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Listed 24 sub titles with search on: History  for wider area of: "KEFALLINIA Prefecture IONIAN ISLANDS" .

History (24)


4000 BC Neolithic settlements on the island
1174 BC Ulysses’ arrival
1000 - 180 BC Dorian-Corinthian occupation
180 BC - 394 BC Roman occupation
394 - 1185 Byzantine period
1185 Normans occupy the island
1500 - 1797 Venetian occupation
1797 - 1798 French occupation
1809 - 1864 British "protection" period
21-5-1864 Eptanissa become part of the Greek State.
1953 Destructive earthquakes hit Ithaki

  Homer’s epics, the Odyssey in particular is believed to have been written in 1174 BC. In that year Ulysses arrived in Ithaki after his ten-year roaming. The exact spots mentioned in the Odyssey, where Ulysses went, such as the Nymphs’ Cave and Evmeos cave, can still be seen on the island. Ulysses, returning to Ithaki, reigned until his death and he was succeeded by his son, Telemachus.
  Ithaki was conquered by the Dorians fro 1000 BC to 800 BC. Then it was ruled by the Corinthians until 180 BC when the Romans seized the island.
  During antiquity, Ithaki was in a state of decadence despite the organised settlements.
  The Romans stayed on the island until 394 AD. Life did not change much for the local people. Most inhabitants remained in the northern part, which was the most fertile area.
  In 394 AD Ithaki together with Cephalonia became part of the Byzantine Empire. During that period Christianity was introduced and many churches and monasteries were built.
  In 1185 the island was conquered by the Normans. Firstly the Orsini family (1204) and later the Tokki family (1357) became Ithaki’s rulers. The island starts flourishing but the prosperity period was interrupted in 1476 when the Turks arrived looting the land and massacring the people. The Turks ruled the island until 1504 when it was sold to the Venetians.
  The Venetian occupation lasted until 1797. The settlements in Anogi, Exogi and Paleohora grew bigger and Vathi became the island’s capital. Ithaki’s life and economy flourished once more and the inhabitants’ occupations included agriculture and shipping. The disruption of Venice in 1797 brought the French on the island. For a short period Ithaki was ruled by the Russians and the Turks. Later the French re-conquered the island and in 1809 the British occupation begins.
  During British Occupation the independent "State of the Seven United Islands" was founded and it was ruled by the Ionian Parliament where Ithaki was represented by one member. The island’s economy was booming, the interest in Homer’s epics was great and social life was full of cultural events. The radical tide together with the international political conditions led to the union of Eptanissa with Greece on 21st May 1864.
  Despite being under British rule, Ithaki contributed to the Greek Revolution. A community of people from Ithaki was founded and developed in Rumania. In the 20th century new streets, buildings and an electricity power station built in Vathi in 1923 together with the development of the island’s economy, cultural and social life give to Ithaki the character of a modern island. In 1953 earthquakes hit the island and many of the old settlements ceased to exist. The state and many immigrants helped to rebuild most of the buildings.
This text (extract) is cited January 2004 from the Assoc. of Local Authorities of Kefalonia & Ithaca tourist pamphlet.

Benefactors of the place

Gaius Antonius

SAMI (Ancient city) KEFALLONIA
During his exile in the island of Cephalonia, he rebuilt Same after its destruction by Marcus Fulvius Navilitor in 188 B.C.

Byzantine period (324-1453 AD)

The city ceased to exist after the 5th/6th c.

Catastrophes of the place

Earthquake of 1953


Gaios, Livios, Salinatoras, Roman 191 B.C.

Robbed and destroyed the island.

Classical period (480-323 BC)

Participation at the Athens Confederacy, 456 B.C.

Ifikratis took the island

Participation at the battle of Platees.

PALI (Ancient city) KEFALLONIA

Commercial WebPages

English domination

Foreign dominations

Roman domination 189 B.C.

Normands of Sicily 1185-1335 A.D.

Andegavi 1335-1358 A.D.

Tarantini 1357 till 1463-1479

Turkish domination 143-1479 till 1500

Venetian domination 1500-1797 A.D.

Historical outline

Sami dates back to the Prehistoric period. The earliest reference to the settlement is found in Homer's writings who described it as part of the kingdom of Ulysses, the leader of Cephallenes. This is the time when the Cephallenes participated in the Trojan War. Traces of organized settlements in the area date back to this period. Vigla Hill was a Mycenean acropolis (the Mycenean period in Greece dates from approximately 1580 to 1100 B.C.). During the 5th century B.C., Cephalonia was divided into four autonomous, sel-ruled, city states: Krani, Sami, Pronni, and, Palli. The antagonism that existed between these city states is evidenced by the existence of mighty Hellenistic Period acropoles such as the double-hilled Acropolis of Sam (the Hellenistic Period is dated between the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.). The remains of this Acropolis show that this was a well organized, flourishing town.
During the 2nd century B.C., Sami's strategic location attracted the interest of the Romans. In 189 B.C., they set out to invade and conquer the island. Sami was the only city state that resisted with determination. The siege was long and relentless, lasting four months. Sami finally surrendered in January 188 B.C. - following the arrival of siege artilery from Amvrakia- suffering extensive plundering. Subsequently, the Romans reorganized the city making it an important connecting point for journeys between Italy and Greece. Archeological remains dating back to this period indicate rigorous construction activity. Pirate attacks during the 5th and 6th centuries A.C. and destructive earthquakes contributed to the eventual decline and desertion of the city.

This text is cited Mar 2003 from the Municipality of Sami URL below.

Naval battles

Naval engagement of Lepante (Nafpaktos)


Official pages

Myth and Prehistory
  The island takes its name from the mythical hero Kefalos, who arrived there disconsolate after killing his wife by mistake. The island was his reward for aiding the king Amfitryon in his struggle against the mythical Tileboans and Tafians. Excavation finds around Fiskardo have led to the conclusion that the island was inhabited since Paleolithic times. The island had already developed an important civilization by the time of the Trojan War. This is clear from Homer's comments in the Odyssey.
The Ancient World
  In this period the island was divided into four cities: Sami, Pali, Krani and Pronnoi. They defended against the Persian invasions together with other Greeks during the Spartan Wars. They became divided during the Peloponnesian War. Pali supported the Corinthians while Krani allied itself with Athens. The island was conquered by the Romans in 187 BC. At the beginning of the 2nd century AD, Hadrian gave Kefalonia to Athens.
  During the Byzantine years, Kefalonia headed the broader administrative region of Kefalonia. All this time, up to the Venetian conquest in 1500, Kefalonia suffered from barbarian and pirate raids and a succession of conquerors. After the conquest of the island by the Venetians, it became a famous transit and commercial station and enjoyed a period of prosperity.
The French and the Ionian State
  After the defeat of the Venetians and dissolution of the Venetian Republic, the islands were decisively taken over by the French, under the Treaty of Kamboformio in 1797. The people of Kefalonia welcomed the new government with relief. Then the defeat and destruction of the French fleet by the united Russo-Turkish fleet temporarily interrupted French dominance over the island. With the Treaty of 1800 the «Ionian Republic» was established as an autonomous region under the suzerainty of the Sultan. There followed the second French period, with the cession of the islands to Napoleon by the Russian czar. This didn't last long as the British occupied the islands two years later.
The English
  Together with the other Ionian Islands, Kefalonia also actively participated in organizing and conducting the Greek revolution of 1821, culminating with the participation of Kefalonian revolutionaries in the battle of Lala which was crucial for the revolution. The British rulers didn't look gladly on the people's participation in the events. The period is nevertheless characterized by a series of public benefit projects on the island, such as the bridge uniting Argostoli with the land across the strait and the justice building at Lixouri.
Incorporation and more recent times
  On the 21st of May 1864 the British formally proceeded with ceding the Ionian Islands to Greece. It was only a short while after the enthronement of the Danish prince as George I of Greece, who had been favored by British politicians in Athens. The act was largely the result of the intense pressure exercised by the people Already, during the British period, a movement aiming towards union had evolved in Kefalonia, whose main exponent was the Radical party. This had been preceded by free elections on the islands in 1850 and the parliament formed had declared with its vote the will of the people for union of the Ionian Islands with mainland Greece. Between the 15/27th of February 1862 the Kefalonian Radical Elias Iakovatos was unanimously elected as head of the Ionian parliament. On April 7th of 1864 the Greek representative Theofilos Zaimis arrived in Corfu and the British Commissioner handed authority over to him.

This text is cited December 2004 from the Ionian Islands Region General Secretariat URL below

Journey through history

The area's archaeological site is rich in very important Roman pebbledash (floor mosaic), dating back to the 3rd century BC. One of them depicts two men sacrificing a bull and another, the Envy being torn up by wild beasts. In Aghios Georgios, about 2 km away from Skala and on the way to Poros, you can visit a picturesque country church, situated at a very beautiful site. It was built with valuable pieces of an ancient temple of 7th century BC, which was devoted to the worship of Apollo. Next to it, lie the ruined foundations of the ancient temple and some sections of its columns. The races and swimming games, taking place during the feast of St.George have survived as a custom through ancient years, when the Apollo festivities were held here. Further, in the Sakkos cave and in Mounta were discovered several findings of the Stone Age.

Participation in the fights of the Greeks

Battle of Plataea

PALI (Ancient city) KEFALLONIA
. . . eight hundred Leucadians and Anactorians, and next to them two hundred from Pale in Cephallenia; after them in the array, five hundred Aeginetans;

Remarkable selections

The British Submarine "PERSEUS"


The wreck of the British Submarine "Perseus"

  The British Submarine "PERSEUS" set-off on 24-11-1941 from Malta for an offensive Patrol mission in the gulf of Taranta in the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. On 6-12-1941 she struck a mine off the coast of Kefalonia and went down taking with her 60 officers and lower ranked men.
  The British crew member (stoker) John Capes was the sole survivor as he managed a daring last minute escape from the sunken submarine. Using a special escape apparatus named DAVIS he performed a "second to none", a superhuman effort to succesfuly ascent from the Perseus Shipwreck, to the surface of the cold Ionian sea water and also to his saviour...
  He swam to the nearest shore of Kefalonia Island, a beautiful island which was then under the Italian occupation. There he was found by the island inhabitants who medicaly treated and took him into shelter. Having been in good hands for more than 18 months he was helped to escape to safety in Smyrna.
  John Capes extraordinary survival adventure was difficult to be taken seriously. No one believed his stories as they seemed too far fetched. As such no one ever understood what this man had really gone through, this was more like a journey from hell to paradise. It had never happened before, for someone to escape from such a depth. Today, 56 years later the Diving Research Team of Costas Thoctarides sheds some light into the mysteries of how the sinking of the HMS Perseus happened.
  Unfortunately John Capes is no longer with us so that his daring escape story could be brought to justice, with the verification of his escape…

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