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Greek & Roman Geography (ed. William Smith)


Alalkomenai (Strab., Paus.), Alalkomenion (Steph. B.), Eth. Alalkomenieus, Alalkomenaios, Alalkomenios. An ancient town in Boeotia, situated at the foot of Mt. Tilphossium, a little to the E. of Coroneia, and near the lake Copais. It was celebrated for the worship of Athena, who was said to have been born there, and who is hence called Alalcomeneis (Alalkomeneis) in Homer. The temple of the goddess stood, at a little distance from the town, on the Triton, a small stream flowing into the lake Copais. Beyond the modern village of Sulinari, the site of Alalcomenae, are some polygonal foundations, apparently those of a single building, which are probably remains of the peribolus of the temple. Both the town and the temple were plundered by Sulla, who carried off the statue of the goddess.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited May 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


  Helicon (Helikon), a mountain in Boeotia lying between lake Copais and the Corinthian gulf, and which may be regarded as a continuation of the range of Parnassus. It is celebrated as the favourite haunt of the Muses, to whom the epithet of Heliconian is frequently given by both the Greek and Roman poets (hai Helikoniai parthenoi, Pind. i. 7. 57; hai Helikoniades, Hes. Theog. 1; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 1008; Heliconiades, Lucret. iii. 1050; Heliconides, Pers. prooem. 4). Its poetical celebrity is owing to the fact of its having been the seat of the earliest school of poetry in Greece Proper; for at its foot was situated Ascra, the residence of Hesiod, the most eminent poet of this school.
  Helicon is a range of mountains with several summits, of which the loftiest is a round mountain now called Paleovuni. Helicon is described by Strabo as equal to Parnassus, both in height and circumference (ix. p. 409); but this is a mistake as far as height is concerned, since the loftiest summit of Helicon is barely 5000 feet high, while that of Parnassus is upwards of 8000 feet. Pausanias says that of all the mountains in Greece Helicon is the most fertile, and produces the greatest number of trees and shrubs, though none of a poisonous character, while several of them are useful in counteracting the bites of venomous serpents. (Paus. ix. 28.) There is, however, a considerable difference between the eastern and western sides of the mountain; for while the eastern slopes abounded in springs, groves, and fertile valleys, the western side was more rugged and less susceptible of cultivation. It was the eastern or Boeotian side of Helicon which was especially sacred to the Muses, and contained many objects connected with their worship, of which Pausanias has left us an account. On Helicon was a sacred grove of the Muses, to which Pausanias ascended from Ascra. On the left of the road, before reaching the grove of the Muses, was the celebrated fountain of Aganippe (Aganippe), which was believed to inspire those who drank of it, and from which the Muses were called Aganippides. (Paus. ix. 25. § 5; Catull lxi. 26; Virg. Ecl. x. 12.)
  Placing Ascra at Pyrguaki, there is little doubt that Aganippe is the fountain which issues from the left bank of the torrent, flowing midway between Paleo-panaghia and Pyrgaki. Around this fountain Leake observed numerous squared blocks, and in the neighbouring fields stones and remains or habitations. The position of the Grove of the Muses is fixed at St. Nicholas by an inscription which Leake discovered there relating to the Museia, of games of the Muses, which were celebrated there under the presidency of the Thespians. (Paus. ix. 31. § 3.) St. Nicholas is a church and small convent beautifully situated in a theatre-shaped hollow at the foot of Mt. Marandali, which is one of the summits of Helicon. In the time of Pausanias the grove of the Muses contained a larger number of statues than any other place in Boeotia; and this writer has given an account of many of them. The statues of the Muses were removed by Constantine from this place to his new capital, where they were destroyed by fire in A.D. 404. (Euseb. Vit. Const. iii. 54; Sozom. ii. 5; Zosim. ii. 21, v. 24, quoted by Leake.)
  Twenty stadia above the Grove of the Muses was the fountain Hippocrene (Hippokrene), which was said to have been produced by the horse Pegasus striking the ground with his feet. (Paus. ix. 31. § 3; Strab. ix. p. 410.) Hippocrene was probably at Makarioitissa, which is noted for a fine spring of water, although, as Leake remarks, the twenty stadia of Pausanias accord better with the direct distance than with that by the road. The two fountains of Aganippe and Hippocrene supplied the streams called Olmeius and Permessus, which, after uniting their waters, flowed by Haliartus into the lake Copais. (Hes. Theog. 5, seq.; see Boeotia, p. 413, a.)
  Another part of Helicon, also sacred to the Muses, bore the name of Mount Leibethrium (Leibethrion). It is described by Pausanias (ix. 34. § 4) as distant 40 stadia from Coroneia, and is therefore probably the mountain of Zagara, which is completely separated from the great heights of Helicon by an elevated valley, in which are two villages named Zagara, and above them, on the rugged mountain, a monastery; This is Leake's opinion; but Dodwell and Gell identify it with Granitza, which is, however, more probably Laphystium. On Mount Leibethrium there were statues of the Muses and of the Leibethrian nymphs, and two fountains called Leibethrias and Petra, resembling the breasts of a woman, and pouring forth water like milk. (Paus. ix. 34. § 4.) There was a grotto of the Leibethrian nymphs. (Strab. ix. p. 410, x. p. 471; Serv. ad Virg. Ecl vii. 21.) (See Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. pp. 141, 205, 489-500, 526.)

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited September 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KORONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
  Koroneia: Eth. Koroneus, the name...derived from korone, a hill. A town of Boeotia, and a member of the Boeotian league, is described by Strabo as situated upon a height near Mt. Helicon. Its territory was called Koroneiake. (Strab. ix.) The town stood upon an insulated hill at the entrance of a valley leading southwards to Mt. Helicon, the principal summit of which is seen at the head of the valley. From this hill there is a fine view over the lake Copais, and at its foot there is a broad plain extending as far as the marshes of the lake. On either side of the hill flowed two streams, one on the eastern or right hand side, called Coralius or Cuarius, and the other on the left, named Phalarus: a tributary of the latter was the Isomantus or Hoplias. Coroneia is said to have been founded by the Boeotians from Arne in Thessaly, after they had been driven out of their original homes by the Thessalians; and they appear to have called it Coroneia after the Thessalian town of this name. At the same time they built in the plain in front of the city a temple of Athena Itonica, also named after the one in Thessaly, and likewise gave to the river which flowed by the temple the name of Cuarius or Curalius, after the Thessalian river. In this temple was held the festival of the Pamboeotia, which was common to all the Boeotians. (Strab. ix.; Paus. ix. 34. § 1.) The Thessalian origin of Coroneia is also attested by Pausanias, who ascribes its foundation, as well as that of Haliartus, to Athamas and his descendants, who came from Thessaly (ix. 34. § 7, seq.).
  Coroneia is mentioned by Homer in conjunction with Haliartus. (Il. ii. 503.) In historical times several important battles were fought in the plain in front of the town. It was here that the Athenians under Tolmides were defeated by the Boeotians in B.C. 447, in consequence of which defeat the Athenians lost the sovereignty which they had for some years exercised over Boeotia. (Thuc. i. 113.) The plain of Coroneia was also the scene of the victory gained by Agesilaus over the Thebans and their allies in B.C. 394. (Xen. Hell. iv. 3. 15, seq.; Plut. Ages. 17.) In the Sacred War Coroneia was twice taken by the Phocians under Onomarchus. (Diod. xvi, 35, 58.) Philip, after the conquest of the Phocians, gave up the town to the Thebans. (Dem. de Pac. p. 62, Philip. ii. p. 69.) Coroneia espoused the cause both of Philip and of Perseus in their wars with the Romans. (Polyb. xx. 7, xxvii. 1, xxix. 6, a.; Liv. xxxiii. 29, xlii. 44, 67.)
  Pausanias says (ix. 34. § 3) that the most remarkable objects in Coroneia were altars of Hermes Epimelius and of the winds, and a little below them the temple of Hera. The principal remains of the ancient city are those of the theatre, of the temple of Hera, and of the agora. The coins of Coroneia are very rare. The one annexed is a hemidrachma, with the Boeotian shield on one side, and on the other a full-faced mask or Gorgonian head, with the epigraph graph KOPO.

This text is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks

Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities


   A famous mountain in Boeotia, near the Gulf of Corinth. It was sacred to Apollo and the Muses, who were thence called Heliconiades. This mountain was famed for the purity of its air, the abundance of its water, its fertile valleys, the density of its shades, and the beauty of the venerable trees which clothed its sides. On the summit was the grove of the Muses, where these divinities had their statues, and where also were statues of Apollo and Hermes, of Bacchus by Lysippus, of Orpheus, and of famous poets and musicians. A little below the grove was the fountain of Aganippe. The source Hippocrene was about twenty stadia above the grove. It is said to have burst forth when the horse Pegasus struck his hoof into the ground, whence its name, hippou krene. These two springs supplied two small rivers named Olmius and Permessus, which, after uniting their waters, flowed into the lake Copais, near Haliartus. The modern name of Helicon is Palaeovouni, and of Hippocrene, Kryopegadi, or "cold spring."

This extract is cited Sep 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


KORONIA (Ancient city) VIOTIA
   Koroneia. A town in Boeotia, southwest of Lake Copais, and a member of the Boeotian League. Here in B.C. 447, the Boeotians defeated the Athenians; and in B.C. 394, the allied Greeks were defeated by Agesilaus.



  Greek city of Boeotia, west of Thebes.
  In mythology, Coronea was the kingdom of Athamas, a son of Aeolus and grandson of Hellen. He was married three times and was involved in a lot of troubles with his successive wives, which inspired several tragedies in classical times.
  From his first wife Nephele, Athamas had a son named Phrixus and a daughter named Helle. But he later abandonned Nephele to marry Ino, one of the daughters of Cadmus, the founder of nearby Thebes. With Ino, Athamas had two sons, Learchus and Melicertes, yet Ino was jealous of the children he had had with Nephele and decided to get rid of them. She managed to induce a famine in the country and to make her husband believe that the oracle of Delphi required the sacrifice of Phrixus to end it. But while Phrixus was led to the altar, Nephele gave him a ram with a golden fleece offered her by Hermes, on which Phrixus and his sister Helle could fly away.
  When Athamas learned what Ino had done, he ordered that she be sacrificed in place of Phrixus. But then, Dionysus saved her by surrounding her in a cloud and struck Athamas with madness, so that he killed his own son Learchus. When she heard that, Ino took her other son Melicertes and jumped with him in the sea. After that, Athamas was exiled from Boeotia and seeked refuge in Thessalia, where he founded another city named Alos and married for the third time.
  It is in Coronea that a battle took place in 447 between the Athenians supporting democratic regimes in Boeotia and Boeotian oligarchs led by Thebes. Athens was defeated and Thebes was thus able to reconstruct the Boeotian Confederacy under its leadership.

Bernard Suzanne (page last updated 1999), ed.
This extract is cited July 2003 from the Plato and his dialogues URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks.

Orevatein WebPages

Perseus Project

Perseus Project index

Alalcomenae, Alalkomenae Alalkomenai


The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites

Sanctuary of the Muses, Mt. Helicon

  Situated in the upper valley of the Permessos (Archontitza) between Mt. Zagara and Mt. Marandali (Helikon) to the S and Mt. Koursara and Mt. Pyrgaki (Ascra) to the N, 8 km W of Thespiai. Formerly wooded, the valley was the alsos or Sacred Grove of the Muses; the sanctuary has been located around the Haghia Trias Chapel on the right bank of the Permessos. Underneath the walls of the Chapel of Haghia Trias, which stands on a terrace 50 m from the Permessos, was found the base of the Great Altar of the Muses (until 1954 mistakenly called "Temple of the Muses"). It faces E, is 5.80 m long and 9.80 m wide, and stands on two courses of white poros and one leveling course of conglomerate. The platform, built of well-bonded limestone blocks, was approached up a step on the W side; the altar covered two-thirds of its surface to the E. Forty m W of the altar the remains of a long N-S portico was discovered; it was open to the E and measured 96 x 10 m. The E colonnade (36 monolithic columns) was Ionic, the side colonnade, which supported the roof, Corinthian. Architectural fragments of this portico, of stone and terracotta, are in the Thebes Museum. N of the altar, on the left bank of the Permessos, a second portico was identified at least 48 m long. All these monuments date from the 3d c. B.C. at the earliest. Some 300 m SW of the great portico on the foothill of the mountain is a natural semicircular depression that marks the site of the theater. There were no stone tiers, but the seats in the proedria row were no doubt of marble. The skene, which was more than 7 m deep and erected on an artificial terrace, has collapsed; the proskenion, which was about 22 m wide and 3 m deep, was built on the ground; the limestone stylobate supported 12 Doric half-columns 2 m high, monolithic and engaged in square pilasters. There were many statues in the Valley of the Muses, some of the bases of which are in the Thebes Museum. Near the altar and the portico, possibly, was the great semicircle on which stood the statues of the nine Muses. The site has been excavated.

P. Roesch, ed.
This text is from: The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites, Princeton University Press 1976. Cited Jan 2003 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.

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