A three-handled water jar used for drawing water, as cinerary urns and as ballot boxes. Shape: It has a vertical handle at the back for dipping, carrying , or pouring, and two horizontal handles set on the sides for lifting. In size, hydriai correspond to amphorae. There are two distinct types of hydria: one where the neck is set off from the body, called a neck hydria; and the other where the neck and body form a continuous curve.
History: The tall slim version, called a loutrophoros-hydria, a ritual vessel, had a long and early history in Athens, but the more typical variety- the one with the globular body and cylindrical neck- appears to have been borrowed from Corinth in the early sixth century B.C. In Attica a modified version develops in the middle sixth century B.C.; the shoulder becomes progressively flatter, with the neck set off from the body, and this becomes the standard black-figure type. This style lasts into the second quarter of the fifth century B.C.
A related shape, the kalpis, is also commonly used to carry water. Vessels of this shape often appear in vase-painting, usually depicting women drawing water at a fountain-house (but this does not preclude their being used for other purposes). In a representation on the Francois vase (Troilos being pursued by Achilles) a jar of this shape, with its neck set off from the body, is inscribed "hydria". They were also used as cinerary urns, as attested by the cemetery at Hadra, near Alexandria, where many were found containing the ashes of the dead. They were also used as ballot boxes, into which names were placed.
Term: The name hydria is satisfactorily attested for this type of vessel, as is the name kalpis.
This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
Cited Sept 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 1 image & interesting hyperlinks.
Vitruvius Pollio, The Ten Books on Architecture (ed. Morris Hicky Morgan)
Much confusion has arisen from the fact that both Greeks and Romans use only one term for copper and for that mixture of copper and tin which we call bronze . . . The Delian was reckoned the more precious of these, but still more valuable was the hepatizon or liver-coloured bronze, and most valuable of all the Corinthian. With regard to the last-mentioned, a silly story was told that it was produced by a fortuitous [p. 34] mixture of melted metals on the occasion of the burning of Corinth by Mummius. Pliny sensibly remarks that this story is absurd, because most of the authors of the highly valued works in Corinthian bronze lived at a much earlier period. . .Of Corinthian bronze he distinguishes three kinds: in the first silver predominates, in the second gold, in the third the metals are balanced and harmonized. . .
In the fourth century B.C., owing to the change wrought in the Greek mind by the Peloponnesian War, in place of the pure and even tone of the preceding period, a desire for effect became more and more general, both in architecture and sculpture. The sober Doric style fell into abeyance and gave way to the Ionic, by the side of which a new order, the Corinthian, said to have been invented by the sculptor Callimachus, with its more gorgeous decorations, became increasingly fashionable. In the first half of the fourth century arose what the ancients considered the largest and grandest temple in the Peloponnesus, that of Athene at Tegea, a work of the sculptor and architect Scopas. During the middle of the century another of the "seven wonders", the splendid tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus, was constructed. Many magnificent temples arose in that time. In Asia Minor, the temple at Ephesus, burned down by Herostratus, was rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect Dinocrates. In the islands the ruins of the Temple of Athene at Priene, of Apollo at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others, even to this day offer a brilliant testimony to their former magnificence. Among Athenian buildings of that age the Monument of Lysicrates is conspicuous for its graceful elegance and elaborate development of the Corinthian style. In the succeeding age, Greek architecture shows its finest achievements in the building of theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns; in the gorgeous palaces of newly built royal capitals; and in general in the luxurious completeness of private buildings. As an important specimen of the last age of Attic architecture may also be mentioned the Tower of the Winds at Athens.
This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities
Cited Sept 2002 from Perseus Project URL below, which contains 6 images & interesting hyperlinks.
This extract is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited July 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
Many magnificent temples arose in that time. In Asia Minor, the temple at Ephesus, burned down by Herostratus, was rebuilt by Alexander's bold architect Dinocrates. In the islands the ruins of the Temple of Athene at Priene, of Apollo at Miletus, of Dionysus at Teos, and others, even to this day offer a brilliant testimony to their former magnificence. Among Athenian buildings of that age the Monument of Lysicrates is conspicuous for its graceful elegance and elaborate development of the Corinthian style. In the succeeding age, Greek architecture shows its finest achievements in the building of theatres, especially those of Asiatic towns; in the gorgeous palaces of newly built royal capitals; and in general in the luxurious completeness of private buildings. As an important specimen of the last age of Attic architecture may also be mentioned the Tower of the Winds at Athens.
is known from inscriptions of Corcyra and Syracuse, both colonies of Corinth.
Athletics and Mathematics in Archaic Corinth: the Origins of the Greek Stadion.
It has been already noticed that Corinth was one of the earliest seats
of Grecian art. (Strab. viii. p. 382.) It was in this city that painting was said
to have been invented by Ardicas, Cleophantus, and Cleanthes (Plin. xxxv. 5),
and at the time of its capture by the Romans it possessed some of the finest paintings
in Greece. Among these was the celebrated picture of Dionysus by Aristeides of
Thebes, for which Attalus offered the sum of 600,000 sesterces, and which was
afterwards exhibited at Rome in the temple of Ceres. (Strab. viii. p. 381; Plin.
xxxv. 8.) The numerous splendid temples which the wealth of the Corinthians enabled
them to erect gave an impulse to architecture; and the most elaborate order of
architecture was, as is well known, named after them. Statuary also flourished
at Corinth, which was particularly celebrated for its works in bronze; and the
name of Aes Corinthiacum was given to the finest kind of bronze. One of the earlier
works of Corinthian art, which retained its celebrity in later times, wag the
celebrated chest of Cypselus, made of cedar wood and adorned with figures. It
was dedicated at Olympia, where it was seen by Pausanias, who has given a minute
description of it (v. 17, seq.). The Corinthian vases of terra cotta were among
the finest in Greece; and such was their beauty, that all the cemeteries of the
city were ransacked by the colonists of Julius Caesar, who sent them to Rome,
where they fetched enormous prices. (Strab. viii. p. 381.)
In the time of Periander poetry likewise flourished at Corinth. It was here that Arion introduced those improvements into the dithyramb, which caused him to be regarded as its inventor, and which led Pindar to speak of Corinth as the city in which Mois hadupnoos anthei. (Herod. i. 23; Pind. Ol. xiii. 31.) Among the most ancient Cyclic poets we also find the names of Aeson, Eumelus, and Eumolpus, all of whom were natives of Corinth. But after the time of Periander little attention was paid to literature at Corinth; and among the illustrious writers of Greece not a single Corinthian appears. It is mentioned by Cicero that Corinth did not produce an orator (Brut. 13); and Deinarchus, the last and least important of the Attic orators, is no exception, since, though a native of Corinth, he was brought up at Athens, and practised his art in the latter city.
The wealth of the Corinthians gave rise to luxury and sensual indulgence. It was the most licentious city in all Greece; and the number of merchants who frequented it caused it to be the favourite resort of courtezans. The patron goddess of the city was Aphrodite, who had a splendid temple on the Acrocorinthus, where there were kept more than a thousand sacred female slaves (hierodouloi) for the service of strangers. (Strab. viii. p. 378.) Hence they are called by Pindar (Fragm. p. 244, Bergk) poluxenai neanides, amphipoloi Peithous en aphneioi Korinthoi. In no other city of Greece do we find this institution of Hieroduli as a regular part of the worship of Aphrodite; and there can be no doubt that it was introduced into Corinth by the Phoenicians. Many of the Corinthian courtezans, such as Lais, obtained such high sums as often to ruin the merchants who visited the city; whence arose the proverb (Strab. viii. p. 378):-- ou pantos andros es Korinthon esth ho plous: which Horace renders (Ep. i. 17. 36): -Non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum.
So celebrated were the Corinthian courtezans, that they gave rise to many other proverbial expressions. (Korinthiazesthai=mastropeuein e hetairein, Pollux, ix. 6. § 75; Korinthia kore, i. e. a courtezan, Plat. Rep. iii. p. 404, d.; so Korinthia pais, Poll. x. 7. § 25; Suidas, s. v. choiros; Muller, Dor. iv. 4. § 6.)
This extract is from: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) (ed. William Smith, LLD). Cited June 2004 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks
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