EXAMILIA (Small town) KORINTHOS
The Isthmus of Corinth is a narrow strip of land between Central Greece and the Peloponnese, and it is the only entrance from the north into the southernmost part of the Greek mainland. For that reason, it played an important part in the history of the area. Again and again, the Peloponnesians built and repaired α line of walls across the narrow neck of land, to the south of the modern canal. In recent years, the foundations of a Cyclopean wall have been discovered south of the sanctuary of Poseidon; this must have been constructed in the late Mycenean period in α vain attempt to stem the Dorian invasion.
Much of the Hexamilian Wall, built in the time of the Emperor Justinian of Byzantium, has survived. It was subsequently reconstructed twice - in 1415 by Manheul ΙΙ Palaeologus and in 1443 by Constantine Palaeologus before the Turks finally broke through it in 1446. The wall is 7,300 meters long, with α thickness of 3 m., 153 towers and a large tort at either end. Much ancient material from the sanctuary of Poseidon was incorporated into the wall - so much, indeed, that it was believed for many centuries that it has been a Classical structure.
KORINTHOS (Ancient city) PELOPONNISOS
Εllipsoid roman building in the southern part of the Roman forum. It was established to house the local Voule of the city, and dates back to the late 1st century BC.
The erection of Curia was part of the major project of rebuilding the city after 44 BC, the year when the city was re-established by the Caesar as a roman colony. The building was divided to the main conference room and an ante-chamber. The roofed main room was formed by two linear and two curvilinear walls, along which were stone benches. One or three gates led to the oblong room with curvilinear narrow sides. The north facade of the building was decorated with two front portals.
The architectural form of the building is unique in Greece, but it bears some resemblance with some roman buildings in Italy. The walls are perserved up to a considerable height.
This text is cited Feb 2003 from the Foundation of the Hellenic World URL below.
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
Summary: Peripteral temple; in the Sanctuary of Apollo.
Date: ca. 540 B.C.
Doric peripteral temple, 6 x 15 columns. Double cella, one opening west, one opening east, with no door adjoining the 2 rooms. Each cella had 2 rows of columns and a pronaos which was distyle in antis. A total of 38 columns.
This temple replaces an earlier temple, ca. 625 B.C., on the same location.
This text is cited Nov 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 9 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
Periods: Neolithic, Early Bronze Age, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine
Type: Fortified city
Summary: Corinth was the capital of a major Greek city-state in the Archaic and Classical periods; a meeting place of the Hellenic League in the Hellenistic period and the capital of the Roman province of Achaea.
Ancient Corinth is strategically located 10 km SW of the Isthmus of Corinth and 3 km inland from its port of Lechaion, on the gulf of Corinth. The harbor town of Kenchreai, 10 km to the E, provided the city with access to the Saronic gulf. Corinth controlled the N-S land traffic over the Isthmus and maintained the Diolkos, a stone paved portage for ships crossing the Isthmus. Corinth was linked to Lechaion in the 5th century B.C. by parallel Long Walls (cf. Athens and Piraeus) which enclosed a large area of urban and agricultural land as well as numerous sanctuaries. To the S, walls extended from Corinth and ascended to the natural strong hold on the heights of Acrocorinth. The large fortress on Acrocorinth, with its triple line of fortifications and supply of spring water was almost impregnable and a key (throughout history) to the control of the Peloponnese. Within the fortifications of Corinth itself (an area over twice the size of Classical Athens) religious, civic, commercial and domestic buildings as well as a large number of markets, factories and taverns crowded around the centrally placed Temple of Apollo. Most of the remains visible today date to the rebuilding and embellishment of the city during the Roman period.
The name Korinthos is pre-Greek and the site was occupied from the Early Neolithic through the Early Bronze Age. There is little evidence for settlement in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, however, when the region of the Corinthia is overshadowed by the neighboring Argolid. Traditionally, Corinth was founded by the Dorians. During the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. it became a leading mercantile and colonizing power. Pottery and bronzes manufactured in Archaic Corinth were traded as far as Spain, Egypt and the Black Sea. After the Persian Wars, the rise of Athens weakened Corinth's overseas contacts and power and Corinth is frequently aligned with Sparta against Athens during the Classical period. The defeat of the Greek forces at Chaironeia (338 B.C.) resulted in a Macedonian garrison being placed at Corinth and the city became the meeting place for the Macedonian controlled Hellenic League. Corinth flourished under Macedonian rule, but revolted in 224 B.C. to join the renewed Achaean League. In 146 B.C. the League was defeated by Rome and Corinth was completely destroyed by the Roman general Mummius. The city remained virtually abandoned until Julius Caesar established a colony of veterans on the site in 44 B.C. It became the capital of the Roman province of Achaia in 27 B.C. Extensive rebuilding in the 1st century A.D. included the addition of a forum, large public baths, and an amphitheater. Under Roman patronage Corinth soon reclaimed and exceeded its earlier reputation as the Greek city most noted for luxury, vice, and decadence. Corinth suffered and survived barbarian destruction in the 3rd and 4th centuries and disastrous earthquakes in the 6th century A.D. Its steady decline in prosperity was finally completed by the sack of the city by the Crusaders in the 12th century.
Earliest excavation in 1886 by W. Dorpfeld. A. Skias excavated in 1892 and 1906. From 1896 to the present, excavations by the American School.
Donald R. Keller, ed.
This text is cited Oct 2002 from The Perseus Project URL below, which contains 99 image(s), bibliography & interesting hyperlinks.
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