The museum of the Minoan Civilisation par excellence owes its foundation to the leading figures of Minoan Archaeology,
I. Chatzidakis and S. Xanthoudides. The first building that housed the antiquities of the island was constructed between 1904-1912
on the ruins of the erstwhile renowned Venetian monastery of Saint Francis, next to the Chounkiar Mosque. The museum building, a
typical example of the 19th century neoclassical architecture, was designed by the German architect W. Doerpfeld and the then General
Secretary of the Athens Archaeological Society P. Kavadias. The construction of the contemporary museum began in 1937, but it was
interrupted by the Second World War, when priority shifted to the rescuing of the antiquities. The museum finally opened in the early `50s
and by 1964 the first major extension of the building had been already completed. Currently a large-scale renovation is in progress and the
operation of the museum has been temporarily suspended. However, a special exhibition hall has been formed, where visitors may see the
most important artifacts of the museum collections.
In the Museum of Heraklion were housed the findings of the major excavations conducted in the island since 1900, focused
initially on the palatial complexes. Moreover the museum collections were largely enriched with antiquities from all over Crete, as the
archaeological activity continued without interruption throughout the century, investigating settlements, cemeteries and sacred caves. Thus
the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion hosts today the largest and most significant collection of Minoan antiquities worldwide. The exhibits
outline the history and the most important aspects of the Cretan civilization from the dawn of the Neolithic era in the 7th millenium BC until the
end of the Roman antiquity in the 4th century AD.
Among the most important exhibits of the Minoan Collection are:
The small snake goddess figurine.
Ca. 1600 BC. From the palace of Knossos.
Faience figurine of the chthonic Minoan deity. Typical features of these religious figurines are the upraised or stretched
arms wielding the crawling snakes, the thin-waisted bodice which left the breasts bare, and the characteristic, flounced
skirt with the apron. These figurines are outstanding examples of the neopalatial miniature sculpture.
Rock-crystal rhyton. Ca. 1500 BC.
From the palace of Zakros. Small ritual libation vessel.
The body is carved from a large core of rock-crystal and the handle is made of crystal beads threaded on a bronze wire.
This unique vessel was restored from hundreds of small fragments.
Rhyton in the shape of a bull's head.
1550-1500 BC. From the Small palace of Knossos. The
vessel is made of black steatite, the details of the head are incised, the eyes are inlaid with rock-crystal and jasper, the muzzle
is inlaid with white shell (mother-of-pearl) and the horns, now restored, were made of gilded wood. An outstanding example of
the skill of the Minoan lapidaries.
The Phaistos Disc. 17th century BC. From
the palace of Phaistos. Clay disc that bears on both sides
impressed with sealstones. The text runs in a spiral form starting from the edge towards the centre. The signs belong to an
ideographic and probably syllabic script, which has not yet been deciphered despite the numerous attempts over the years.
The "Bull-leaper’s fresco". Ca. 1550 BC.
From the palace of Knossos. The wall-painting bears a representation of the bull-leaping, a kind of contest or sport, probably of a
religious character, in which both men and women took part. A man is shown jumping over the back of a bull with a female figure
on each side. Numerous representations of this ritual sport are known in Minoan art, among them the
bull-leaper figurine, made of ivory and also
found in the palace of Knossos.
The golden ring from Isopata. 1600-1400 BC. It was
found in a tomb at Isopata, in the vicinity of Knossos. The golden
signet ring depicts women in ecstatic ritual dance, in a meadow with lilies. The smaller figure is considered to be a goddess descending
from the sky. On the ground, the signs of an eye and snakes can also be seen. A true masterpiece of Minoan goldwork.
The ring with a scene of tree worship. 1600-1500 BC.
From the necropolis of Phourni at Archanes. This golden signet ring was placed on the chest of a deceased woman. The iconography on
these artefacts is a valuable source of knowledge about the Minoan religion. The ring from Phourni bears on its tiny bezel a unique scene
of Minoan worship. At the centre is a strong-looking female figure, possibly a goddess or priestess, wearing an opulent dress and raising
her right hand in a gesture of benediction. This may be an epiphany of the Minoan goddess, also known from other similar representations.
To her left is a young vigorous man who touches or pulls out a tree from within a walled tripartite shrine. At the other end of the composition
is a second man who kneels in lamentation and holds an object, possibly a funerary pithos. This dramatic scene is interpreted as a
representation of the human life cycle, a basic feature of Minoan worship. A chrysalis, two butterflies, a sacred eye and a column of the
Egyptian god Osiris complete the composition.
The "Bee pendant". Ca. 1700 BC. From Chrysolakkos
of Malia. Golden jewel in the form of two bees or wasps which are depicted storing away a drop of honey in a comb. This is one of the most
famous Minoan artefacts. The technique of minute granulation, which allows fine details to be depicted, and the naturalistic style still compel
admiration today. A masterpiece of the Protopalatial Minoan jewelry.