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Listed 61 sub titles with search on: Mythology for wider area of: "SPARTI Municipality LACONIA" .


Mythology (61)

Ancient myths

AMYKLES (Ancient sanctuary) SPARTI

Hyacinthus

   Son of King Amyclas, of Amyclae in Laconia, and of Diomedes. He was beloved for his beauty by Apollo and Zephyrus. As Apollo was one day teaching the boy how to play at quoits, on the banks of the river Eurotas, the wind-god in his jealousy drove the quoit with such violence against the head of Hyacinthus that the blow killed him. From his blood Apollo caused a flower of the same name to spring up, with the exclamation of woe, AI, AI, marked upon its petals. (See Aiax.) Hyacinthus, like Adonis, is a personification of vegetation, which flourishes in the spring-time, but is scorched and killed by the glowing heat of the summer sun, which is symbolized by the quoit or discus.

This text is from: Harry Thurston Peck, Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Hyacinthus (Hyacinthos). The youngest son of the Spartan king Amyclas and Diomede (Apollod. iii. 10.3; Paus. iii. 1.3, 19.4), but according to others a son of Pierus and Clio, or of Oebalus or Eurotas (Lucian, Dial. Deor. 14; Hygin. Fab. 271). He was a youth of extraordinary beauty, and beloved by Thamyris and Apollo, who unintentionally killed him during a game of discus (Apollod. i. 3.3). Some traditions relate that he was beloved also by Boreas or Zephrus, who, from jealousy of Apollo, drove the discus of the god against the head of the youth, and thus killed him (Lucian, l. c; Serv. ad Virg. Eelog. iii. 63; Philostr. Imag. i.24; Ov. Met. x. 184). From the blood of Hyacinthus there sprang the flower of the same name (hyacinth), on the leaves of which there appeared the exclamation of woe AI, AI, or the letter U, being the initial of Huakinthos. According to other traditions, the hyacinth (on the leaves of which, howeve those characters do not appear) sprang from the blood of Ajax (Schol. ad Theocrit. x. 28; comp. Ov. Met. xiii. 395, who combines both legends; Plin. H. N. xxi. 28). Hyacinthus was worshipped at Amyclae as a hero, and a great festival, Hyacinthia, was celebrated in his honour. (Dict. of Ant. s. r.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited April 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks



Hyacinthids

Daughters of Hyacinth, slain by the Athenians: Aegleis, Antheis.


Constellations

SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Gemini

The constellation Gemini was formed in the sky by Zeus, who wanted to reward the two brothers, Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux) for their love and loyalty to each other. This love they had proved many times, but the greatest proof was that Polydeuces (Pollux) decided to share his immortality with his brother, who had been slain in battle.


Descent

Talthybiadae

... and descendants of Talthybius called Talthybiadae, who have the special privilege of conducting all embassies from Sparta.


Eponymous founders or settlers

AMYKLES (Ancient sanctuary) SPARTI

Amyclas

Son of Lacedaemon, father of Cynortas and Hyacinth, king of Laconia, father of Laodamia and father of Leanira.


Amyclas (Amuklas), a son of Lacedaemon and Sparta, and father of Hyacinthus by Diomede, the daughter of Lapithus (Apollod. iii. 10.3; Paus. x. 9.3, vii. 18.4). He was king of Laconia, and was regarded as the founder of the town of Amyclae (Paus. iii. 1.3). Two other mythical personages of this name occur in Parthen. Erot. 15, and Apollod. iii. 9. Β§ 1.


SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Lacedaemon and Sparta

Lacedaemon; son of Zeus and Taygete, king of Laconia, founds Sparta, founds sanctuary of two Graces, father of Amyclas and Eurydice, his descendants, his shrine at Alesiae, the country named after him. Sparta; daughter of Eurotas, wife of Lacedaemon, her statue at Amyclae.


First ancestors

Agis I, king of Sparta, ca. 1032 BC

Son of Eurysthenes, king of Sparta, founder of the royal family of Agiadae (Agids), 5th-4th century BC.


Agis

Agis, king of Sparta, son of Eurysthenes, began to reign, it is said, about B. C. 1032. According to Eusebius (Chron. i.) he reigned only one year; according to Apollodorus, as it appears, about 31 years. During the reign of Eurysthenes, the conquered people were admitted to an equality of political rights with the Dorians. Agis deprived them of these, and reduced them to the condition of subjects to the Spartans. The inhabitants of the town of Helos attempted to shake off the yoke, but they were subdued, and gave rise and name to the class called Helots. To his reign was referred the colony which went to Crete under Pollis and Delphus (Conon. Narr. 36). From him the kings of that line were called Agidai. His colleague was Sous. (Paus. iii. 2.1)

This text is from: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) (eds. William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Gods & demigods

AMYKLES (Ancient sanctuary) SPARTI

Apollo Amyclaeus

Amyclaeus (Amuklaios), a surname of Apollo, derived from the town of Amyclae in Laconia, where he had a celebrated sanctuary. His colossal statue is estimated by Pausanias (iii. 19.2) at thirty cubits in height. It appears to have been very ancient, for with the exception of the head, hands, and feet, the whole resembled more a brazen pillar than a statue. This figure of the god wore a helmet, and in his hands he held a spear and a bow. The women of Amyclae made every year a new chiton for the god, and the place where they made it was also called the Chiton (Paus. iii. 16.2). The sanctuary of Apollo contained the throne of Amyclae, a work of Bathycles of Magnesia, which Pausanias saw. (iii. 18.6)


SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Artemis Aeginaea

Aeginaea (Aiginaia, a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped at Sparta (Paus. iii. 14.3). It means either the huntress of chamois, or the wielder of the javelin (aiganea).


Hera Aegophagus

Aegophagus (Aigophagos), the goat-eater, a surname of Hera, under which she was worshipped by the Lacedaemonians. (Paus. iii. 15.7; Hesych)


Zeus Agamemnon

Agamemnon A surname of Zeus, under which he was worshipped at Sparta. (Lycophr. 335, with the School.; Eustath. ad Il. ii. 25.) Eustathius thinks that the god derived this name from the resemblance between him and Agamemnon; while others believe that it is a mere epithet signifying the Eternal, from agan and menon.


Zeus Agetor

Agetor, a surname given to several gods, for instance:
to Zeus at Lacedaemon (Stob. Serm. 42). The name seems to describe Zeus as the leader and ruler of men; but others think, that it is synonymous with Agamemnon,
to Apollo (Eurip. Med. 426) where however Elmsley and others prefer haletor,
to Hermes, who conducts the souls of men to the lower world. Under this name Hermes had a statue at Megalopolis (Paus. viii. 34).


Aphrodite Ambologera

Ambologera, from anaballo and geras " delaying old age," as a surname of Aphrodite, who had a statue at Sparta under this name. (Paus. iii. 18.1; Plut. Sympos. iii. 6)


Ambulia, Ambulius, Ambulii

Ambulia, Ambulius, Ambulii (Amboulia, Amboulioi, and Amboulios), surnames under which the Spartans worshipped Athena, the Dioscuri, and Zeus (Paus. iii. 13.4). The meaning of the name is uncertain, but it has been supposed to be derived from dnaballo, and to designate those divinities as the delayers of death.


Aphrodite Areia

Areia, the warlike, a surname of Aphrodite, when represented in full armour like Ares, as was the case at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 17.5)


Zeus Evanemus

Evanemus, (Euanemos), the giver of favourable wind, was a surname of Zeus, under which the god had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 13. 5; comp. Theocrit. xxviii. 5.)


Athena Axiopoenos

Axiopoenos (Axiopoinos), the avenger, a surname of Athena. Under this name Heracles built a temple to the goddess at Sparta, after he had chastised Hippocoon and his sons for the murder of Oeonus. (Paus. iii. 15.4)


Athena Chalcioecus

Chalcioecus (Chalkioikos), "the goddess of the brazen house", a surname of Athena at Sparta, derived from the brazen temple which the goddess had in that city, and which also contained her statue in brass. This temple, which continued to exist in the time of Pausanias, was believed to have been commenced by Tyndareus, but was not completed till many years later by the Spartan artist Gitiadas. (Paus. iii. 17.3, x. 5.5; C. Nep. Paus. 5; Polyb. iv. 22). Respecting the festival of the Chalcioecia celebrated at Sparta, see Dict. of Ant. s. v. Chalkioikia.


Poseidon Domatites

Domatites, that is, the domestic, a surname of Poseidon, at Sparta, which is, perhaps, synonymous with epichorios. (Paus. iii. 14.7.)


Hera Hypercheiria

Hypercheiria, (Hupercheiria), the goddess who holds her protecting hand over a thing, a surname under which Hera had a sanctuary at Sparta, which had been erected to her at the command of an oracle, when the country was inundated by the river Eurotas. (Paus. iii. 13.6.)


Artemis Cnagia

Cnagia (Knagia), a surname of Artemis, derived from Cnageus, a Laconian, who accompanied the Dioseuri in their war against Aphidna, and was made prisoner. He was sold as a slave, and carried to Crete, where he served in the temple of Artemis; but he escaped from thence with a priestess of the goddess, who carried her statue to Sparta. (Paus. iii. 18.3)


Artemis Corythallia

Corythallia (Koruthallia), a surname of Artemis at Sparta, at whose festival of the Tithenidia the Spartan boys were carried into her sanctuary. (Athen. iv.)


THERAPNI (Ancient city) SPARTI

Poseidon Gaeeochus

Gaeeochus, (Gaieochos), that is, " the holder of the earth," is a common epithet of Poseidon (Hom. Od. xi. 240), and near Therapne, in Laconia, he had a temple under the name of Gaeeochus. (Paus. iii. 20.2.) But the name is also given to other divinities to describe them as the protectors and patrons of certain districts, e. g. Artemis Gaeeochus at Thebes. (Soph. Oed. Tyr. 160.)


Gods & heroes related to the location

SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Nemesis

Daughter of Ocean, turned into a goose, consorts with Zeus, turned into a swan, lays an egg, out of which Helen is hatched, mother of Helen, sanctuary and image of Nemesis at Rhamnus, temple and image at Patrae, ancient images of Nemesis wingless, in later times Nemesis represented with wings, sanctuary of two Nemeses at Smyrna, the two Nemeses daughters of Night.


Heroes

AMYKLES (Ancient sanctuary) SPARTI

Deiphobus

Deiphobus. A son of Hippolytus at Amyclae, who puri fied Heracles after the murder of Iphitus (Apollod. ii. 6.2; Diod. iv. 31)


SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Children of Dioscuri

Children of Dioscuri, images of, represented on horseback on throne of Amyclaean Apollo. Anogon; Son of Castor by Hilaira.


Megapenthes

Son of Menelaus by slave girl.


Aletes

Son of Icarius by Periboea.


Dorceus

Dorceus, (Dorkeus), a son of Hippocoon, who had a heroum at Sparta conjointly with his brother Sebrus. The well near the sanctuary was called Dorceia, and the place around it Sebrion. (Paus. iii. 15.2) It is probable that Dorceus is the same personage as the Dorycleus in Apollodorus (iii. 10.5), where his brother is called Tebrus.


Enarephorus

Enarephorus, (Enarephoros), a son of Hippocoon, was a most passionate suitor of Helen, when she was yet quite young. Tyndareus, therefore, entrusted the maiden to the care of Theseus. (Apollod. iii. 10.5; Plut Thes. 31.) Enarephorus had a heroun at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 15.2)


Hyacinthus

Hyacinthus. A Lacedaemonian, who is said to have gone to Athens, and in compliance with an oracle, to have caused his daughters to be sacrificed on the tomb on the Cyclops Geraestus, for the purpose of a learned of delivering the city from famine and the plague, under which it was suffering during the war with Minos. His daughters, who were sacrificed either to Athena or Persephone, were known in the Attic legends by the name of the Hyacinthides, which they derived from their father. (Apollod. iii. 15.8; Hygin. Fab. 238; Harpocrat. s. v.) Some traditions make them the daughters of Erechtheus, and relate that they received their name from the village of Hyacinthus, where they were sacrificed at the time when Athens was attacked by the Eleusinians and Thracians, or Thebans. (Snid. s.v. Parthenoi; Demnosth. Epilaph.; Lycurg. c. Leocrat. 24; Cic. p. Sext. 48; Hygin. Fab. 46.) The names and numbers of the Hyacinthides differ in the different writers. The account of Apollo dorus is confused: he mentions four, and repre sents them as married, although they were sacriticed as maidens, whence they are sometimes called simply hai parthenoi. Those traditions in which they are described as the daughters of Erechtheus confouiud them with Agraulos, Herse, and Pandrosos (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 211), or with the Hyades. (Serv. ad Aen. i. 748.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Nov 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Iops

Iops, a hero who had a sanctuary at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 12. Β 4.)


Heroines

Electra

Electra, a servant of Helen, was painted by Polygnotus in the Lesche at Delphi, in the act of kneeling before her mistress and fastening her sandals. (Paus x. 25.2)


Historic figures

THERAPNI (Ancient city) SPARTI

Therapne

Daughter of Lelex.


Kings

SPARTI (Ancient city) LACONIA

Argalus

Argalus; son of Amyclas, king of Laconia.


Aristodemus & Argea (Argeia)

Aristodemus; Heraclid, son of Aristomachus, father of Eurysthenes and Procles, husband of Argea his sons return to Peloponnese, his sons are allotted Lacedaemon. Argea; daughter of Autesion, wife of Aristodemus, king of Sparta, mother of Procles and Eurysthenes.


Aristodemus (Aristodemos), a son of Aristomachus, and a descendant of Heracles, was married to Argeia, by whom he became the father of Eurysthenes and Procles. According to some traditions Aristodemus was killed at Naupactus by a flash of lightning, just as he was setting out on his expedition into Peloponnesus (Apollod. ii. 8.2, &c.), or by an arrow of Apollo at Delphi because he had consulted Heracles about the return of the Heraclids instead of the Delphic oracle. (Paus. iii. 1. Β§ 5.) According to this tradition, Eurysthenes and Procles were the first Heraclid kings of Lacedaemon; but a Lacedaemonian tradition stated, that Aristodemus himself came to Sparta, was the first king of his race, and died a natural death (Herod, vi. 52; Xenoph. Agesil. 8.7). Another Heraclid of this name, the grandfather of the former, is mentioned by Euripides.

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Cynortas or Cynortes

Cynortas or Cynortes (Kunortes), a son of Amyclas by Diomede, and brother of Hyacinthus. After the death of his brother Argalus, he became king of Sparta and father of Oebalus or of Perieres. His tomb was shown at Sparta not fair from the Scias. (Paus. iii. 1.3, 13.1; Apollod. iii. 10.3; Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 447)


Dion

Dion, a king in Laconia and husband of Iphitea, the daughter of Prognaus. Apollo, who had been kindly received by Iphitea, rewarded her by conferring upon her three daughters, Orphe, Lyco, and Carya, tile gift of prophecy, on condition, however. that they shuld not betray the gods nor search after forbidden things. Afterwards Dionysus also came to the house of Dion; he was not only well received, like Apollo, but won the love of Carya, and therefore soon paid Dion a second visit, under the pretext of consecrating a temple, which the king had erected to him. Orphe and Lyco, however, guarded their sister, and when Dionysus had reminded them, in vain, of the command of Apollo, they were seized with raging madness, and having gone to the heights of Taygetus, they were metamorphosed into rocks. Carya, the beloved of Dionysus, was changed into a nut tree, and the Lacedaemonians, on being informed of it by Artemis, dedicated a temple to Artemis Caryatis. (Serv. ad Virg. Ecl. viii. 30)


Myles

Son of Lelex, second king of Laconia, invented a mill.


Eurotas and Cleta

Eurotas; son of Lelex or Myles, third king of Laconia, drains the country. Cleta; one of the Graces.


Eurotas, a son of Myles and grandson of Lelex. He was the father of Sparte, the wife of Lacedaemon, and is said to have carried the waters, stagnating in the plain of Lacedaemon, into the sea by means of a canal, and to have called the river which arose therefrom after his own name, Eurotas. (Paus. iii. 1.2.) Apollodorus (iii. 10.3) calls him a son of Lelex by the nymph Cleochareia, and in Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. Taugeton) his mother is called Taygete. (Comp. Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. iv. 15, Ol. vi. 46, ad Lycophl. 886.)


Oebalus & Gorgophone

Oebalus; son of Cynortas, second husband of Gorgophone, father of Pirene and of Tyndareus, shrine of, according to some, son of Perieres, father of Hippocoon, Icarius and Arene. Gorgophone; daughter of Perseus, wife of Perieres and Oebalus, first woman who married a second time.


Alcon (Alkon). A son of Hippocoon, and one of the Calydonian hunters, was killed, together with his father and brothers, by Heracles, and had a heroum at Sparta. (Apollod. iii. 10.5; Hygin. Fab. 173; Paus. iii. 14. § 7, 15.3)


Hippocoon

The son of Oebalus of Sparta and of the nymph Batea. He drove his brothers Tyndareus and Icarins from home. Afterwards, in consequence of his slaying the young Oeonus, a kinsman of Heracles, he himself, with his twenty sons, was slain by Heracles in alliance with King Cepheus of Tegea. Tyndareus was thereby restored to the inheritance of his father's kingdom.


Hippocoon had sons, to wit: Dorycleus, Scaeus, Enarophorus, Eutiches, Bucolus, Lycaethus, Tebrus, Hippothous, Eurytus, Hippocorystes, Alcinus, and Alcon. With the help of these sons Hippocoon expelled Icarius and Tyndareus from Lacedaemon. They fled to Thestius and allied themselves with him in the war which he waged with his neighbors; and Tyndareus married Leda, daughter of Thestius. But afterwards, when Hercules slew Hippocoon and his sons, they returned, and Tyndareus succeeded to the kingdom.
Commentary: According to the Scholiasts on Euripides and Homer, Icarius joined Hippocoon in driving his brother Tyndareus out of Sparta.

This extract is from: Apollodorus, Library and Epitome (ed. Sir James George Frazer, 1921). Cited Apr 2003 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains comments & interesting hyperlinks.


Hippocoon (Hippokoon). The son of Oebalus of Sparta and of the nymph Batea. He drove his brothers Tyndareus and Icarins from home. Afterwards, in consequence of his slaying the young Oeonus, a kinsman of Heracles, he himself, with his twenty sons, was slain by Heracles in alliance with King Cepheus of Tegea. Tyndareus was thereby restored to the inheritance of his father's kingdom.


Orestes and Hermione

Orestes; son of Agamemnon, saved by Electra and brought up by Strophius, kills Clytaemnestra and Aegisthus, pursued by the Furies, he goes to Athens and is tried and acquitted in the Areopagus, bites off a finger, healed of madness at Ace, healed of madness on unwrought stone at Gythium, with Iphigenia steals image of Artemis from Tauric land, driven by a storm to Rhodes, comes to Mycenae, purified at Troezen, takes possession of Argos, adds part of Arcadia to his domains, marries Hermione or Erigone, robbed of his wife Hermione by Neoptolemus, slays Neoptolemus at Delphi, father of Tisamenus and Penthilus, succeeds to crown of Sparta, king of Achaia, friend of Pylades, migrates to Arcadia, killed by a snake at Oresteum. Hermione; daughter of Menelaus and Helen, wife of Pyrrhus and afterwards of Orestes, mother of Tisamenus.


Tisamenus

Son of Orestes and Hermione, king of Argos and Lacedaemon, in his reign Heraclids return to Peloponnese, with Achaeans at war with Temenus and Dorians, being expelled by Heraclids settles in Achaia, slain in battle with Ionians or by the Heraclids, his bones brought from Helice to Sparta, his sons, his cousins.


Eurysthenes and Lathria

A son of Aristodemus, who reigned conjointly with his twin-brother Procles at Sparta. It was not known which of the two was born first; the mother, who wished to see both her sons raised on the throne, refused to declare it; and they were both appointed kings of Sparta by order of the oracle of Delphi, B.C. 1102. After the death of the two brothers, the Lacedaemonians, who knew not to what family the right of seniority and succession belonged, permitted two kings to sit on the throne, one of each family. The descendants of Eurysthenes were called Eurysthenidae, and those of Procles, Proclidae. It was inconsistent with the laws of Sparta for two kings of the same family to ascend the throne together, yet that law was sometimes violated by oppression and tyranny. Eurysthenes had a son called Agis , who succeeded him. His descendants were called Agidae. There sat on the throne of Sparta thirty-one kings of the family of Eurysthenes, and only twenty-four of the Proclidae.


Eurysthenes, (Eurusthenes), and Procles (Prokles), the twin sons of Aristodemus, were born, according to the common account before, but, according to the genuine Spartan story, after their father's return to Peloponnesus and occupation of his allotment of Laconia. He died immediately after the birth of his children and had not even time to decide which of the two should succeed him. The mother professed to be unable to name the elder, and the Lacedaemonians in embarrassment applied to Delphi, and were instructed to make them both kings, but give the greater honour to the elder. The difficulty thus remaining was at last removed at the suggestion of Panites, a Messenian by watching which of the children was first washed and fed by the mother; and the first rank was accordingly given to Eurysthenes and retained by his descendants. (Herod. vi. 51, 52.) The mother's name was Argeia, and her brother Theras was, during their minority, their joint-guardian and regent. (Herod. iv. 147.) They were married to two sisters, twins like themselves, the daughters of Thersander, the Heracleid king of Cleonae, by name Lathria and Anaxandra, whose tombs were to be seen at Sparta in the time of Pausanias (iii. 16. 5). The two brothers are said to have united with the son of Temenus to restore Aepytus, the son of Cresphontes, to Messenia. Otherwise, they were, according to both Pausanias and Herodotus, in continual strife, which perhaps may give a meaning to the strange story related in Polyaenus (i. 10), that Procles and Temenus attacked the Eurystheidae then in occupation of Sparta, and were successful through the good order preserved by the flute, the benefit of which on this occasion was the origin of the well-known Spartan practice. Ephorus in Strabo (viii.) states, that they maintained themselves by taking foreigners into their service, and these Clinton understands by the name Eurystheidae; but Miiller considers it to be one of the transfers made by Ephorus in ancient times of the customs of his own. Cicero (de Div. ii. 43) tells us, that Procles died one year before his brother, and was much the more famous for his achievements. (Compare Clinton, F. H. vol. i.; Muller, Dor. i. 5.13, 14.)

This text is from: A dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1873 (ed. William Smith). Cited Oct 2005 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains interesting hyperlinks


Procles & Anaxandra

Procles; twin son of Aristodemus by Argia, one of the twin brothers whence the dual kingship at Sparta began. Anaxandra; daughter of Thersander, wife of Procles.


Anaxandra and her sister Lathria, twin daughters of Thersander, Heraclide king of Cleonae, are said to have been married to the twin-born kings of Sparta, Eurysthenes and Procles; Anaxandra, it would seem, to Procles. An altar sacred to them remained in the time of Pausanias. (iii. 16.5..)


Sous

Son of Procles.


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