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Listed 8 sub titles with search on: Ancients' feasts, games and rituals for wider area of: "TURKEY Country EUROPE" .


Ancients' feasts, games and rituals (8)

Feast in honor of distinguished persons

VITHYNION (Ancient city) TURKEY

Antinoeia

Antinoeia, annual festivals and quinquennial games, which the Roman emperor Hadrian instituted in honour of his favourite, Antinous, after he was drowned in the Nile, or, according to others, had sacrificed himself for his sovereign, in a fit of religious fanaticism. The festivals were celebrated at Athens, Eleusis, in Bithynia, at Argos, and Mantineia, in which places he was worshipped as a god. Afterwards this festival appears to have been discontinued (Spart. Hadr., c. 14; Dio Cass. lxix. 10; Paus. viii. 9,4)


Festivals for gods and gods' deeds

PANIONION (Ancient sanctuary) TURKEY

Panionia

Panionia, the great national panegyris of the Ionians on Mount Mycale, near Priene and between Ephesus and Miletus (from which Grote conjectures that these towns were the primitive centre round which the other Ionian settlements gathered, forming gradually the confederation of twelve cities), where their national god Poseidon Heliconius had his sanctuary, called the Panionium (Herod. i. 148; Strabo, viii. p. 384; Paus. vii. 24, § 4). One of the principal objects of this national meeting was the common worship of Poseidon, to whom splendid sacrifices were offered on the occasion (Diodor. xv. 49). As chief priest for the conduct of the sacrifices, they always appointed a young man of Priene, with the title of king. But religious worship was not the only object for which they assembled at the Panionium; on certain emergencies, especially in case of any danger threatening their country, the Ionians discussed at these meetings political questions, and passed resolutions (Herod. i. 141, 170), as was usual at an amphictyonic panegyris [see Panegyris below].
Diodorus (xv. 49) says that in later times the Ionians used to hold their meeting in the neighbourhood of Ephesus instead of at Mycale. Strabo, on the other hand, who speaks of the Panionic panegyris as still held in his own time, not only does not mention any such change, but appears to imply that the panegyris was at all times held on the same spot, viz. on Mount Mycale. Diodorus therefore seems to consider the Ephesian panegyris (Ephesia) as having been instituted instead of the Panionia. But both panegyreis existed simultaneously, and were connected with the worship of two distinct divinities, as is clear from a comparison of two passages of Strabo, viii. p. 384, xiv. p. 639. The truth probably is that the more splendid festival of the Ephesia attracted a larger concourse than the real Panionia and threw it in later times into the shade; and although the old festival continued, yet as early as Thuc. iii. 104 the Ephesia was looked upon as the representative Pan-Ionic gathering.

This text is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Panionia. A great gathering (paneguris) of the Ionian peoples, held on Mount Mycale near Priene, and between Ephesus and Miletus. At this feast the national god Poseidon Heliconius, whose sanctuary at this place was called Panionium, was worshipped with magnificent sacrifices (Herod. i. 148; Pausan. vii. 24; Diod. xv. 49). The meetings had also a political colour, as when the assembled Ionians discussed dangers threatening their country and passed resolutions of general political importance (Herod. i. 141, 170).

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Panegyris, (paneguris) signifies a meeting or assembly of a whole people at fixed periods, varying in the different cases, for the purpose of worshipping at a common sanctuary. But the word is used in three ways:
1. For a meeting of the inhabitants of one particular town and its vicinity [EPHESIA];
2. For a meeting of the inhabitants of a whole district, a province, or of the whole body of people belonging to a particular tribe [CARNEIA, DELIA, PAMBOEOTIA, PANIONIA]; and
3. For great national meetings, as at the Olympic, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean games. Such in its origin also was the great Amphictyonic meeting, which assumed more political importance than other panegyreis.
Although, in all panegyreis which we know, the religious character forms the most prominent feature, the spectacles and amusements were the attraction to the larger number, nor were political discussions and resolutions excluded, though they were perhaps more a consequence of the presence of many persons than objects of the meeting. As regards their religious character, the panegyreis were real festivals in which prayers were performed, sacrifices offered, processions held, &c. The amusements comprehended the whole variety of games, gymnastic and musical contests, and entertainments. Every panegyris, moreover, was made by tradespeople a source of gain, and it may be presumed that such a meeting was never held without a fair, at which all sorts of things were exhibited for sale. (Paus. x. 32, § 9; Strabo, x. p. 486; Dio Chrysost. Orat. xxvii. p. 528.) In later times, when the love of gain had become stronger than religious feeling, the fairs appear to have become a more prominent characteristic of a panegyris than before; hence the Olympic games are called mercatus Olympiacus or ludi et mercatus Olympiorum. (Cic. Tusc. v. 3, 9; Justin. xiii. 5; Veil. Pat. i. 8.) Festive orations were also frequently addressed to a panegyris, whence they are called logoi panegurikoi. The Sophists made this the occasion for epideictic addresses (Quinctil. iii. 4, 14) to the assembled Greeks; as when Gorgias or Lysias at Olympia preached national unity. To the Greeks the speech of Peter the Hermit at Clermont would have been a panegyric. The Panegyricus of Isocrates, though it was probably never delivered, is an imaginary discourse of this kind. (See Jebb, Attic Orators, i. 203 f; ii. 150) In later times any oration in praise of a person was called panegyricus, as that of Pliny on the Emperor Trajan.

This text is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


PRIINI (Ancient city) TURKEY

Panionia

Panionia. A great gathering (paneguris) of the Ionian peoples, held on Mount Mycale near Priene, and between Ephesus and Miletus. At this feast the national god Poseidon Heliconius, whose sanctuary at this place was called Panionium, was worshipped with magnificent sacrifices ( Herod.i. 148; Pausan. vii. 24; Diod.xv. 49). The meetings had also a political colour, as when the assembled Ionians discussed dangers threatening their country and passed resolutions of general political importance ( Herod.i. 141Herod., 170).

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Panegyris (Paneguris). A name applied by the Greeks to any gathering of the whole people at a fixed period. Examples are the Panionia, the great national meetings on the occasion of the Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games; and in later times, the popular fairs, etc. On these occasions, besides other features, formal orations (logoi panegurikoi) were delivered


Games

ANTIOCHIA (Ancient city) TURKEY

Antioch Olympic Games

This festival was celebrated at Daphne, a small place 40 stadia from Antioch, where there was a large sacred grove watered by many fountains. The festival was originally called Daphnea, and was sacred to Apollo and Artemis (Strabo, xvi. p. 750; Athen. v. p. 194), but was called Olympia, after the inhabitants of Antioch had purchased from the Eleans, in A.D. 44, the privilege of celebrating Olympic games. It was not, however, regularly celebrated as an Olympic festival till the time of the Emperor Commodus. It commenced on the first day of the month Hyperberetaeus (October), with which the year of Antioch began. It was under the presidency of an Alytarches. The celebration of it was abolished by Justin, A.D. 521. The writings of Libanius, and of Chrysostom, the Christian Father, who lived many years at Antioch, gave various particulars respecting this festival.

This extract is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited July 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Links

EFESSOS (Ancient city) TURKEY

Ephesia (or Artemisia)

   (ta Ephesia). A great gathering of Ionians at Ephesus, the ancient capital of the Ionians in Asia. It was held every year, and had, like all panegyreis, a twofold character--that of a bond of political union among the Greeks of the Ionian race, and that of a common worship of the Ephesian Artemis. Thucydides compares it to the ancient Delia. Respecting the particulars of its celebration, we only know that it took place at night and was accompanied with much mirth and feasting, and that mystical sacrifices were offered to the Ephesian goddess. That games and contests formed likewise a chief part of the solemnities is clear from Hesychius, who calls the Ephesia an agon epiphanes. The drunken revelry described in the love-tale of Achilles Tatius is not mentioned by these authors.
    From the manner in which Thucydides and Strabo speak of the Ephesia, it seems that it was only a panegyris of a part of the Ionians, perhaps of those who lived in Ephesus itself and its vicinity.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


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