The area was first settled in the Prehistoric Period (site "Magoula
Balomenou"). It was subject to Orchomenos
up to the end of the 5th century B.C.: it then formed one of the 11 Boeotian districts
until 338 B.C. In te Roman era it was granted status of freedom.
The grave of the Thebans was excavated in 1879 and the Magoula Balomenou in 1902-4 by G.Soteriadis.
The most important monuments are: The Lion of Chaironeia, marble funerary monument (5,5 m. high) which marked the communal grave of the Sacred Band of Thebans that was crushed (338 B.C.) in the battle with Philip B' of Macedonia. It was discovered in 1818 in pieces and was restored on a plinth 3 m. high. Ancient theater, curved at the rock. The Acropolis with fortification walls of the hellenistic
period and ancient theatre with its cavea hewn in the rock.
The finds from the excavations at Chaironeia are exhibited in the local museum.