4277271-01, Fax: +43 1 4277 9271

GORDION (Ancient city) TURKEY

The Gordion Archaeological Project

Fifty years ago, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (UPM) began excavations at the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordion in central Turkey. Within six years, the expedition had made one of the most spectacular archaeological discoveries of the 20th century. In the largest burial mound at the site, they located what has since been identified as the tomb of Gordion's most famous son, King Midas.


LIMYRA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Austrian Archaeological Institute

Tel: +43 1 4277271-01, Fax: +43 1 4277 9271

SARDIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Harvard University and Cornell University


TROY (Ancient city) TURKEY

Project Troia

Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, USA


Links

ARYKANDA (Ancient city) TURKEY

New Excavation Season at Arycanda in Lycia


EGES (Ancient city) TURKEY

Bouleuterion

  Square building, at the north of the Agora, dating back to the 1st century BC. The entrance was on the south side, and the remains of the building suggest U-shaped rows of stone seats along the walls. Identification of the building as a bouleuterion is based on an inscription on an architrave, typically stating "Antifanis Apollonida Dii Bollaio kai Istia ollaio kai to damo", meaning that Antifanes, son of Apollonides, (dedicates) the building to Zeus Boulaios (patron of town-councils) and to Hestia Boulaia (patroness of the communal hearth) and to the Dimos (the assembly of the citizens). The main proof is the dedication to Hestia, whose cult, concerning public buildings, was mainly associated to the bouleuterion or the prytaneion, holding within the symbolic communal hearth

This text is cited June 2004 from the Foundation of the Hellenic World URL below.


HERAKLIA ON LATMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Latmos

Das Projekt wird von der Zentrale des Deutschen Archaologischen Instituts betreut


IASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

KRITOPOLIS (Ancient city) TURKEY

PERGAMOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Pergamon

The project is under the auspices of the Istanbul Section of the Deutsches Archaologisches Institut.


TURKEY (Country) EUROPE

Official pages

AYDIN (Province) TURKEY

Perseus Building Catalog

ALIKARNASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Halikarnassos, Maussolleion

Site: Halikarnassos
Type: Mausoleum
Summary: Monumental tomb structure with interior tomb chamber, tall podium, peristyle, and pyramidal roof.
Date: ca. 355 B.C. - 340 B.C.
Period: Late Classical

Plan:
The Maussolleion was rectangular in ground plan, and was designed to be situated in a walled temenos enclosure entered through a propylon in the east wall. Recent reconstructions of the tomb show a two- or three-stepped podium supporting a pteron of nine by eleven columns. The roof of the Maussolleion consisted of a pyramid of twenty-four steps, surmounted by a statue base supporting the crowning element of quadriga and statuary. The building was decorated with much free-standing and relief sculpture, carried out by Skopas, Bryaxis, Leochares and Timotheos, and was known as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

History:
The Maussolleion was the burial location of the Carian dynast Mausolus, who died in 353/2 B.C. Literary sources attribute the construction of the tomb to Mausolus' wife and sister Artemisia (Strabo 14.2.16; Pliny, NH 36.30). Since, however, Artemisia ruled for only two years after Mausolus' death and was dead herself by 351/0 B.C., this does not allow enough time for such a monumental undertaking, and suggests that the Maussolleion was begun during Mausolus' lifetime. The tomb also fits comfortably into the city plan of Halikarnassos, which may have been reshaped by Mausolus in the mid-fourth century B.C. The tomb was still incomplete when Artemisia died, and it is unclear who was responsible for completing it, although it is generally accepted that Mausolus' brother Idreus and Idreus' sister/wife Ada may have continued work on the Maussolleion after Artemisia's death. Some scholars believe that the Maussolleion, like the surrounding temenos wall and its propylon, was never finished; others have suggested that Alexander the Great contributed to the construction of the monument, although this seems unlikely given the nature of the structure and Alexander's animosity towards the citizens of Halikarnassos for their failure to support him. It is generally considered that construction of the tomb came to a standstill in ca. 340 B.C. The Maussolleion remained undamaged at least until the 12th c. A.D. By the early 15th c., however, it had been substantially destroyed, perhaps by an earthquake, and the Knights of St. John removed much of the building stones to construct the Castle of St. Peter nearby. In the sixteenth century, a burial chamber was discovered by the Knights as they sought additional building material. The site was excavated in 1857 by Charles Newton, who removed much of the sculpture to the British Museum. Excavation resumed under Danish direction in 1966.

Other Notes:
The sculptural display of the Maussolleion is restored as follows (in broad outline): on the lower parapet or step of the podium stood life-size groups and single figures representing fighting warriors on horseback and on foot; on the upper parapet of the podium were represented hunting scenes and a sacrificial procession. Crowning the podium was a marble relief frieze representing an Amazonomachy. In the intercolumniations of the cella were free-standing sculptures; a relief depicting a Centauromachy may have been placed at the top of the cella wall. Above the sima of the cella, on the lowest step of the pyramidal roof, were lions in confronting rows. The crowning element of the structure was a statue group consisting of a quadriga containing colossal figures of either Mausolus (in the guise of Helios?) and Artemisia, or representing ancestors of the dynast (for the interpretation, see Waywell 1978, 40-43). Architecturally, the Maussolleion displays affinities to Egyptian pyramids, not only in the form of its roof with definite apex, but also in its monumental scale; Egypt and Caria had long-standing connections. The tomb of the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great, at Pasargadae, a rectangular gabled tomb on a tall stepped substructure, is also cited as a possible influence on the Maussolleion. Close to home, the Nereid Monument at Xanthos (Lycia) and the Heroon of Perikles at Limyra (Lycia) may also have provided inspiration. The incorporation, however, of elements commonly found in Greek temple architecture, for example the Ionic pillars and relief friezes, suggests that the Greek sculptors and craftsmen who worked on the Maussolleion were trained in the area of religious architecture, and that precedents for such a monumental tomb structure were few.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


ASSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Assos, Bouleuterion

Site: Assos
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Doric council house; located at the east end of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Square building with front wall opening west, 5 columns in antis and 4 inner columns arranged in a square.

History:
Dated 3rd century B.C. to 2nd century B.C.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 4 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Fortifications

Site: Assos
Type: Fortification
Summary: Well-preserved Hellenistic system of walls and towers
Date: Unknown
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
The fortifications of Assos enclosed an area of some 55 ha., including the acropolis and the harbor of the city. Two major gateways and seven smaller gates led into the city. One round and many square towers, some still standing to a height of up to 20 m., defended the circuit walls.

History:
The standing portions of the city walls mostly date to the Hellenistic period, but earlier phases are visible in places; some of these probably date back to the Archaic period.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 42 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Gymnasium

Site: Assos
Type: Gymnasium
Summary: Colonnaded courtyard with rooms; inside the main city gate immediately to the east, between the propylon and the agora.
Date: ca. 200 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Paved courtyard with Doric colonnade. Three rooms adjoining on northeast and a 4th room touching the easternmost of the 3 rooms on its eastern corner. Cistern in southwest corner. Entrance on south of courtyard. Attached triangular court outside of south wall.

History:
Columns of courtyard had no entasis. Remains of Byzantine church in northwest corner of the colonnade, with apse showing on the east.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 5 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, North Stoa (Lower Story)

Site: Assos
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-storied Doric stoa; on the north side of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Exterior and interior colonnade of unfluted Doric columns in both stories. Exterior colonnade of upper story composed of double half-columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, South Stoa

Site: Assos
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa; on the south side of the agora.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
(The plan accompanying this card is of the agora level.) First story (lowest), cisterns; 2nd, 13 shops opening south onto a gallery; 3rd, two-aisled gallery; 4th, (agora level) two-aisled with a Doric outer colonnade, opened north; fifth story, two-aisled with Doric outer colonnade of double half-columns and inner colonnade with palm-capitals.

History:
Coulton lists the 5 levels described above in Plan description. Akurgal and PECS cite this stoa as three-storied.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Temple in the Agora

Site: Assos
Type: Temple
Summary: Small prostyle temple; located at the west end of the agora, midway between the North and South stoas.
Date: ca. 200 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Cella opening east, onto a pronaos having 4 prostyle columns.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Temple of Athena

Site: Assos
Type: Temple
Summary: Peripteral temple; on the city acropolis, north of the agora.
Date: ca. 540 B.C. - 530 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
Doric peripteral temple, 6 x 13 columns. Cella opening east onto a pronaos distyle in antis.

History:
The architrave was decorated with a frieze, adding to the Doric order a feature usually seen only in the Ionic order. Excavation in the cella revealed a pebble mosaic of Hellenistic date, but this is no longer visible.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Theater

Site: Assos
Type: Theater
Summary: Theater; on the slope to the south of the agora.
Date: ca. 250 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Horseshoe shaped orchestra, cavea with 6 cunei (sectors) facing the stage building.

History:
In Hellenistic times a wooden fence in front of the 1st row of seats kept the audience off the orchestra. Probably in Roman times a low podium (top of the 2nd row of seats) and a parapet at orchestra level made the orchestra more of an arena.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Assos, Propylon

i>Site: Assos
Type: Gate
Summary: Gate; in the western city wall.
Date: ca. 400 B.C. - 300 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
Rectangular, opening northwest. Guard tower to the east.

History:
The fortifications of Assos are very well preserved, with the east guard tower of this gate missing only its battlements. Portions of early polygonal masonry remain in the mostly 4th century B.C. walls. A corbelled arch is used in the main gate, not a true arch as employed elsewhere at Assos.

This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 11 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


DIDYMA (Ancient sanctuary) TURKEY

Didyma, Archaic Temple of Apollo

Site: Didyma
Type: Temple
Summary: Oracular temple of Apollo located at Didyma in Ionia; foundations of two earlier phases of the temple located in the adyton of the Hellenistic Temple of Apollo at Didyma
Date: ca. 540 B.C. - 530 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
The plan of the first built structure at Didyma, the so-called sekos (Temple I) dating to ca. 700 B.C., consisted of a simple rectangular enclosure, open to the sky; the foundations of this sekos have been found within the adyton of the Hellenistic temple. The walls of the sekos were not parallel, but converged towards the east. No columns are associated with the earliest sekos, and its eastern extension is unknown. In the sixth century B.C., a naiskos or small shrine was constructed inside the sekos, towards the west (rear) wall; whether or not this naiskos was built before the construction of the archaic temple (Temple II), or was contemporary with Temple II is disputed. The plan of the archaic temple is uncertain, and a number of reconstructions have been proposed. Within the Hellenistic adyton were found the north, south and west foundation walls of the adyton of the second temple, Temple II. This archaic adyton was larger than the entire sekos of ca. 700 B.C. One reconstruction of the archaic temple Gruben 1963, fig. 1 proposed a dipteral temple on a two-stepped crepidoma, with 21 columns along the flanks, 9 across the rear, and 8 across the facade. The deep pronaos contained two rows of columns, with four columns in each row; a staircase led down to the long adyton, whose interior walls were articulated by eight projecting piers. Within the adyton, towards the west rear wall, stood the naiskos which Gruben reconstructs as distyle in antis. This naiskos and the archaic temple are reconstructed as being on axis with the archaic circular ash altar located to the east. Subsequent excavations, Drerup 1964, 364-367, have revealed that the adyton walls did not extend as far to the east as Gruben indicated, and thus the following reconstruction was proposed Tuchelt 1970, 203-205, Tuchelt 1973, fig. 3: a dipteral colonnade with 17 columns along the flanks, 9 across the rear, and 8 across the facade, surrounding a deep pronaos with two rows of four columns each, and an adyton, approached by a staircase from the pronaos. The interior walls of the adyton, being shorter than those imagined by Gruben, were thus articulated by only five projecting piers. In Tuchelt's reconstruction, the archaic temple is oriented on axis with the archaic circular altar ca. 40 m. to the east, whereas the naiskos, thought by Tuchelt to belong to Temple I, is out of alignment with Temple II and the archaic altar. A third reconstruction, Fehr 1972, 16-29, sees the archaic temple as containing some of the complexities apparent in the Hellenistic temple, in particular additional chambers and passages between the pronaos and the adyton. Fehr accepts the shorter crepidoma proposed by Tuchelt, but, employing a shorter interaxial intercolumniation, proposes a dipteral colonnade of 21 columns along the flanks and, as in the Hellenistic temple, 10 across both front and back. According to Fehr, the pronaos was five-aisled, with four rows of columns containing three in each row. Between the pronaos and the adyton was a complicated system of east chamber (in which stood two columns), transverse hallway with stairs leading to an upper floor, and an antechamber at the west, also containing two columns. Fehr also proposes that vaulted passages led from the pronaos to the adyton, the prototype for the Hellenistic arrangement.

History:
The earliest building phase at the temple site is represented by the fragmentary stretches of converging walls located within the Hellenistic adyton. These remains are interpreted as the foundations of a late geometric sekos or open enclosure, whose superstructure was of mudbrick, constructed ca. 700 B.C. In the early sixth century, a naiskos was built inside this sekos. The remains of this naiskos are interpreted as later than the exterior walls of the sekos, due to the use of a different construction technique (by Drerup 1964, 362-363 and Tuchelt 1970, 197-203). Drerup and Tuchelt therefore date the first naiskos to ca. 575 B.C. In ca. 540 B.C., a larger temple, the archaic temple (Temple II) was built; its adyton walls enclosed the entire late geometric sekos. Gruben 1963, 100-102 and Fehr 1972, 56-59 see the construction of the naiskos as contemporary with the archaic Temple II, at ca. 540 B.C. The archaic sanctuary and its oracle was under the control of a priestly tribe, the Branchidai, until it was destroyed by the Persians. Hdt. 6.19.2-3 attributes this destruction to Darius, in 494 B.C., while later writers, notably Strabo 14.1.5, attribute this destruction to Xerxes in 479 B.C. The earlier destruction date is generally accepted. After the Persian destruction, there is evidence of renewed building activity at the temple: anta capitals decorated with volutes in relief, and other architectural elements, may belong to altars erected in the adyton. This evidence may indicate that Didyma remained an active cult center throughout the fifth century B.C., although there is no evidence of oracular responses until the oracle was revived in ca. 331 B.C.

Other Notes:
The late geometric sekos was most probably erected around the sacred spring, which was located near the rear of the adyton, in the vicinity of the archaic and later Hellenistic naiskos. Architectural remains from the archaic temple indicate that the lower column drums of the east facade were decorated with marble female figures in relief, of archaic East Greek style, and perhaps reflecting the influence of the archaic Artemision at Ephesos (see Berlin Sk 1721 and Sk 1748 ). Fragments of Ionic capitals with convex channels were found; these supported a marble architrave. The corners of the architraves were decorated with running gorgons accompanied by recumbent lions. In the late sixth century B.C., the temple received a bronze cult image of Apollo made by the sculptor Kanachos. This statue probably stood in the naiskos of the temple, and was transported to Ecbatana after the Persian destruction.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 6 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Didyma, Hellenistic Temple of Apollo

Site: Didyma
Type: Temple
Summary: Monumental oracular temple of Apollo, situated in Milesian territory in Ionia and connected to Miletus by the Sacred Way.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - A.D. 200
Period: Hellenistic/Roman

Plan:
In plan, the temple presents a number of unusual features. It is a monumental, dipteral temple on a seven-stepped crepidoma, with decastyle facade and twenty-one columns along the flanks. The temple is oriented to the east; its pronaos is approached by a flight of fourteen steps between projecting low walls or wings. The temple has no opisthodomos; and its pronaos contains three rows of four columns each. A wall bars access to the cella (or adyton) from the pronaos; above the wall, a wide opening or window allowed the visitor to glimpse the naiskos in the interior of the cella. On the right and left sides of the west wall of the pronaos, doorways lead to two sloping, barrel-vaulted passageways. These passages or tunnels emerge on the third step of a monumental staircase. By descending this staircase, the visitor arrives in the cella; by ascending these twenty two steps, the visitor is brought back up to a room, the east chamber, situated between the pronaos and the cella. The east chamber was entered through three doors in its west wall, and contains two Corinthian columns which supported the roof of the chamber. Two staircases, at the north and south of the east chamber, perhaps led to the roof of this room. The cella or adyton was situated ca. 4 m. below the level of the east chamber, and was hypaethral. The cella walls were articulated by Ionic pilasters supported by a podium; there were nine along each side and three across the rear wall, in addition to the corner pilasters. Between the doors to the east chamber, on the east wall of the adyton, were two engaged Corinthian half-columns. Towards the rear (west) wall of the cella or adyton stood a small shrine or naiskos in the form of a tetrastyle prostyle temple of Ionic order, the location of the sacred spring of the oracle and possibly the home of the cult image of Apollo.

History:
Following the destruction of the archaic temple in 494 B.C., there are no records of oracular pronouncements for ca. 160 years, although the site may have remained an active cult center. In ca. 331 B.C. the oracle was revived and the planning of the new Hellenistic temple was begun. The design of the Hellenistic temple is attributed by Vitruvius to Paionios of Ephesos and Daphnis of Miletus (Vitr. 7. praef.16). Although the start date for the construction of the temple is disputed, inscriptions dating to ca. 299/98 B.C. indicate that Seleukos I Nikator, significant benefactor of the town of Miletus, had provided much funding for the construction of the new temple by that date; revenue from the east stoa of the South Market at Miletus , funded by Seleukos' son Antiochos, also contributed to the construction of the temple. In the early third century B.C., the cult image of Apollo which had been removed by the Persians was returned to Didyma from Ecbatana by Seleukos I Nikator (Paus. 1.16.3). Inscribed building accounts indicate that the elements of the temple which were completed prior to ca. 230 B.C. were the socle wall of the adyton, the naiskos, the vaulted passages to the adyton, and parts of the crepidoma. Prior to ca. 165 B.C., the pilasters in the adyton, the two staircases (known as labyrinths in the building accounts), doors and the main portal were completed. Also in the early years of the second century B.C., a stadium was erected to the south of the temple to accommodate games associated with the festival of Apollo Didymeus. That the temple itself was never completed is reported by Pausanias (Paus. 7.5.4), and is apparent from a number of unfinished columns at the site. The Emperor Gaius Caligula intended to complete the temple (Suet. Gaius 21). Certain elements of the temple, such as Ionic capital fragments, architrave fragments, corner capitals with busts of deities, and the frieze with Medusa heads, date to the second century A.D., and are witness to the intermittent periods of construction at the temple over the centuries. In A.D. 262/3 the temple was besieged by Goths, who failed to capture it. In the Byzantine period a basilica was constructed above the adyton. Later, the eastern part of the temple was converted into a fort. In 1493, an earthquake caused the collapse of all but three of the structure's columns.

Other Notes:
The monumental Temple of Apollo at Didyma contains numerous features worthy of note, ranging from the unusually elaborate treatment of various architectural elements, to certain complications of design which are interpreted in the light of the oracular function of the temple. The pilaster capitals of the interior walls of the adyton are varied in design, with an enclosed panel decorated with griffins, vertical palmettes, or acanthus foliage; these capitals probably date to the early second century B.C. Between the pilaster capitals ran a frieze of griffins and lyres, similarly dating to the second century B.C. The use of Corinthian engaged and free-standing columns in the adyton east wall and the east chamber is an example of the use of the Corinthian order to provide interior accents, and underscored the organic nature of much of the decoration of the temple. The bases of the two rows of ten columns across the east facade are treated in diverse ways, including dodecagonal bases with panels depicting Nereids and sea creatures or foliage; circular discs with meanders, laurel leaves, etc. These bases probably date to the second century A.D. The ceilings of the two staircases preserved in the east chamber are carved with a meander pattern, on which traces of red and blue paint can still be discerned. These meanders may have some connection with the function of the stairs, which are referred to as labyrinths in the building accounts. In spite of these complexities of design, the temple of Apollo at Didyma employed a system of proportions based on the standard interaxial spacing; measurements of the elevation were related to this interaxial proportion. Such a design principle may reflect the influence of such regular, ordered plans as that of the Temple of Athena at Priene .The high threshold of the opening in the pronaos is interpreted as a sort of stage from which the prophetess may have given oracular pronouncements. The low level of the interior of the adyton relative to the stylobate may have been dictated by the presence of the sacred spring in the adyton, an essential feature of the oracular cult. It is known that laurel groves grew in the open-air adyton, although eventually this area was also paved. An additional structure referred to in building accounts and no doubt connected with the oracle is the Chesmographion, also known as the Prophet's House. Although the exact location of this structure is not known, it stood within the temenos, and, as its name implies, may have been the site where oracular responses were written down. In seeking to explain the complexities of the design of the temple, scholars have seen the influence of Iranian palace architecture (Fehr 1972, 14-59) or Ptolemaic temples and residences (Parke 1986, 128, 131 n.31).

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 47 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


MILITOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Miletus, Bouleuterion

Site: Miletus
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Council house consisting of a rectangular hall with semi-circular rows of seats, a peristyle courtyard in front, and a propylon; located in the city center between the north agora and the south agora.
Date: ca. 175 B.C. - 164 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
The complex consists of three main elements: a propylon at the east facade, a rectangular courtyard with interior colonnade around its north, east and south sides, and the bouleuterion or council hall located at the west (rear) of the complex. The propylon had four prostyle Corinthian columns in front of antae; an additional two Corinthian columns, corresponding to the central two of the facade, stood in the Doric colonnade of the courtyard. The bouleuterion itself is a rectangular hall, oriented roughly north-south. It was entered via four doors from the courtyard to the east, and through two doorways in the west wall. Within the hall are eighteen rows of stone seats, slightly greater than a semi-circle. Four radiating flights of steps provide access to the seats from the orchestra area; additional stairs lead to the upper seats from the rear corners of the building. The seating capacity was ca. 1200-1500. Two pairs of Ionic columns on pedestals originally helped support the roof; later, wooden posts were added.

History:
The building complex is securely dated to the years 175 - 164 B.C., through the evidence of two dedication inscriptions preserved on the architrave of the bouleuterion itself and the architrave of the propylon. The inscription records that two brothers, Timarchos and Herakleides, dedicated the building, on behalf of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, to Apollo of Didyma, Hestia Bulaia and the demos of Miletus. Restorations and renovations to the bouleuterion include the following: an additional door added in the east wall; the restoration of the rows of seats and the extension of the rows to a horseshoe formation; and the erection of a structure in the center of the courtyard. These restorations probably date to the Augustan period. In the late empire, a mosaic floor was laid parallel to the east wall of the bouleuterion, and the courtyard was paved with marble slabs. In the center of the Doric courtyard is a monumental structure, most recently and convincingly interpreted as an altar, not a funerary monument Tuchelt 1975, 91-140. The altar has a socle carved with bucrania and garlands, a Corinthian colonnade in front of slabs carved with mythological scenes, and a central flight of steps, in the tradition of Hellenistic altars such as the Great Altar at Pergamon. The Miletus altar probably dates to the Augustan period, and is associated with the emergence of the Imperial cult in the east.

Other Notes:
The text of the inscription from the architrave of the propylon (more complete than that from the bouleuterion) is restored as follows: [TIMARCHO]SK[AIERAKLEIDE]SOIERAKLEIDOUUPERBAS[ILEOSA]NTIOCHOUEPIPHAN[OUSAPO]LLONIDIDUMEIKAIESTIAIBO[U]LAIAIKAITOIDEMOI "Timarchos and Herakleides, sons of Herakleides, (dedicated the building) on behalf of King Antiochus Epiphanes, to Apollo of Didyma, Hestia Bulaia, and the Demos." A number of inscriptions from the Hellenistic and Roman periods are preserved in the colonnade of the courtyard, and on the antae of the propylon: cf. Knackfuss 1908, 100-122. Fragments of two monumental marble tripods were found in the council chamber and in the courtyard; they may have stood in the two rear corners of the chamber, at the upper level. At the south end of the passageway inside the east wall of the bouleuterion is a small underground chamber covered with a heavy marble slab; the skeletons discovered inside it are probably later burials, and the excavators interpret the chamber as a treasury. The construction of a bouleuterion as an element of an architectural complex with a pronounced facade (the propylon) prefigures developments in Roman architecture. The use of the elaborate Corinthian capitals in the propylon suggests links with other Seleucid dedications in Asia Minor and elsewhere in the Hellenistic period: for example, the Temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens, the Temple of Apollo at Didyma, and the Temple of Zeus Olbios at Olba/Diokaisareia (located in the sphere of Seleucid influence).

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 8 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Delphinion

Site: Miletus
Type: Sanctuary
Summary: The sanctuary of Apollo Delphinios is a rectangular temenos enclosure bordered by two-aisled stoas at the north, east and south. The sanctuary is situated to the north-east of the North Market of Miletus, close to the Lion Harbor.
Date: ca. 340 B.C. - 320 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
In plan, the sanctuary consists of an open, rectangular temenos area with two-aisled stoas at the north, east and south. The north and south porticoes were bisected by a cross-wall. At the west, a wall with two doorways formed a boundary for the temenos; the wall was later replaced by another portico. Within the temenos are located semi-circular exedrae or votive benches, a round temple or monopteros dating to the Roman period, and a rectangular altar.

History:
Since the cult of Apollo Delphinios is Cretan in origin, it is assumed that a sanctuary existed at Miletus for the worship of Apollo Delphinios from the period of the earliest settlers. There is literary evidence for a Delphinion at Miletus in the sixth century B.C., Diogenes Laertius 1.29, although the earliest remains at the site of the present Delphinion date to the fifth century B.C., and the location and form of the archaic sanctuary are uncertain. The earliest preserved remains at the Delphinion are the rectangular altar with volute acroteria, and a number of marble round altars; these predate the Persian destruction of 494 B.C. It is thought that the round altars were collected from various locations and brought to the Delphinion at this time. In the fifth century B.C., when Miletus was rebuilt, the Delphinion took the form of a small rectangular enclosure of ca. 30 x 45 m., which was bordered by stoas at the north and south. Fragments of archaic building materials were reused. In the late fourth century B.C., the sanctuary was renovated and enlarged, expanding to the east and now measuring ca. 61 x 51 m. New two-aisled stoas with inner and outer colonnades of the Doric order were built at the north, east and south sides, while the west side was closed off with a wall. In the late Hellenistic period, the enclosure was made completely peristylar with the addition of a one-aisled stoa at the west. In the mid-second century A.D., a circular shrine or monopteros was constructed in the temenos, and the porticoes were altered to single-aisled colonnades with Corinthian capitals. A propylon was also erected in the middle of the west side.

Other Notes:
The annual Spring procession which went from Miletus to the Temple of Apollo at Didyma began at the Delphinion. The architectural form of the sanctuary, an open court, was appropriate for a gathering place and for the performance of sacrifices. The numerous inscriptions (dating from the archaic to the late Roman periods) preserved on the walls of the Delphinion indicate that the sanctuary also functioned as the city archive. For the inscriptions, see Kawerau and Rehm 1914, 162-406. One inscription Kawerau and Rehm 1914, no. 32 refers to the construction of a "new" portico; the inscription is dated to ca. 340-320 B.C. and thus not only provides a date for the construction of the Hellenistic porticoes but also indicates that an earlier portico (or porticoes) stood on the site.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Fortifications

Site: Miletus
Type: Fortification
Summary: A fortification wall containing curtains and towers, enclosing the classical city of Miletus within the peninsula north of the Kalabaktepe.
Date: ca. 411 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
The late-fifth century circuit wall, preserved in the east, is zig-zag in plan; it is unclear whether or not it contained towers. The southern cross wall, which forms the southern boundary of classical Miletus, consists of indented traces separated by square towers. There are eight curtains and nine square towers. The excavators postulate that beyond the southern cross wall, ditches and outworks further protected the wall, which ran across relatively open and level ground. To the east and west, the fortification wall continues in a north-south direction, punctuated by square towers and sections of indented trace. The fortification wall also protected the city at the north. In places, the city wall contains chambers interpreted either as storage rooms for artillery, or as guardrooms. Staircases at intervals on the interior of the wall led to the various levels of the towers, and to the parodos. Significant city structures, notably the theater and stadium, are built into the city wall at the west. At the eastern extension of the southern cross wall, a monumental gateway, the Sacred Gate, marked the entrance and exit of the Sacred Way to Didyma. This Sacred Gate, in both its early and late phases, consisted of an arcuated passageway flanked by monumental square towers. In the eastern stretch of wall is the second monumental gateway of Miletus, the Lion Gate.

History:
The history of the fortifications of Miletus is complex. A late Mycenaean wall, dating to pre-1000 B.C., has been detected near the Harbor by the Theater. Early fortifications protected the Kalabaktepe to the south of the peninsula of classical Miletus; these archaic walls may date to ca. 650 B.C., and were restored after ca. 550 B.C. The earliest circuit to enclose the classical city of Miletus is dated between 411 and 402 B.C., at which time the wall also was extended to the Kalabaktepe. The line of the first Sacred Gate reveals the line of the earliest circuit wall; it is unclear whether this earliest circuit contained towers, as at Priene, or not. The section of wall which is built into the theater predates ca. 300 B.C. The best-preserved section of the city wall of Miletus, the southern cross-wall, which protects the peninsula, was built in the Hellenistic period, in ca. 200-190 B.C. This section underwent a significant restoration, originally dated by von Gerkan 1935, 125 to ca. 88 B.C., but perhaps occurring as early as ca. 150 B.C. Winter 1971, 278. At ca. 200-190 B.C., a new Sacred Gate was built to the north of the old gate; its towers constituted the first towers in the southern cross wall. In the first and second centuries A.D., the necessity for a defensive wall was less great; however, alterations to the Sacred Gate continued, some of its rooms functioning as part of the city's water supply system. In the late third century A.D., incursions of invaders into Asia Minor led to the restoration of the city wall. A section of wall dating to the time of Justinian extends along the north of the Miletus,South Market . In the Byzantine period, sections of the wall were rebuilt, and a castle was constructed incorporating the upper levels of the theater.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, North Market

Site: Miletus
Type: Stoa
Summary: A rectangular level area in the middle of the peninsula of Miletus, near the Bay of Lions; gradually enclosed by stoas, forming a commercial center for the city.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - A.D. 160
Period: Hellenistic/Roman

Plan:
In plan, the North Market consists of a rectangular space enclosed at the north and west by an L-shaped stoa, and at the south and west by a second L-shaped stoa. Both stoas were one-aisled; the north stoa had rows of shops behind its north and west wings, while the south stoa had none. In the middle of the west wall of the Market stood a small building interpreted as a temple, with square cella, deep pronaos and four Ionic prostyle columns. An enclosing wall, built later, also ran along the east side of the Market, with a columnar gateway in the middle.

History:
The level area which the North Market occupies was set aside as a market location during the rebuilding of Miletus following the Persian destruction. The earliest building in the vicinity of the North Market is a rectangular structure built of gneiss, located to the south-west of the market. This may have functioned as the prytaneion in the fourth century B.C. In the late fourth century B.C., a long stoa was built to the north, near the harbor (the so-called Stoa by the Harbor). Probably at about the same date the first of the stoas of the North Market, the north L-shaped stoa, was constructed. Behind this one-aisled L-shaped stoa to the west was a peristyle court, which may have served as the first commercial market for the city and probably constitutes the earliest market court in the ancient world. There are no traces of building activity at the North Market in the third century B.C. In the mid-second century B.C., an additional L-shaped, one-aisled stoa was built, running along the south and west of the North Market. Thus the market was now enclosed by a horseshoe-shaped complex of stoas. In the mid-first century B.C. an enclosing wall with a central columnar gateway was built along the east of the North Market; previously this area had remained open. In the second century A.D. the east side of the North Market was more completely enclosed by means of a row of rooms, most likely shops. Also dating to the Roman period is the addition of an upper story to the south L-shaped stoa.

Other Notes:
A number of monuments from various periods were erected in the North Market: in the center are the poros foundations of a square structure, probably the Market Altar. In the north-west of the courtyard area are the foundations of an inscribed stele, the so-called "Blood Inscription," dating to the fifth century B.C., in which the overthrown oligarchs are proscribed (von Gerkan 1922, 100 no. 187).

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Poseidon Altar

Site: Miletus
Type: Altar
Summary: Rectangular altar building with projecting staircase leading to the altar terrace; located at the shore at ancient Cape Poseidon (modern Tekagac) south of Miletus and ca. 7 km. distant from Didyma.
Date: ca. 575 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
The altar building consists of two rectangular forms, the altar terrace itself and the adjoining staircase of six steps. The altar is oriented to the east, and the entrance via the staircase is at the west. The sacrificial altar itself stood on the altar terrace, close to the east wall.

History:
The altar was constructed in the first half of the sixth century B.C. Strabo records that it was built by Neleus, mythical founder of Miletus. Strabo 14.633. Although this is apocryphal, it probably indicates that a cult to Poseidon existed at the location since earliest times. The altar shows no evidence of restoration or reconstruction, and probably stood intact until the Byzantine period, when an earthquake may have damaged it extensively. Thereafter, the marble blocks of the superstructure were taken away, probably by sea, for reuse elsewhere.

Other Notes:
A round marble statue base of archaic form was found in the vicinity of the altar. Other small finds include coins, pottery fragments, and Hellenistic and Roman glass fragments, indicating that dedications were made at the altar over a number of centuries.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, South Market

Site: Miletus
Type: Stoa
Summary: Rectangular market area in center of city, south of the North Market and the Bouleuterion. Bordered at the east by a long portico, and at the north and south by two L-shaped stoas.
Date: ca. 280 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
In plan, the South Market is a large, rectangular space defined by stoas. At the east extends a long portico with three rows of rooms behind it; at the north is a two-aisled L-shaped stoa without additional rooms; and at the south, a second two-aisled L-shaped stoa with a single row of rooms behind the south wing.

History:
The planning of the South Market at Miletus dates to slightly later than the North Market at Miletus . The first structure built here was the long east portico with its three rows of shops; this building was most likely funded by Antiochos I in the early third century B.C. Sometime in the third or second century B.C. the two L-shaped stoas at the north and south were built, possibly in imitation of the L-shaped stoas of the North Market. The north L-shaped stoa appears to have been built before that in the south. The appearance of the South Market in the late Hellenistic period evolved gradually, in a similar manner to the North Market, and may not have been anticipated by fourth-century planners. Construction continued at the South Market throughout the Roman period, most notably with the erection of the monumental and elaborate Market Gate in the north-east corner. The Roman restorations to the South Market had the effect of reducing the area to a fully enclosed square, with the construction of gateways in the north-east and south-east connecting the stoas.

Other Notes:
The interpretation of the South Market as the political agora of Miletus is open to question, although statue bases of leading figures of the Hellenistic and Roman periods were erected in the colonnades of the east portico. The east portico is interpreted by the excavators as a shopping area, and may be the STOASTADIAIA"Stoa of a stade," referred to in an inscription from Didyma. In the north east corner of the South Market, underneath the location of the elaborate Market Gate dating to the second century A.D., are the remains of a double Corinthian portico dedicated to Laodike by the people of Miletus - probably Laodike II, wife of Antiochos II (261-246 B.C.) The building is probably a Hellenistic fountain house. The South Agora covered an area equivalent to twenty city blocks or insulae at the site, and was designed to conform to the grid pattern city plan.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Stadium

Site: Miletus
Type: Stadium
Summary: A rectangular stadium, without curved ends, located in the west of the peninsula of Miletus, to the south of the Harbor by the Theater.
Date: ca. 166 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
The stadium conforms to the grid of the city plan of Miletus, and is oriented east-west. The stadium consists of two rectangular blocks of seats which flank the central arena or running track. At the west is a distyle in antis propylon of Ionic order, on seven steps, built on axis with the stadium and linking it to an unexcavated building; at the east, a monumental double colonnade of eight monolithic Corinthian columns dates to the late Roman period.

History:
The stadium was constructed during the reign of Eumenes II, in the first half of the second century B.C. The unexcavated building to the west of the stadium is a gymnasium, tentatively named the Gymnasium of Eumenes II, connected to the stadium by a propylon; thus the stadium, propylon and gymnasium originally constituted a building complex dating to ca. 160 B.C. In the first century B.C., the northern parodos wall of the stadium was renovated, and at this time a second series of starting blocks was laid down at the east and west ends of the arena. In the Trajanic or Antonine period, the gymnasium at the west end of the stadium was restored, as was the propylon, and there were further renovations at the east end of the stadium, notably the staircase leading up to the rows of seats. In the third century A.D. a monumental double-colonnaded gateway with Corinthian columns was built across the east end of the stadium. In the sixth century A.D. the new fortifications of Miletus incorporated the stadium into their circuit.

Other Notes:
The fact that the stadium conforms to the grid plan of Miletus has led some scholars to conclude that when the city was newly laid out in ca. 479 B.C., space was already allocated for the stadium. The fact that the stadium was not constructed until the second century B.C., however, is clear from its building inscription, architectural details, and relationship to the gymnasium to the west. The stadium lacks the curved ends or sphendone typical of stadia of the Roman period, and is similar to the groundplans of the stadia at Olympia, Epidauros and Priene. Another similarity between the stadium at Miletus and the Stadium at Priene is the form and arrangement of the starting blocks or APHESIS, although their exact mechanism remains unclear.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Temple of Athena

Site: Miletus
Type: Temple
Summary: Peripteral Ionic temple in south-west of city, constructed on a terrace; unusual north-south orientation.
Date: ca. 480 B.C. - 450 B.C.
Period: Classical

Plan:
Only the foundations of the temple are preserved. Its reconstruction is, therefore, hypothetical, and is based on probable proportions and assumed relationship to the foundation walls, rather than on the evidence of preserved architectural elements. The most recent proposal restores the groundplan as follows: above a massive terraced structure stood the temple, with cella, deep pronaos, and peristyle of Ionic columns. The temple was distyle in antis, with a dipteral facade of eight columns, and fourteen columns along the flanks. The earlier reconstruction showing the temple as 6 x 10 with a tall podium and frontal steps (von Gerkan 1925) is probably incorrect.

History:
Finds in the area such as pottery, votives of bronze and terracotta, and bronze griffin protomes indicate that a sanctuary or cult center to Athena existed here from at least the archaic period, if not even earlier. Buildings of the Mycenaean and archaic period (houses?) are attested in the vicinity, but their relationship to the temple is unclear. In the archaic period (7th c. B.C.) a smaller temple to Athena was erected on the site, oriented east-west; this was destroyed when the newer temple was built. Sometime in the fifth century B.C., the second temple to Athena was built on the site, and its orientation was altered to conform to the new city plan. In the late Hellenistic period, a peristyle house was built adjacent to the temple peribolos at the west; in the Roman period, additions to this house encroached even further on the temple area. In the Hellenistic period the construction of the West Agora of Miletus, to the north of the Temple of Athena, imposed further boundaries on the temple area. In the Imperial period, shops or small workrooms were built to the east of the temple, and directly over the eastern temple two vaulted rooms were constructed. It is unlikely that the temple was still standing in the Roman Imperial period; it has been suggested that the temple was systematically destroyed to provide construction material for the buildings of the Roman period.Mallwitz 1975, 88.

Other Notes:
Although there is very little of the temple preserved beyond the foundations, Mallwitz's reconstruction of the temple as an Ionic pseudodipteral temple with dipteral facade, on a two- or three-stepped stylobate, seems much more convincing than von Gerkan's reconstruction of the temple with 6 x 10 columns and a frontal staircase. A podium temple with frontal steps would be unusual at this early date, whereas Mallwitz's reconstruction not only is supported by the proportions of the foundations, but also fits comfortably into the tradition of dipteral and pseudo-dipteral Ionic temple architecture in Asia Minor.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Temple on Kalabaktepe

Site: Miletus
Type: Temple
Summary: Small archaic temple, oriented to the south, located on the Kalabaktepe, north of the theater.
Date: ca. 525 B.C.
Period: Archaic

Plan:
The temple is distyle in antis.

History:
The temple dates to the archaic period, to the late 6th century B.C., and did not undergo later restorations.

Other Notes:
The terracotta simas of the pediment have an ovolo profile, painted alternately red and black with white darts; above the ovolo is a painted chevron and meander design, and below the ovolo is a painted astragal painted red and white with rectangular beads. The terracotta antefixes are molded with Medusa heads, lion's heads and lotus flowers in relief above a guilloche design.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Miletus, Theater

Site: Miletus
Type: Theater
Summary: Theater with horseshoe-shaped cavea, and stage-building of many different periods; built into a hill between the Bay of Lions and the Theater Harbor.
Date: ca. 300 B.C. - 133 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic/Roman

Plan:
The cavea of the theater originally consisted of three tiers each containing twenty rows of seats; the lowest tier is divided into five cunei or wedges by stairs, the second tier into ten wedges, and the upper tier had twenty wedges. This uppermost tier was destroyed with the construction of a mediaeval citadel in this location. The stage building underwent numerous transformations from the fourth century B.C. to the late third century A.D.; a significant feature of the plan of the theater is the incorporation of the rear wall of the stage building into the circuit of the city walls.

History:
The stage building and the cavea of the theater underwent significant transformations over time. Although the preserved remains date to the Roman period, the Hellenistic phases of construction are understood. Four phases of construction of the Hellenistic stage building have been recognized. The earliest skene, dating to ca. 300 B.C., was built along the line of the city wall. This skene may have had an upper story or episcenium, but had no central door in its lower story, only two flanking doors. There is no archaeological evidence for a proscenium for this first stage building, but the excavators propose a proscenium articulated with Doric half-columns and pilasters, via analogy with the proscenium of the Theater at Priene . Shortly after the construction of the first stage building (ca. 300-250 B.C.) alterations were carried out, resulting in a much longer skene. During this period, there were four doors in the lower story and three in the upper story. The proscenium at this phase is reconstructed as being wider than the stage building, and having a facade articulated by 16 columns, although this is hypothetical. The third phase of construction, dated by the excavators to sometime before the mid-second century B.C., resulted in significant changes to the stage building: a central door was opened in the lower story, the entire skene was widened again through the addition of wings at left and right, and the facade of the upper story was opened up with the addition of wide doors or thyromata. This change was probably prompted by the alteration in dramatic action which occurred at this time; the Theater at Priene also experienced similar renovations to accommodate the demands of New Comedy. With the shift of action from the circular orchestra to the roof of the stage building, the facade of the upper story of the stage building became the backdrop for the action. Five large doorways or thyromata were opened up in this third phase; these doors were the location of stage scenery, and allowed the actors to enter and exit. Wooden stairs at left and right allowed access to this upper level. There is no direct evidence for alteration of the proscenium of the third stage - the existing proscenium may have been widened to accord with the greater dimensions of the stage building. The final Hellenistic stage building was probably necessitated by the need to provide an adequate logeion. Again, the entire stage building was widened. Only the central doorway of the lower story was left open; the others were filled in, making the chambers of the lower story inaccessible and emphasizing their function now as only the substruction for the more important upper story. Stone steps which led up to the logeion, and which were originally thought to belong to the fourth construction phase, are now known to date to the Roman period. The basic outline of the seats in the lower tiers of the cavea is thought to date to the Hellenistic period, although little is preserved of the Hellenistic cavea. In the Flavian period and again in the late second century A.D. the stage building was further elaborated.

Other Notes:
The theater in its Roman phase represented one of the largest in Asia Minor, with a seating capacity for ca. 15,000 people. Sculptural decoration from the Hellenistic theater, possibly from the second skene, includes relief blocks carved with Macedonian shields and other weapons. A frieze depicting hunting erotes is ascribed to the School of Aphrodisias, and is dated to the third century A.D.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 23 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


PRIINI (Ancient city) TURKEY

Priene, Acropolis Fortifications

Site: Priene
Type: Fortification
Summary: Continuation of city wall circuit at north, east and west of acropolis, with towers.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 340 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
The acropolis fortification wall uses straight stretches of curtain, not the saw-toothed design of the lower fortification walls. Square towers project at intervals along the exterior of the wall. In the north of the acropolis, a gateway is protected by flanking walls and hollow, two-storied towers.

History:
Like the fortifications of the lower city, the acropolis fortifications date back to the city's foundation in the mid-fourth century B.C. A round tower at the northern extension of the acropolis dates to the Byzantine period.

Other Notes:
The acropolis fortifications contain four hollow, inhabitable towers which served as living quarters for the guard; an inscription indicates that the captain of the garrison may not leave his post on the acropolis for the entire period of his duty, one year.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 22 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Alexandreion

Site: Priene
Type: House or sanctuary
Summary: Large house-type structure with central courtyard, located in western section of city, in third housing quarter from west gate; site of possible cult.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
A central courtyard is bordered on north, east and south by rooms; the entrance is in the west wall. The northern room, containing a stone podium, is entered through a colonnaded pronaos and is two-aisled; three smaller rooms open onto the court in the east; in the south are two additional rooms, built above cellars.

History:
The basic plan of the complex may date back to the fourth century B.C. and may represent a substantial private dwelling which was subsequently converted into a sanctuary or cult center; or, it may have been planned as a sanctuary from the outset. Later construction phases are in evidence: the long northern room with central colonnade was divided into two by a cross-wall running north-south, and a second doorway was opened into this room. The mosaic floor of the northern room of the eastern row was obscured by later wall construction. The renovations and restorations probably date to the second century B.C.

Other Notes:
A 1.90 m. tall doorpost at the main entrance to the structure is inscribed with the following text: elache te hierosun[en:] Anaxidemos Apollon[iou:] eisinai eis [to] hiero hagno e[n] estheti leuk[ei.] "Anaxidemos, son of Apollonios, received the priesthood to enter the holy temple in white clothing." Inside the northern room, near the podium, were discovered a number of terracottas (bust of Cybele, Eros and female, bearded Herm) and marble figurines, including a bearded Herm and a bust of Alexander the Great. Also near the podium stood a marble offering table, in front of which a natural fissure in the bedrock forms a pit. This pit is interpreted as a sacrificial pit through analogy with that in the Sanctuary of Demeter. Architecturally, the entire complex in no way resembles a typical Greek sanctuary. This divergence from public cult architecture leads to the suggestion that the structure was essentially a private cult center. If it was initially a private house, it may have been the one in which Alexander the Great stayed when he spent some time in Priene in 334 B.C.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Altar of Athena

Site: Priene
Type: Altar
Summary: Rectangular altar located 12.35 m. east of the Temple of Athena, on axis with the temple.
Date: ca. 325 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
A low, rectangular altar standing on two steps; its sides were probably decorated with half-column pilasters between which are a series of low podia, supporting twenty relief panels. In the relief panels were carved draped female figures, almost certainly Muses, and a figure of Apollo Kitharoidos. The columns supported an entablature consisting of an architrave crowned by an ovolo and dentil, with cornice course of Ionic geison with ovolo crown, and finally a cyma recta. The relief panels and columns essentially formed a screen wall around the three sides of the altar platform on which the sacrifices took place.

History:
The history of the altar is difficult to reconstruct with certainty. The dating of the sculptures, based on stylistic considerations, has resulted in dates ranging from the late third century to the mid-second century B.C. There is general agreement that the altar is of later date than the temple itself, and the most recent analysis suggests that the altar reliefs were carved in the late third century B.C. The architectural style of the altar itself, however, is consistent with an earlier date, in the second half of the fourth century, leading some to conclude that the altar was planned at this time, but not actually executed until later. When the temple was rededicated to Athena and Augustus in the late first century B.C., this rededication was also recorded on the architrave of the altar.

Other Notes:
The altar was first discovered by Pullan and briefly described in his Antiquities of Ionia, IV (1881). The reconstruction of the altar as low and rectangular in form was first suggested by Schrader (1904); this reconstruction was challenged by Dorpfeld and von Gerkan (1924), who viewed the altar as similar in plan to the Great Altar at Pergamon. By analogy with the Pergamon monument, the Priene altar was thus dated to some time after the mid-second century B.C. Recent analysis of Pullan's excavation notes and photographs, and the discovery of additional relief fragments, has led Carter (1983) to confirm Schrader's initial reconstruction of the monument as a low altar. The Pergamon analogy is thus erroneous, and the style of the reliefs may also suggest an earlier date, that is, in the last quarter of the third century B.C.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 6 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Bouleuterion

Site: Priene
Type: Bouleuterion
Summary: Bouleuterion or meeting hall in center of city, next to the Prytaneion; oriented to the south.
Date: ca. 200 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Almost square in plan, the bouleuterion contains rows of seats on its west, north and east sides: 16 rows on the north, and ten each on the west and east. The south wall contains a rectangular niche or exedra with arched roof. Stepped aisles lead diagonally up to the rows of seats from the central floor area, or "orchestra," in which stands a marble altar. Regularly-spaced piers, six on each of the north, west and east sides, would have supported the wooden roof. The building was entered through doorways in the north, west, and south walls.

History:
Construction of the bouleuterion began in ca. 200 B.C. During a later phase of reconstruction, the span of the roof was judged to be too wide, and the piers were accordingly brought closer to the center. Buttresses were also added between the piers and the side walls. The building was destroyed - probably by fire - at some time during the Christian period; beyond the north-west corner of the bouleuterion, a small chapel was built, and traces of Christian burials were discovered near the north wall.

Other Notes:
The bouleuterion provided seating for 600-700 people, a large number considering the population of Priene. Thus it may have been an Ekklesiasterion, or meeting hall for the Assembly of citizens, rather than a bouleuterion or meeting hall for council members alone. The exedra in the south wall, with its arcuated lintel, also served as a light well for the bouleuterion; it is uncertain whether additional windows existed higher in the walls.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 39 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Fortification Walls

Site: Priene
Type: Fortification
Summary: Well-preserved fortification wall circuit with towers, enclosing the site and the acropolis hill in the north.
Date: ca. 350 B.C. - 340 B.C.
Period: Late Clas./Hell.

Plan:
In plan, the walls are of saw-tooth design, with square towers at intervals. The majority of the towers are solid, but there are hollow, two-storied towers which served as barracks for the guards. The wall includes in its circuit three city gates, the East Gate, West Gate, and South-East Gate. The East Gate, the main entrance to the city, was vaulted with a limestone arch and was reached from the outside by a long, paved ramp. Two curving walls inside the gate created a horseshoe-shaped court within which an attacking force would be trapped. The West Gate was also arched; no towers protected this gate, but the steep topography provided adequate defense. The South-East Gate was protected by a tower from which a defending force could fire on the enemy's unprotected right flank. In two locations in the lower city wall, and once on the acropolis, staircases are preserved which led to a defensive walkway.

History:
The construction of the fortifications at Priene is contemporary with the new foundation of the city in ca. 350 B.C.

Other Notes:
Built into the west facade of the South-East Gate is an inscription, contemporary with the construction of the wall, preserving the following text: hupnotheis Philios Kuprios genos exalaminos huios Aristonos Naolochon eiden onar thesmophorous te hagnas potnias em pharesi leokois: opsesi d' en trissais heroa tonde sebein enogon poleios phulakog choron t' apedeixan: hon heneka hidrusen tonde theio Philios. "When asleep, Philios Kyprios (of Cyprus?) of the Exalaminos family (?), son of Ariston of (?) Naolochos, saw in a dream holy reverend Thesmophoroi in white cloaks. And in three visions they ordered him to honor this hero of the guard of the city and they showed him the spot. Wherefore Philios established this sanctuary." The use of the saw-tooth wall design, combined with the contours of the land, would have compelled an attacking force to concentrate their attack on the projecting towers. The saw-tooth wall design is referred to by Philo 86.3 as PRIONOTE. The towers were not bonded into the wall, and thus, if they collapsed, they would not destroy the adjacent wall circuit. The presence of a tower at the proper left of the South-East Gate would have enabled a defending force to fire on the unprotected right flank of an approaching enemy force.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 14 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Lower Gymnasium

Site: Priene
Type: Gymnasium
Summary: Gymnasium adjacent to stadium, below center of city, inside southern city wall
Date: ca. 130 B.C. - 100 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
Square central palaestra surrounded by colonnades; double colonnade in north, leading to a row of at least five rooms; in the west, an additional row of four rooms and the monumental entrance to the complex. The colonnade in the north was two-storied.

History:
An inscription found in the North Stoa of Priene and dating to the mid-second century B.C. refers to the construction of a new gymnasium, the lower gymnasium. Funding for the new building was delayed until ca. 130 B.C., when two brothers, Moschion and Athenopolis, donated considerable funds for its construction. Graffiti of Republican date indicate that the gymnasium was still in use at this time. Unlike many Hellenistic gymnasia of Asia Minor, it was not converted into a bath building in the Roman Imperial period.

Other Notes:
Typologically, the lower gymnasium combines the characteristics of a simple, square palaestra surrounded by Doric colonnades, with characteristics reminiscent of agora architecture, here represented by the double colonnade in the north leading to the Ionic facade of the schoolroom or ephebeum. The lower gymnasium forms part of a complex together with the adjacent stadium, although there are differences in their level and orientation. In some respects the gymnasium at Priene accords with Vitruvius' description of a typical Greek palaestra, surrounded by colonnades to provide shelter from inclement weather, and with rooms for instruction, washing and philosophical discussion behind the colonnades.Vitr. De Arch. 5.11.1-2

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 3 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Propylon of Athena Sanctuary

Site: Priene
Type: Propylon
Summary: Monumental entrance to the Athena Sanctuary, oriented east-west; not aligned with central axis of temple.
Date: ca. 25 B.C. - A.D. 1
Period: Roman

Plan:
In the east, six steps lead from the street level to a courtyard articulated by tetrastyle porticoes at the front and rear; a transverse wall with central door crosses the west end of the propylon.

History:
The propylon belongs to a later date than the construction of the temple, probably to the period of Augustus, when interest in the Sanctuary was renewed with the rededication to Athena and Augustus. The structure was never completed - bosses remain on the columns of the west front and the paving was never smoothed.

Other Notes:
The propylon is not aligned with the central axis of the Temple but instead is situated slightly to the south, providing a visitor to the Sanctuary with a view of the south-east corner of the Altar and the Temple. Pilaster capitals decorated with acanthus decoration, once believed to have articulated the interior walls of the propylon, are now thought to have come from at least four free-standing pilaster monuments, which once supported bronze statues, and which stood between the south wall of the temple and the south stoa. One of the Ionic column capitals (now in the British Museum) preserves the compass marks used in designing the volute.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 2 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Prytaneion

Site: Priene
Type: Prytaneion
Summary: Meeting house and dining room for senate members, adjacent to bouleuterion, in center of city.
Date: ca. 180 B.C. - A.D. 150
Period: Hellenistic/Roman

Plan:
The building in its present state takes the form of a peristyle house: a rectangular structure with central paved, colonnaded courtyard surrounded by three small rooms on the north, two on the west and three on the south sides. The building was entered through a door in the north wall of the central room in the south row.

History:
The preserved remains date to the Roman Imperial period, but an older building existed on the site. Elements which belong to the earlier, Greek building are the walls of the three rooms in the north, a stretch of east-west wall dividing the two rooms in the west, a short stretch of north-south wall in the south, and two very fragmentary walls in the east. It is uncertain whether the earlier structure had a central peristyle. A hearth in the south-east room is also identified as belonging to the Greek period.

Other Notes:
At the entrance to the southernmost room of the western row stands a reused column shaft carved with the following inscription: he lamprotate Prieneon Ionon polis kai <hek>r[atiste] boule kai to philosebaston sunedrion t<es> gerousias eteimesan kata ta pollakis hupo auton e<n k> oinoi di' hupo<mnem>aton logisthe<nt>a epi b<oul>lekkl<es>ion kai dia psephismaton hu<re>r hon epoi<es>ato dia ton archo<n per>ri t<e p>olin analomaton M[arkon] Aur[elion] Tatiano B tou Eusch<em>onos tou Pollionos to agoranomo[n] kai pa<ne>guriarchon tes Poliados theou Athenas kai prostat<en> tes theou kai archiprutanin kai boularchon to stephanephoron. eutucheite "The most brilliant city of the Ionian citizens of Priene and the most powerful Council and the most august Synhedrin of the elders in accordance with the things frequently received in (their?) accounts for...(council?) of the assemblies of the expenses of the city have honored M. Aur. Tatianus, the market official of the noble Pollion (?), the president of the festal assembly for the city's goddess Athena, the presiding officer of the goddess, the chief president, and the crowed president of the senate. May you prosper." In the north-west corner of the central courtyard stands a marble base or table (height 0.68 m.) and a simple marble basin. In the easternmost room of the south row of rooms was a hearth. The presence of these features, the location of the building next to the bouleuterion, the proximity of the Sacred Stoa, and the presence of the dedicatory inscription contribute to the interpretation of the structure as a prytaneion; it has been argued, however, that there is no incontrovertible evidence that this structure is indeed the prytaneion of Priene: evidence for dining facilities is lacking, for example, and the plan contains many features of domestic architecture perhaps inappropriate for a civic building. If the present structure is indeed a prytaneion, and if its earliest construction date is accepted as the early second century B.C., there must have been an earlier prytaneion at Priene: inscriptions dating to the fourth century B.C. refer to a prytaneion, and it is most unlikely that the fourth century city would have lacked this important structure.Miller 1978, 205-206, nos. 392-395.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


Priene, Sacred Stoa

Site: Priene
Type: Stoa
Summary: Two-aisled stoa located in the north of the agora in the center of the city.
Date: ca. 160 B.C. - 150 B.C.
Period: Hellenistic

Plan:
A two-aisled stoa facing south, with 15 rooms (shops) extending for ca. 76 m. from west end of stoa in the rear (north); closed side walls. 49 columns form the exterior colonnade, with 24 in the interior. A flight of six steps connects the stoa to the agora below.

History:
Although the market clearly constituted an early element of Priene's town plan, the Sacred Stoa itself was not built until the middle of the second century B.C. The form of the building which must have occupied this location before the construction of the Sacred Stoa is not known, although the excavators postulate that a shorter stoa, possibly equal in length to the stoa along the south of the agora, stood here, based on the following evidence: the rear (north) wall of the rooms of the Sacred Stoa is the earliest element of the structure, and may once have formed the rear wall of an older stoa without rear rooms. Furthermore, the eastern section of the flight of six steps connecting the agora to the level of the stoa is of later construction, containing reused blocks; this suggests that the original stoa which stood here was shorter than the Sacred Stoa, and that the staircase was extended when the longer Sacred Stoa was constructed. This reconstruction, postulating an earlier structure, has been rejected by one scholar, Miller 1978, 123-124, who argues that the Sacred Stoa itself may well date to the fourth century B.C. The new stoa of the second century B.C., in its extended form, would have concealed the facades of the Bouleuterion and Prytaneion to the east. In the Imperial period, one of the rear rooms was probably dedicated to the cult of Roma.

Other Notes:
A fragmentary text inscribed on the architrave of the exterior colonnade refers to the donor of the building: [-- BASIL]EOS ARI[ARATHOU --] The text was restored by the excavators as follows: basileus Orophernes basil]eos Ari[arathou... "King Orophernes, son of King Ariarathes...." In this reading, the Cappadocian ruler Orophernes, significant benefactor of other structures at Priene (including notably the cult statue of the Temple of Athena) would have been responsible for the construction of the Sacred Stoa in ca. 155 B.C. An alternative restoration of the inscription is as follows: [huper basil]eos Ari[arathou Epiphanous kai Philopatoros] restoring as the benefactor of the stoa Ariarathes VI, and providing a terminus post quem of ca. 130 B.C. Some have suggested, however, that the inscription may not belong to the stoa, and furthermore that the block on which it is inscribed may not be an architrave, but rather a statue base: Miller 1978, 122-23. Miller would prefer to date the Sacred Stoa, and indeed the entire insula of which it forms a part, to the fourth century B.C. The title of the building is derived from an inscription carved on the west end wall: the inscription, of post-Mithradatic date, honors one Aulus Aemilius Zosimos and refers to the inscribing of the decree en tei hierai stoai tei en tei agorai "in the Sacred Stoa in the Agora," leading some scholars to suggest that one of the exedrae incorporated into the northern row of shops functioned as a cult center for Dea Roma already in the second century B.C.

Sarah Cormack, ed.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 25 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.


You are able to search for more information in greater and/or surrounding areas by choosing one of the titles below and clicking on "more".

Ferry Departures
From

Copyright 1999-2019 International Publications Ltd.